The present study aimed to investigate the expression and association of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -1637A/G in the promoter region of the T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein-1 (Tim-1) gene in patients diagnosed with thymoma with or without myasthenia gravis (MG). The expression of Tim-1 was detected using the streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical staining method on tissues obtained from thymoma patients with (n=58) and without (n=62) MG. The Tim-1 gene -1637A/G polymorphism was detected using the single allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The positive rate of Tim-1 expression in thymoma patients with MG was 62.1% (32/58), which was significantly higher compared with that in thymoma patients without MG (33.9%, 21/62) (P=0.002). The genotype frequencies of GG, GA and AA in the -1637A/G polymorphism were 0.7931, 0.2069 and 0, respectively, in thymoma patients with MG, and 0.6129, 0.3871 and 0, respectively, in thymoma patients without MG. A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma. AU - Lemma, Girum L.. AU - Lee, Ju Whei. AU - Aisner, Seena C.. AU - Langer, Corey J.. AU - Tester, William J.. AU - Johnson, David H.. AU - Loehrer, Patrick J.. PY - 2011/5/20. Y1 - 2011/5/20. N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced previously untreated thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective multicenter study in patients with unresectable thymoma (n = 21) or thymic carcinoma (n = 23). Patients were treated with carboplatin (area under the curve, 6) plus paclitaxel (225 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The primary end point of this trial was to evaluate the objective response rate. Results: From February 2001 through January 2008, 46 patients were enrolled. Thirteen patients had grade 4 or greater toxicity, mostly neutropenia. Using RECIST (Response ...
Phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 murine thymoma cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate with activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, synthesis of interleukin-2, and death, whereas phorbol ester-resistant variants of this cell line do not exhibit these responses. Additional aspects of the resistant phenotype were examined, using a newly-established resistant cell line. Phorbol ester induced morphological changes, ERK activation, calcium-dependent activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), interleukin-2 synthesis, and growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant cells. A series of protein kinase C activators caused membrane translocation of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) alpha, eta, and theta in both cell lines. While PKC eta was expressed at higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells, overexpression of PKC eta did not restore phorbol ester-induced ERK activation to resistant cells. In sensitive cells, PKC activators had similar effects on cell viability and ERK ...
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Introduction: Thymic malignancies represent a wide range of clinical, histological and molecular entities, with considerable heterogeneity even among tumors of the same histotype. Thymomas are rare neoplasms arising from tissue elements of the thymus and developing in the anterior mediastinum, with an annual incidence of only 0.15 cases per 100, 000 person-years. They can be associated with a variety of systemic and autoimmune disorders, such as pure red cell aplasia, pancytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, collagen-vascular disease, and most commonly with myasthenia gravis. Surgical resection remains the cornerstone of therapy for early-stage disease, while in advanced or recurrent forms, a multimodality approach incorporating radiation and chemotherapy is required. Platinum with anthracycline-based chemotherapy is an optimal combination for advanced thymoma. Case Report: We hereby present an interesting case of thymoma which was detected on imaging for routine health check-up and was managed successfully
Thymoma and thymic carcinoma originate within the epithelial cells of the thymus, resulting in an anterior mediastinal mass. The term thymoma is customarily used to describe neoplasms that show no overt atypia of the epithelial component, whereas, a thymic epithelial tumor that exhibits clear-cut cytologic atypia and...
Thymoma is the most common primary neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum. It arises from the thymic epithelium and represents 20% of all mediastinal tumors in adults (1-2-3-4). Although usually asymptomatic, 15% of patients present with myasthenia gravis (5, 6). At diagnosis, approximately 15%-40% of patients have advanced disease (Masaoka-Koga stage III-IV) for invasion of adjacent structures, pleural/pericardial seeding, and metastatic disease (5-6-7). The preoperative distinction between non-advanced and advanced thymomas is essential to plan the proper treatment, because patients with advanced disease receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery (8). Hence, diagnostic imaging has a crucial role in the assessment of patients with thymoma. Computed tomography (CT) is the first-choice modality in the identification, staging, and follow-up of patients with thymoma, although it has limited value in differentiating among the various histological subtypes and in detecting residual or recurrent ...
The intent of the study is to assess the antitumor activity of PHA-848125AC in patients with recurrent or metastatic, unresectable malignant thymoma pre
A familial lympho-epithelial thymoma with constitutional chromosomal translocation t (14;20) (q24;p13) is presented: the thymoma and its particular translocation are present in the mother and the two sons of her offspring. The small number of cases do not allow establishing any relation between thymoma and this particular translocation. Concerning genetic counseling, an annual thoracic radiography is necessary for all the other family members, carriers or not of the translocation.
Disease Overview Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are epithelial tumors of the thymus. The term, thymoma, is customarily used to describe neoplasms that show no overt atypia of the epithelial component. A thymic epithelial tumor that exhibits clear-cut cytologic atypia and histologic features no longer specific to the...
thymomas WP WebPathology PO Definition: Thymoma is the most frequent tumor arising in human thymus (thymic tumors). Thymoma is a tumor (...)
Background: Mediastinal masses are relatively uncommon lesions that sometimes pose an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic problem for the clinician. Thymomas are one of the common mediastinal neoplasms and exhibit a wide spectrum of morphologic features and an unrivalled frequency of other autoimmune diseases. The great morphologic variability and heterogeneity in thymomas has rendered their histological classification difficult and highly controversial. Methods: This retrospective and descriptive study on thymoma was done in the department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College Mangalore (Manipal University), India over a period of five years from January 2006 to June 2011. Histopathology sections taken were stained with routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stains in every case. Additional stains and immunohistochemistry were done as required. Results: Total number of mediastinal lesions studied was 66, with thymomas making up 15 cases. The age range of patients with thymomas was 22 to 65 years ...
Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form on the outside surface of the thymus. The thymus, a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone, is part of the lymph system. It makes white blood cells, called lymphocytes, that protect the body against infections...
Learn about thymoma and thymic carcinoma, two cancers affecting the thymus. Its a small gland that makes white blood cells that fight infection.
IUCRO-0031; Molecular and Pathological Correlates of Treatment Outcome in Patients with Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma study is currently recruiting healthy volunteers at Indiana CTSI, IN
Lymphomas are treated with chemotherapy and occasionally radiation therapy, but surgery is rarely required or indicated.. PROGNOSIS. Dogs - Thymoma. The prognosis for dogs with thymoma is excellent with the majority of dogs with non-invasive thymoma cured with surgical excision. However, in one clinical study of 80 dogs with surgically excised thymomas, the perioperative mortality rate was 20% because of either unresectable tumors or complications. The local recurrence rate following surgical excision is 9%-17%, but re-excision of the locally recurrent thymoma is often curative. The median survival time following surgical excision is 617-790 days with 1-, 2-, and 4-year survival rates of 55%-88%, 42%, and 44%, respectively. In one study of 80 dogs with thymomas, 27 dogs died of tumor-related reasons, including local recurrence, failure of myasthenia gravis to resolve, failure of pleural effusion to resolve, metastasis, and surgical complications.. Prognostic factors for survival include ...
Thymomas typically occur in adults older than 40 years, and are rare in children or adolescents. Although some patients are asymptomatic, others present with chest pain, cough, or dyspnea. Thymomas are usually encapsulated. Some clinicians believe that surgical biopsy should be avoided if a resectable thymoma is strongly suspected based on clinical and radiologic features, and that a transpleural approach should be avoided during biopsy of a possible thymoma (category 2B for both). However, others feel that development of pleural metastases is most likely not the result of biopsies, because many patients who have never been biopsied have pleural disease at diagnosis. Total thymectomy and complete surgical excision are generally appropriate for most patients.6-8 Before surgery, all patients should be evaluated by radiation oncologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, diagnostic imaging specialists, and pulmonologists to determine the optimal plan of care.. Although thymomas can be locally invasive ...
The main characteristics of the patients included in this study are shown in Table 1. Tumor histology has been classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) proposal.16 The majority of the patients received thymectomy and showed an inversion of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Five patients were suffering from severe immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections of the lower respiratory tract. Flow cytometry analyses were performed at monthly intervals in the last 6 months, showing a stable reduction of mature CD19+ peripheral cells (unique patient numbers [UPNs] 091, 157, 051, 009, 147). A marked hypogammaglobulinemia had been detected in 4 of the 5 patients, whereas 1 of them (UPN 091) had normal immunoglobulin (Ig) serum levels. On the bases of clinical signs and B lymphopenia, we classified these patients as suffering from Good syndrome. We included in the study also 2 thymoma patients with normal Ig serum levels, normal B-cell counts, and no signs of severe recurrent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of Apt- cell lines exhibiting cross-resistance to glucocorticoid- and Fas-mediated apoptosis. AU - Askew, David J.. AU - Kuscuoglu, Unsal. AU - Brunner, Thomas. AU - Green, Douglas R.. AU - Miesfeld, Roger L.. PY - 1999/8. Y1 - 1999/8. N2 - Apoptosis induction by staurosporine, ceramide, and Fas stimulation was investigated in the mouse thymoma cell line W7.2 and a panel of dexamethasone (dex)-resistant W7.2 mutant cell lines, Apt3.8, Apt4.8 and Apt5.8, and a Bcl-2 transfected W7.2 cell line (Wbcl2). While W7.2 cells were found to be sensitive to these apoptosis inducers, the Apt- mutants and Wbcl2 cells were shown to be resistant to some or all of the treatments. Specifically, all three Apt- mutants and Wbcl2 cells were found to be resistant to ceramide and Fas-mediated apoptosis, whereas, Apt4.8 and Apt5.8 were sensitive to staurosporine-induced apoptosis under conditions in which Apt3.8 and Wbcl2 cells were resistant. Measurements of caspase activity and ...
Thymomas comprise about 1% of all mediastinal tumours and are rare in children. Typically, these tumours are aggressive, with a poor outcome. The current treatment of invasive thymoma is often multidisciplinary. We report a 16-year-old boy with invasive thymoma who was successfully treated with systemic chemotherapy, surgical resection and irradiation. The patient has been in continuous remission for 6 years without radiographic evidence of tumour recurrence.. ...
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occasionally occurs during transplantation or transfusion. It is rarely associated with thymoma and can present as a symptom of thymoma-associated multi-organ autoimmunity [1]. It has unfavourable prognosis due to complications, such as colitis or liver dysfunction [1-3]. Although, thymoma is a benign tumour that is radically resectable at an early stage, it is sometimes accompanied by autoimmune disorders and requires long-term management. Myasthenia gravis (MG) [...]. ...
Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. This definition excludes other tumors that may affect the thymus, such as lymphoma and germ cell tumors.
A 47-year-old man noticed quite suddenly visual loss, photopsia and night blindness in August 2003. When he visited our hospital in October 2003, his visual acuity was counting fingers bilaterally, and slit-lamp test revealed normal anterior segments. Funduscopic examination revealed narrowing of the retinal arteries and slight atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (figure 1A). Goldmann perimetry showed only peripheral islands of vision, and the standard full-field 20 J single flash electroretinogram (ERG) was non-recordable (figure 1B). Chest x-ray, chest CT scanning (figure 1C) and chest MRI (figure 1D) revealed the presence of thymoma, but no other malignancy was found … ...
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Thymus develops from the ventral portion of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. This descends into the anterior mediastinum by the sixth week of gestation. Thymic ectopia results from failure of this migration. Aberrant nodules of thymic tissue are found in approximately 20% of humans. Although the majority of aberrant nodules are located laterally in the neck, ectopic thymic nodules also have been reported in the base of the skull, in the mediastinum, and at the root of the bronchus (1).. Thymic neoplasm arising from an ectopic thymus is rare. To the best of our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the English language literature regarding the imaging findings of the malignant ectopic thymoma (2). In that case, it arose from the posterior mediastinum and had a connecting pedicle between the extrapleural mass and mediastinum. In contrast, the lesion in our case was far from the mediastinum and the results of CT of the chest were normal.. Malignant thymoma is classified into two ...
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Mechanisms of abnormal protein phosphorylation that regulate cell invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer remain obscure. In this study, we used high-throughput phosphorylation array to test two pancreatic cancer cell lines (PC-1 cells with a low, and PC-1.0 cells with a high potential for invasion and metastasis). We noted that a total of 57 proteins revealed a differential expression (fold change ≥ 2.0). Six candidate proteins were further validated by western blot with results found to be accordance with the array. Of 57 proteins, 32 up-regulated proteins (e.g. CaMK1-α and P90RSK) were mainly involved in ErbB and neurotrophin signaling pathways as determined using DAVID software, while 25 down-regulated proteins (e.g. BID and BRCA1) were closely involved in apoptosis and p53 signaling pathways. Moreover, four proteins (AKT1, Chk2, p53 and P70S6K) with different phosphorylation sites were found, not only among up-regulated, but also among down-regulated proteins. Importantly, specific ...
Goods syndrome with primary intrapulmonary thymoma. Ryman, N. G.; Burrow, L.; Bowen, C.; Carrington, C.; Dawson, A.; Harrison, N. K. // Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine;Mar2005, Vol. 98 Issue 3, p119 The article presents the case of a 72-year-old woman who experienced recurrent chest infections and left-sided pleuritic chest pain. It is inferred that Goods syndrome, which is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia associated with thymoma, is mostly present in lung parenchyma. These tumors... ...
Diarrhoea is a common symptom for which the aetiology will be straightforward in many cases. However, when a common aetiology is not found, the wide variety of other options can feel like finding a needle in a haystack. In this case report, we describe a patient who was referred to our centre with therapy-resistant, secretory diarrhoea, which was the presenting symptom of Goods syndrome, a rare form of adult-onset immunodeficiency associated with thymoma. The conclusions from this case report give direction for finding the needle and contribute to a focused approach to patients who present with therapyresistant diarrhoea ...
The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic arcinomas (TCs) is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play key roles in various common cancers are rarely affected in thymomas and TCs, suggesting that other oncogenic principles might be important.This made us re-analyze historic expression data obtained in a spectrumof thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) with a custom-made cDNA microarray. By cluster analysis, different anti-apoptotic signatures were detected in type B3 thymoma and TSCC, including overexpression of BIRC3 in TSCCs. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the original and an independent validation set of tumors. In contrast to several other cancer cell lines, the BIRC3-positive TSCC cell line, 1889c showed spontaneous apoptosis ...
A previous report described the isolation of a directly transforming retrovirus, AKT8, from a spontaneous thymoma of an AKR mouse. The AKT8 provirus has now been molecularly cloned from a transformed, nonproducer cell line. The virus genome contains both viral and nonviral, cell-related sequences; the nonviral sequence has been designated v-akt, the presumed viral oncogene of the AKT8 virus. This gene lacks homology to the 16 other oncogenes tested. The cloned provirus has undergone a partial deletion, during cell passage in vitro, that prevents direct demonstration of the transforming ability of this molecular clone. Two human homologues of the v-akt oncogene, AKT1 and AKT2, were cloned. A survey of 225 human tumors for changes involving AKT1 led to the discovery of a 20-fold amplification of this gene in one of the five gastric adenocarcinomas tested. The results demonstrate that AKT8 has the characteristic structure of a directly transforming retrovirus and that it contains a gene derived ...
Microscopically, the tumor could be largely divided into two portions. The periphery of the tumor displayed a haphazard blending of epithelial and spindle cells with focal adipose tissue (Fig. 1B). The dominant portion was spindle cell proliferation with moderate cellularity. These cells were arranged in a fascicular and storiform pattern with oval-to-tapered nuclei with eosinophilic cytoplasm. There was no evidence of significant atypia or mitotic activity. Some small lymphocytes were admixed with the spindle cell component. There were also epithelial islands consisting of elongated strands or anastomosing networks, and some cystic spaces with focal squamous differentiation. These islands were perceptibly merged into spindle cells. Small amounts of mature adipocytes were scattered in various portions of the tumor ...
ConclusionCombined irradiation and immunotherapy is able to induce abscopal responses, even with low, normofractionated radiation doses. Thus, the combination of mRNA-based vaccination with irradiation might be an effective regimen to induce systemic anti-tumor immunity....
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AKT (phospho Ser473) antibody (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) for IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-AKT (phospho Ser473) pAb (GTX128414) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
AKT1 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), transcript variant 2
Alternative Name. AKT3; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (protein kinase B, gamma); RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase; PKBG; PRKBG; RAC gamma; PKB gamma; RAC-gamma serine/threonine protein kinase; STK-2; PKB-GAMMA; RAC-gamma; RAC-PK-gamma. ...
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Call Elements Behavioral health. Autoantibody profiles and neurological correlations of thymoma. While these strategies are fairly straightforward, the all-encompassing pain of CRPS has led some patients to seek extreme treatments. I honestly cannot imagine functioning at all with any higher dosage. In addition to swelling, other signs and symptoms of edema may include stretched or shiny skin, skin that stays indented after being pressed for at least five seconds, or an increase in abdominal size. Free current issues on The JAMA Network Reader. Now Im in a tail spin.. I didnt take it for long, so I guess thats why I dont remember having any withdrawal. But often, teen drug use is a sign of gabaentin at home. Ital J Neurol Sci. I thought I would end up in the psychiatric ward. Otherwise, your neurologist or MD would be better versed in offering alternatives. Just knowing I am not alone, helps alot.. ...
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is mediated by autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), expressed in muscle and rare thymic myoid cells. Most early-onset cases show thymic lymph node-type infiltrates, including pre-activated plasma cells spontaneously producing anti-AChR antibodies. Since these are not evident in the associated thymomas found in another 10% of MG patients, AChR-specific B cells must be autosensitized elsewhere. Unexpectedly, at diagnosis, |70% of MG/thymoma patients also have high-titer neutralizing autoantibodies to IFN-alpha, and |50% to IL-12; moreover, titers increase strikingly if the thymomas recur, indicating a closer tumor relationship than for anti-AChR. To investigate this, we have measured autoantibody production by cells cultured from thymomas, any available thymic remnants and blood, with or without the B cell stimulant pokeweed mitogen (PWM). To check autoantibody specificity and clonal origins, we isolated Fabs from two combinatorial libraries from producer thymus
TY - JOUR. T1 - Titin and ryanodine receptor autoantibodies in dogs with thymoma and late-onset myasthenia gravis. AU - Shelton, G. Diane. AU - Skeie, Geir O.. AU - Kass, Philip H. AU - Aarli, Johan A.. PY - 2001/1/10. Y1 - 2001/1/10. N2 - Similar to human autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), canine MG occurs spontaneously and is associated with autoantibodies against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). In addition to AChR, human MG patients with thymoma or late-onset MG have antibodies against titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR). The objective of this study was to establish if dogs with confirmed MG (AChR antibody titer ,0.6nmol/l) also developed titin and RyR antibodies and identify possible associations with thymoma, late age of onset, or severity of clinical signs. Sera from dogs (n=430) with previously diagnosed autoimmune MG (N=415), other immune-mediated neuromuscular disorders including polymyositis (PM) and masticatory muscle myositis (N=5), and control dogs (N=10) were evaluated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microscopic thymoma and parathyroid adenoma. T2 - Rare combination of two distinct pathologies. AU - Walton, Benjamin. AU - Gleinser, David. AU - Boroumand, Nahal. AU - Watts, Tammara. AU - Underbrink, Michael. PY - 2014/6/25. Y1 - 2014/6/25. N2 - While there is an intimate anatomical and embryological relationship between the inferior parathyroid gland and thymus, concurrent pathology is rare. Three cases have been reported in the literature of a parathyroid adenoma in conjunction with a thymoma. We present a case report of a 60-year-old female with a past medical history of hypercalcemia subsequently found to have primary hyperparathy-roidism. Sestamibi scan of the parathyroid revealed increased uptake in the lower left neck consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. A standard transverse neck incision was performed with exploration of the lower left thyroid pole. Further dissection was required to identify the parathyroid gland which was intimately associated with thymic tissue in ...
Twenty patients with myasthenia gravis had chest radiography, conventional tomography, and computed tomography (CT) of the thorax within 1 month of thymectomy. Four of the six macroscopic tumors were detected on routine chest radiography; conventional tomography provided no additional information. CT detected all six macroscopic tumors and provided additional information that was not available by other procedures. However, 18 patients (90%) had anterior mediastinum densities on CT, which could not be distinguished preoperatively from thymic tumors. All six patients with macroscopic tumors had serum antistriational muscle antibody titers; this test was negative in 10 of 11 patients (91%) without thymoma. Chest radiography, CT of the thorax, and antistriational antibodies are the tests recommended for detection of a thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproducibility of 3 histologic classifications and 3 staging systems for thymic epithelial neoplasms and its effect on prognosis. AU - Roden, Anja. AU - Yi, Eunhee S.. AU - Jenkins, Sarah M.. AU - Edwards, Kelly K.. AU - Donovan, Janis L.. AU - Lewis, Jean E.. AU - Cassivi, Stephen D.. AU - Marks, Randolph Stuart. AU - Garces, Yolanda Isabel. AU - Aubry, Marie Christine. PY - 2015/3/30. Y1 - 2015/3/30. N2 - Data regarding the prognostic significance of the histopathologic classifications of thymic epithelial neoplasms are contradictory, perhaps reflecting issues in reproducibility. We studied the effect of reproducibility of 3 histopathologic classifications on prognosis and investigated the interobserver agreement on invasion and its effect on staging and prognosis. A total of 456 patients who underwent surgery for thymic epithelial neoplasm at Mayo Clinic Rochester (1942 to 2008) were staged (modified Masaoka, proposed Moran, proposed IASLC/ITMIG) and independently classified ...
title: Early Masaoka stage and complete resection is important for prognosis of thymic carcinoma: a 20-year experience at a single institution., doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.02.019, category: Article