The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of PMMA polymer on dynamic viscoelasticity and plasticizer leachability of PEMA-based tissue conditioners. One PEMA polymer and one PMMA polymer were used in powder form with four formulations. The combination of 80 wt% ATBC, 15 wt% BPBG and 5 wt% ethyl alcohol was used as the liquid phase. The dynamic viscoelasticity and plasticizer leaching of each specimen were measured after 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of immersion (37°C distilled water) using DMA and HPLC. A significant difference was found among the materials in the dynamic viscoelasticity and leaching of plasticizer. The materials containing 10 wt% PMMA showed the most stable dynamic viscoelasticity, and showed the lowest leaching of plasticizer. The results suggest that the addition of the PMMA polymer to the powder of a tissue conditioner can improve the durability of the PEMA-based tissue conditioner.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased excitability of aged rabbit CA1 neurons after trace eyeblink conditioning. AU - Moyer, James R.. AU - Power, John M.. AU - Thompson, Lucien T.. AU - Disterhoft, John F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/7/15. Y1 - 2000/7/15. N2 - Cellular properties of CA1 neurons were studied in hippocampal slices 24 hr after acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning in young adult and aging rabbits. Aging rabbits required significantly more trials than young rabbits to reach a behavioral criterion of 60% conditioned responses in an 80 trial session. Intracellular recordings revealed that CA1 neurons from aging control rabbits had significantly larger, longer lasting postburst afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and greater spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) relative to those from young adult control rabbits. After learning, both young and aging CA1 neurons exhibited increased postsynaptic excitability compared with their respective ...
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Definition of classical conditioning in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is classical conditioning? Meaning of classical conditioning as a legal term. What does classical conditioning mean in law?
Events - 2017 ADEA Annual Session & Exhibition - American Dental Education Association - - - - - - Event Overview: \r\n The ADEA Annual Session & Exhibition is the premier professional development and networking event for dental, allied dental and advanced dental education colleagues. Join us for four days of dynamic plenary sessions and workshops, and an exhibit hall showcasing academic dentistry's leading partners and suppliers. \r\n In addition to plenary speakers, workshops, and seminars, there will be the opportunity for all attendees to engage in interactive learning situations that demonstrate the science of learning. \r\n The 2017 ADEA Annual Session & Exhibition will be held at the literal edge between land and sea in Long Beach, CA. Imagine a diver's view walking on solid ground into the waves, and a moment later as the mask hits the water and reveals an entirely new reality. This minute shift in perspective can fundamentally alter one's view of the world. \r\n Similarly, this
Exciting opportunity in Washington, DC for American Dental Education Association as a Director, Diversity, Equity and Inclusive Learning
Trace conditioning is valued as a simple experimental model to assess how the brain associates events that are discrete in time. Here, we adapted an olfactory trace conditioning procedure in Drosophila melanogaster by training fruit flies to avoid an odor that is followed by foot shock many seconds later. The molecular underpinnings of the learning are distinct from the well-characterized simultaneous conditioning, where odor and punishment temporally overlap. First, Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), a putative molecular coincidence detector vital for simultaneous conditioning, is dispensable in trace conditioning. Second, dominant-negative Rac expression, thought to sustain early labile memory, significantly enhances learning of trace conditioning, but leaves simultaneous conditioning unaffected. We further show that targeting Rac inhibition to the mushroom body (MB) but not the antennal lobe (AL) suffices to achieve the enhancement effect. Moreover, the absence of trace conditioning learning ...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001) and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05) for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001), Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001) and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001). The reason for
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to stress as well as in the effects of cocaine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analyzing Medication Documentation in Electronic Health Records. T2 - Dental Students' Self-Reported Behaviors and Charting Practices. AU - Burcham, Wesley K.. AU - Romito, Laura M.. AU - Moser, Elizabeth A.. AU - Gitter, Bruce D.. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - The aim of this two-part study was to assess third- and fourth-year dental students' perceptions, self-reported behaviors, and actual charting practices regarding medication documentation in axiUm, the electronic health record (EHR) system. In part one of the study, in fall 2015, all 125 third- and 85 fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school were invited to complete a ten-item anonymous survey on medication history-taking. In part two of the study, the EHRs of 519 recent dental school patients were randomly chosen via axiUm query based on age ,21 years and the presence of at least one documented medication. Documentation completeness was assessed per EHR and each medication based on proper medication ...
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Background: A growing body of literature describes the performance of dental fear questionnaires in various countries. We describe the psychometric properties of Greek versions of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) in adult Greek patients. Methods: Greek versions of the MDAS and DFS were administered to two samples of adult dental patients. In the first sample, 195 patients attending one of three private practice dental offices in a large city in Greece completed the questionnaires in the waiting room before dental treatment. After treatment, their dentists (who did not know how the patients had answered the questionnaire) rated their anxiety during dental treatment. In the second sample, 41 patients attending a Greek university dental school clinic completed the questionnaire twice at two separate visits, in order to provide test-retest data. Cronbach's alpha was used to compute the internal consistencies, while Spearman's rho was used to compute the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CREST in the nucleus accumbens core regulates cocaine conditioned place preference, cocaine-seeking behavior, and synaptic plasticity. AU - Alaghband, Yasaman. AU - Kramár, Enikö. AU - Kwapis, Janine L.. AU - Kim, Earnest S.. AU - Hemstedt, Thekla J.. AU - López, Alberto J.. AU - White, André O.. AU - Al-Kachak, Amni. AU - Aimiuwu, Osasumwen V.. AU - Bodinayake, Kasuni K.. AU - Oparaugo, Nicole C.. AU - Han, Joseph. AU - Lattal, Kennon (Matt). AU - Wood, Marcelo A.. PY - 2018/10/31. Y1 - 2018/10/31. N2 - Epigenetic mechanisms result in persistent changes at the cellular level that can lead to long-lasting behavioral adaptations. Nucleosome remodeling is a major epigenetic mechanism that has not been well explored with regards to drug-seeking behaviors. Nucleosome remodeling is performed by multi-subunit complexes that interact with DNA or chromatin structure and possess an ATP-dependent enzyme to disrupt nucleosome-DNA contacts and ultimately regulate gene expression. Calcium ...
1. Garrison, Gwen E., et al. "Annual ADEA survey of dental school seniors: 2013 graduating class." Journal of Dental Education 78.8 (2014): 1214-1236. (Full Text Full Text (PDF)). 2. Marshall TA, Straub-Morarend CL, Handoo N, Solow CM, Cunningham-Ford MA, Finkelstein MW. Integrating critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry across a four-year dental curriculum: a model for independent learning. J Dent Educ. 2014 Mar;78(3):359-67. PubMed PMID: 24609338. (Full Text Full Text (PDF)). 3. Garrison, G. E., McAllister, D. E., Anderson, E. L., & Valachovic, R. W. (2014). Dental School Vacant Budgeted Faculty Positions, Academic Years 2008-09 to 2010-11. Journal of dental education, 78(4), 638-647. Full TextFull Text (PDF)). 4. Stein, C. D., Eisenberg, E. S., O'Donnell, J. A., & Spallek, H. (2014). What Dental Educators Need to Understand About Emerging Technologies to Incorporate Them Effectively into the Educational Process. Journal of dental education, 78(4), 520-529. Full Text Full Text ...
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Delta Dental Insurance Company. The Delta Dental PPO plan (Contract 1230) is underwritten by Delta Dental Insurance Company in FL, MD, NY, PA and TN and by Dentegra Insurance Company in CA and CO. The DeltaCare USA plan (Contract 76777) is underwritten by Alpha Dental Programs, Inc. in MD, by Delta Dental Insurance Company in FL and TN, by Delta Dental of California in CA, by Delta Dental of New York, Inc. in NY, by Delta Dental of Pennsylvania in PA, and by Dentegra Insurance Company in CO. The plans are administered by Delta Dental Insurance Company. These companies are financially responsible for their own products.. In Florida, Delta Dental Insurance Company provides DeltaCare USA Plan benefits as a Prepaid Limited Health Service Organization as described in Chapter 636 of the Florida Statutes.. AARP endorses the AARP Dental Insurance Plan, administered by Delta Dental Insurance Company. Delta Dental Insurance Company pays royalty fees to AARP for use of its intellectual property. These fees ...
We combined classical fear conditioning with patch-clamp electrophysiology to explore the cellular mechanisms of prefrontal control over the expression of conditioned fear. We showed for the first time that: (1) fear conditioning depressed IL intrinsic excitability and increased the sAHP; (2) extinction returned IL excitability and sAHP to preconditioning levels; and (3) extinction also decreased the fAHP and introduced a bursting component not seen in the untrained group. These findings indicate that conditioning and extinction alter the intrinsic excitability of IL projection neurons in opposite directions to modulate differentially the expression of conditioned fear responses.. Previous studies have suggested that IL activity is necessary for the recall of extinction memory but not for conditioning. Electrolytic lesions or pharmacological inactivation of IL had no effect on conditioning or extinction training but impaired subsequent recall of extinction memory (Morgan et al., 1993; Quirk et ...
Objectives: Longitudinal studies considering social disparities in the utilization of dental services are scarce. Repeated measures should be accounted for by the use of appropriate statistical methods. The purpose of this study was first to describe the patterns of less frequent dental attendance (less than once a year) over time from the age of 65-70 in Norwegian and Swedish 1942 cohorts. Second, this study estimated the influence of predisposing, enabling and need-related social predictors using marginal model with robust variance estimators and random intercept model, RIM, to account for the clustered structure of the repeated observations. Third, the study aimed to compare the estimates of associations between social predictors and less frequent dental attendance derived from marginal and random intercept models.. Methods: In 2007 and 2012, all residents born in 1942 in selected counties of Norway and Sweden were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. In Norway, the response rate ...
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Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a cerebellum-dependent paradigm of associative motor learning, and abnormal EBCC is a neurophysiological indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated impaired EBCC in patients with primary dystonia, but it remains uncertain if this represents actual cerebellar pathology or reflects a functional cerebellar disruption.
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In well-trained animals, infusion of the GABA-B agonist baclofen into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and overlying cortex abolished the conditioned response (CR) with no effect on the unconditioned response (UR) with doses at or above 5.0 mM. Infusion of the GABA-B antagonist CGP 5584-5A alone had no effect on the CR or UR. However, administration of 5 mM baclofen soon after infusion of CGP 5584-5A (15 min) resulted in no reduction of percent CR and only partial reduction of CR amplitude. Naive animals given interpositus infusions of baclofen during training showed no learning, yet learned normally in postinfusion training. The distribution of (radiolabelled) baclofen was localized and remained within the cerebellum. The results presented here are consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the hypothesis that the memory trace for eyeblink conditioning is formed and stored in the cerebellum and may involve GABAergic mechanisms.
The Dental Hygienist provides patient care and clinical support for the UAMS Oral Health Clinic. The Oral Health Clinic is responsible for delivering comprehensive dental care and for assisting in the promotion of dental education at UAMS and throughout the State of Arkansas. The clinic will serve as a pathway to student and resident education for dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental students as well as advanced education dental residents. This position serves as an expert in preventative oral health care for patients of the clinic. As part of his/her job duties, the dental hygienist may: perform oral health care assessments that include obtaining and reviewing patient health histories, taking/recording blood pressure and other vital signs, complete dental charting, oral cancer screening, and comprehensive periodontal assessment; expose, process, and interpret dental radiographs; perform routine oral prophylaxes and nonsurgical periodontal therapy; administer local anesthesia and/or ...
Dental anxiety has been identified as a significant and common problem in both children and adults and is considered an obstacle for dental care providers in the delivery of quality oral care. Patients with dental anxiety tend to avoid professional dental care which poses a problem for dentists and patients alike.There are various treatment options for reducing dental anxiety. Music has been used in different medical fields to meet physiological, psychological, and spiritual needs of patients. Music interventions can either be passive (music listening) or active music (therapy).There was a significant gap in the literature on the effectiveness of music therapy and music listening in reducing dental anxiety in patients undergoing various dental treatments/procedures. This systematic review specifically examined the effectiveness of music interventions in reducing dental anxiety in both paediatric and adult patients.The objective of this systematic review was to critically appraise, synthesise and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficits in hippocampus-mediated pavlovian conditioning in endogenous hypercortisolism. AU - Grillon, Christian. AU - Smith, Kathryn. AU - Haynos, Ann. AU - Nieman, Lynnette K.. N1 - Funding Information: Financial support of this study was provided by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. We thank Kathleen West for performing the salivary cortisol assays.. PY - 2004/12/1. Y1 - 2004/12/1. N2 - Elevated endogenous levels of corticosteroids cause neural dysfunction and loss, especially within the hippocampus, as well as cognitive impairment in hippocampus-mediated tasks. Because Cushing's syndrome patients suffer from hypercortisolism, they represent a unique opportunity to study the impact of elevated glucocorticoids on cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of Cushing's syndrome patients on trace eyeblink conditioning, a cross-species, hippocampal-mediated test of learning and memory. Eleven Cushing's syndrome ...
The questions this thesis seeks to answer are related to the increased interest in the oral health status of Australian teenagers and particularly whether there has been an increase in their level of dental disease In NSW. Five peer-reviewed journal articles are presented in this thesis describing the oral health status of teenagers in NSW, risk factors for dental caries, the impact of sugar sweetened beverages, and the utilisation of dental services. The first publication describes the oral health status of a random sample of 14 and 15 year olds in New South Wales as part of a state-wide survey in 2010. The survey reported a mean DMFT for 14 and 15 year olds of 1.2 and the major variations in caries experience found were related to remoteness, water fluoridation status, socio-economic status and household income levels. The second paper identifies the key protective oral health behaviour was regular tooth brushing, with those brushing twice or more a day having significantly lower caries ...
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Cannabis is the most used illicit substance in the world. As many countries are moving towards decriminalization, it is crucial to determine whether and how cannabis use affects human brain and behavior. The role of the cerebellum in cognition, emotion, learning, and addiction is increasingly recognized. Because of its high density in CB1 receptors, it is expected to be highly affected by cannabis use. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate how cannabis use affects cerebellar structure and function, as well as cerebellar-dependent behavioral tasks. Three databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published until March 2018. We included studies that focused on cannabis effects on cerebellar structure, function, or cerebellar-dependent behavioral tasks. A total of 348 unique records were screened, and 40 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. The most consistent findings include (1) increases in cerebellar gray matter volume after chronic cannabis use, (2) ...
Sex differences in learned fear expression and extinction involve the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We recently demonstrated that enhanced learned fear expression during auditory fear extinction and its recall is linked to persistent theta activation in the prelimbic (PL) but not infralimbic (IL) cortex of female rats. Emerging evidence indicates that gamma oscillations in mPFC are also implicated in the expression and extinction of learned fear. Therefore we re-examined our in vivo electrophysiology data and found that females showed persistent PL gamma activation during extinction and a failure of IL gamma activation during extinction recall. Altered prefrontal gamma oscillations thus accompany sex differences in learned fear expression and its extinction. These findings are relevant for understanding the neural basis of post-traumatic stress disorder, which is more prevalent in women and involves impaired extinction and mPFC dysfunction.. ...
The corpora pedunculata, or mushroom bodies (MBs), in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster adults consist of approximately 2500 parallel Kenyon cell fibers derived from four MB neuroblasts. Hydroxyurea fed to newly hatched larvae selectively deletes these cells, resulting in complete, precise MB albation. Adult flies developing without MBs behave normally in most respects, but are unable to perform in a classical conditioning paradigm that tests associative learning of odor cues and electric shock. This deficit cannot be attributed to reductions in olfactory sensitivity, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. The results demonstrate that MBs mediate associative odor learning in flies. ...
Curriculum for students entering program in 2017-18.. A Professional Certificate in Dental Assisting is awarded upon successful completion of the program.. The Allied Dental Education Program's Dental Assisting Course is the only Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association accredited Program in the State of New Hampshire. The one year program offers students an excellent opportunity to become involved in a health care profession as a member of the dental team in private dental offices, public dental clinics, and institutions.. The dental assistant must possess knowledge of procedures and practices in patient care, laboratory work, and office management. The Dental Assisting Program emphasizes clinical training in the campus clinic and in private dental offices. Theoretical courses are enhanced by laboratory experiences, and students perfect their clinical skills working in a variety of dental offices including general and specialty practices.. Students in the dental ...
The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount
TY - JOUR. T1 - Granisetron attenuates exercise-induced conditioned taste aversion in the rat. AU - Eccles, S. AU - Kim, Eun-Mee. AU - O'Hare, E. PY - 2005/6. Y1 - 2005/6. N2 - A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was used in the present study to investigate whether CTA produced by exercise could be attenuated by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups (Ns = 6) and were exposed to salty (0.128 M sodium chloride) or sour (0.00138 M citric acid) solutions. Subjects were injected with either saline solution (1.0 ml, 0.9 %) or granisetron (0.5 mg/kg, IP) and were exposed to 30 min of forced wheel running exercise (70 revolutions/30 min) 10 min after injection. Exercise induced CTA to both the salty (3.7 ml intake) and sour-flaroured (3.1 ml intake) solutions as compared with no exercise (intake 14.0 and 13.7 ml), and administration of granisetron significantly attenuated the exercise-induced CTA to the salty- and ...
The Elevated Plus-Maze was adapted to assess the effects of the association between morphine administration and a previous aversive environment, in a Conditioned Place Preference procedure. This is a proposal of a new experimental procedure that can assess other environmental variables and other pharmacological functions effects of addiction, which cannot be assessed by self-administration and conditioned place preference models. Seventy two rats were divided into six groups. Five groups were administrated with morphine solution (0,0; 0,3; 1,0; 5,0 and 10,0 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to the maze open arms or closed arms, respectively, in four consecutive alternated days, in a manner that each animal was exposed to each maze arm. The sixth group of animals was just administrated with saline during the four conditioning days, without exposition to the maze. At the fifth day, all groups were exposed to the maze five minutes test. As a result, the exposition to the maze arms, without the drug ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Forgetting, preconditioning CS familiarization and taste aversion learning. T2 - An animal experiment with implications for alcoholism treatment. AU - Elkins, Ralph L.. AU - Hobbs, Steve H. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - The rapid taste aversion acquisition, which typically occurs in many species when ingestion of a novel flavor precedes gastrointestinal distress, is retarded by preconditioning familiarity with the CS flavor. This CS familiarity effect (CSFE) might contraindicate taste aversion approaches to alcoholism treatment since alcoholics are quite accustomed to the tastes of alcoholic beverages. However, many alcoholics do develop strong nausea-induced alcohol aversions under appropriate conditioning parameters. Additionally, the CSFE is attenuated in rats by repeated conditioning trials including discrimination training. The present animal experiment was conducted to determine if the CSFE could additionally be weakened by process of forgetting, i.e. by ...
When consumption of a novel tasting substance is followed by administration of a chemical agent that produces physiological changes indicative of malaise, animals will reduce their consumption of the substance during subsequent encounters. This learned response is traditionally referred to as a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Studies have shown that the hormone estradiol is capable of producing this learned gustatory aversion. In addition, estradiol produces reductions in food intake and body weight, a phenomenon that is referred to as its anorectic effects. As a consequence of this anorectic effect, we question whether estradiol truly can induce CTA learning. Therefore, one of the purposes of the experiments presented in this dissertation was to test the dissociability of estradiol CTA and estradiol anorexia. The second purpose of this thesis was to examine the neural basis of estradiol CTA and estradiol anorexia. Four approaches were adopted to test the ability of estradiol to condition ...
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These experiments examined the effects of posttrial peripheral and intra-amygdala injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine on memory consolidation underlying extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained and tested for an amphetamine (2 mg/kg) CPP. Rats were subsequently given limited extinction training, followed by immediate posttrial peripheral or intrabasolateral amygdala injections of oxotremorine. A second CPP test was then administered, and the amount of time spent in the previously amphetamine-paired and saline-paired apparatus compartments was recorded. Peripheral (0.07 or 0.01 mg/kg) or intra-amygdala (10 etag/0.5 microL) postextinction trial injections of oxotremorine facilitated CPP extinction. Oxotremorine injections that were delayed 2 h posttrial training did not enhance CPP extinction, indicating a time-dependent effect of the drug on memory consolidation processes. The findings ...
We present a facial wearable robot to support eyelid movement for patients with hemifacial paralysis. People with facial paralysis are not able to blink, which leads to dry eyes and could cause permanent damage to the cornea. To address this issue, we developed a robotic system to support eyelid movement on the paralyzed side based on voluntary eyelid movement on the healthy side. The robot has a novel mechanism for supporting eyelid movement and is made from soft material, which we call the eyelid gating mechanism (ELGM). We defined the requirements for eyelid manipulation. Then, we introduced design rules for the ELGM based on this definition, and conducted a deformation analysis. As a result, we could control deformation so that it is tailored to eyelid movement with simple rotational input at two hinged ends. This system provides appropriate support for eyelid movement in a non-invasive and gentle manner, based on voluntary eyelid movement on the healthy side. In this paper, we present a performance
The potency of two β-endorphin fragments, des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE, βE-(2-17)) and des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, βE-(6-17)) was compared on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and on retention of a one-trial step-through passive avoidance procedure. Both peptides facilitated the extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and attenuated passive avoidance behavior. The γ-type endorphins exhibited an ... read more inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on passive avoidance behavior but not on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior. DEγE appeared to be approximately three times more potent than DTγE on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior but one hundred times more potent on passive avoidance behavior. It is suggested that DEγE rather than DTγE represents the endogenous neurolepticlike neuropeptide derived from β-endorphin. show less ...
Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular
TY - JOUR. T1 - Individual recognition and the 'face inversion effect' in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). AU - Wang, Mu Yun. AU - Takeuchi, Hideaki. PY - 2017/7/11. Y1 - 2017/7/11. N2 - Individual recognition (IR) is essential for maintaining various social interactions in a group, and face recognition is one of the most specialised cognitive abilities in IR. We used both a mating preference system and an electric shock conditioning experiment to test IR ability in medaka, and found that signals near the face are important. Medaka required more time to discriminate vertically inverted faces, but not horizontally shifted faces or inverted non-face objects. The ability may be comparable to the classic 'face inversion effect' in humans and some other mammals. Extra patterns added to the face also did not influence the IR. These findings suggest the possibility that the process of face recognition may differ from that used for other objects. The complex form of recognition may promote specific ...
The most common physiological response measured to gauge FPS response in humans is eyeblink, or the reflexive act of blinking. Currently, the most widely accepted/used means with which to measure the eyeblink reflex is by using a technology called electromyographic recording (EMG). EMG provides eyeblink rate data by measuring and recording activity of the eyelid muscles using two electrodes. In order to obtain an optimal reading, the person's skin must be cleaned, dried, and covered with a thin layer of electrode gel in only the spots where the measures will be taken; one electrode is placed in the center of the person's forehead above the nose, and two recording electrodes are placed directly underneath the eye, approximately two centimeters apart. The participant should be looking forward for the duration of data collection. If noises are used as the catalyst for the FPS response in a study (acoustic startle), the volume must be both controlled and reported, as noises around 50/60 Hz can ...
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of "lost" behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, and the recovery of lost human memories is often of particular interest. For a mathematical model for spontaneous recovery see Further Reading. Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus which produces an unconditioned response, such that the previously neutral stimulus comes to produce its own response, which is usually similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus. Although aspects of classical conditioning had been noted by previous scholars, the first experimental analysis of the process was done by Ivan ...
It has been known for a long time that GABAergic Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, as well as their target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, are spontaneously active. The cerebellar output will, therefore, depend on how input is integrated into this spontaneous activity. It has been shown that input from climbing fibers originating in the inferior olive controls the spontaneous activity in Purkinje cells. While blocking climbing fiber input to the Purkinje cells causes a dramatic increase in the firing rate, increased climbing fiber activity results in reduced Purkinje cell activity. However, the exact calibration of this regulation has not been examined systematically. Here we examine the relation between climbing fiber stimulation frequency and Purkinje cell activity in unanesthetized decerebrated ferrets. The results revealed a gradual suppression of Purkinje cell activity, starting at climbing fiber stimulation frequencies as low as 0.5 Hz. At 4 Hz, Purkinje cells were completely ...