An enzyme (abbreviated tk) which plays an important role in the making of thymidine triphosphate from thymine -- the only way thymine, cytosine, and oth...
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) to deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP), using ATP as its preferred phosphoryl donor. Situated at the junction of both de novo and salvage pathways of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis, is essential for DNA synthesis and cellular growth. Has a broad specificity for nucleoside triphosphates, being highly active with ATP or dATP as phosphate donors, and less active with ITP, GTP, CTP and UTP ...
Roucairol C., Azoulay S.*,. Nevers M.C., Golebiowski J., Creminon C., Grassi J., Burger A. *, Duval D.Design, synthesis and studies of triphosphate analogues for the production of anti AZT-TP antibodies Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010, 987-990 ...
RBV, a nucleoside analogue, is used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in alliance with interferon-alfa 2a/2b in patients with HIV-1. The mechanism of action of RBV has led to in vitro studies examining the agonism/antagonism in efficacy occurring when used in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The primary objective of the pharmacology component of this current study will be the evaluation of the effect of RBV on the intracellular activation of ZDV or d4T owing to the reported antagonism observed in vitro.. Pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluations for plasma ZDV or d4T and intracellular ZDV or d4T and measurements of their triphosphate anabolites are performed before initial RBV dosing (within 2 weeks of visit) and 8 weeks after RBV administration. Thymidine triphosphate (TTP) concentrations also are quantitated to permit estimation of the ratio of active drug to endogenous triphosphate concentrations.. For entry, prior to RBV dosing, blood samples are ...
RBV, a nucleoside analogue, is used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in alliance with interferon-alfa 2a/2b in patients with HIV-1. The mechanism of action of RBV has led to in vitro studies examining the agonism/antagonism in efficacy occurring when used in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The primary objective of the pharmacology component of this current study will be the evaluation of the effect of RBV on the intracellular activation of ZDV or d4T owing to the reported antagonism observed in vitro.. Pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluations for plasma ZDV or d4T and intracellular ZDV or d4T and measurements of their triphosphate anabolites are performed before initial RBV dosing (within 2 weeks of visit) and 8 weeks after RBV administration. Thymidine triphosphate (TTP) concentrations also are quantitated to permit estimation of the ratio of active drug to endogenous triphosphate concentrations.. For entry, prior to RBV dosing, blood samples are ...
1 ]Dong C, Beis K, Giraud MF, Blankenfeldt W, Allard S, Major LL, Kerr ID, Whitfield C, Naismith JH. A structural perspective on the enzymes that convert dTDP-d-glucose into dTDP-l-rhamnose. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Jun;31(Pt 3):532-6. PMID 12773151 ...
dTDP-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-4-keto-D-glucose/dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-alpha-D-glucose/dTDP-2,6-dideoxy-D-kanosamine transaminase [EC:2.6.1.106 2.6.1 ...
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The initial rate of thymidine-3H incorporation into the acid-soluble pool by cultured Novikoff rat hepatoma cells was investigated as a function of the thymidine concentration in the medium. Below, but not above 2 µM, thymidine incorporation followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics at 22°, 27°, 32°, and 37°C with an apparent Km of 0.5 µM, and the Vmax values increased with an average Q10 of 1.8 with an increase in temperature. The intracellular acid-soluble 3H was associated solely with thymine nucleotides (mainly deoxythymidine triphosphate [dTTP]). Between 2 and 200 µM, on the other hand, the initial rate of thymidine incorporation increased linearly with an increase in thymidine concentration in the medium and was about the same at all four temperatures. Pretreatment of the cells with 40 or 100 µM p-chloromercuribenzoate for 15 min or heat-shock (49.5°C, 5 min) markedly reduced the saturable component of uptake without affecting the unsaturable component or the phosphorylation of ...
Stavudine (2-3-didehydro-2-3-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit®) is a thymidine analogue active against HIV. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into active triphosphate. Stavudine triphosphate inhibits the reverse transcriptase by competing with natural substrate, thymidine triphosphate. It also causes termination of DNA synthesis by incorporating into it. Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Stavudine. ... Jump to: navigation, search See also Avogadros number Atomic mass unit Dalton (unit) External links Learning by Simulations Calculation of Molecular Formulas from Molecular Masses Categories: Chemistry stubs , Mass , Chemical properties ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: ...
dTDP-β-L-rhamnose = dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose. Other name(s): dTDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose reductase; reductase, thymidine diphospho-4-ketorhamnose; dTDP-4-ketorhamnose reductase; TDP-4-keto-rhamnose reductase; thymidine diphospho-4-ketorhamnose reductase; dTDP-6-deoxy-L-mannose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase; dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Systematic name: dTDP-β-L-rhamnose:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Comments: In the reverse direction, reduction on the 4-position of the hexose moiety takes place only while the substrate is bound to another enzyme that catalyses epimerization at C-3 and C-5; the complex has been referred to as dTDP-L-rhamnose synthase.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37250-64-9. References:. 1. Melo, A. and Glaser, L. The mechanism of 6-deoxyhexose synthesis. II. Conversion of deoxythymidine diphosphate 4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to deoxythymidine diphosphate L-rhamnose. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 1475-1478. [PMID: ...
Sulfated polysaccharide-peptidoglycan DS-4152 & 3-Azido-3-deoxythymidine - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data.
The effects of various concentrations of thymidine on DNA synthesis and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate contents of a highly thymidine-sensitive cultured mouse lymphoma cell line (WEHI-7) and a relatively resistant mouse myeloma cell line (HPC-108) have been studied by 32P-labelling techniques. DNA synthesis in the myeloma cells was inhibited by thymidine at concentrations of 10(-3) M or greater, while DNA synthesis in the lymphoma cells was inhibited by concentrations 30-fold lower, consistent with the 25-fold difference between the two cell lines in sensitivity to growth inhibition by thymidine. Thymidine caused marked elevation of the dTTP and dGTP pools, slight elevation or no change in the dATP pool and a marked decrease in the dCTP pool in cells of both lines. The greater resistance of HPC-108 cells to thymidine inhibition was related to the finding that they normally contained a much higher concentration of dCTP than did the WEHI-7 cells. Pool size measurements on thymidine-treated (10(-4) M)
This enzyme is involved in nucleotide metabolism: it produces dUMP, the immediate precursor of thymidine nucleotides and it decreases the intracellular concentration of dUTP so that uracil cannot be incorporated into DNA.
Words that start with thymine, Unscrambled words that start with thymine, Words starting with thymine, Words that begin with thymine, Words beginning with thymine, Words with the prefix thymine
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Sixteen compounds related to GTP were evaluated as inhibitors of bacteriophage-Q beta poly(C)-dependent poly(G) polymerase. Non-phosphorylated compounds, including guanine, guanosine and deoxyguanosine, were inactive. Phosphorylated compounds gave significant inhibition at millimolar concentrations. For nucleotides the feature important for inhibition was the 5′-phosphate chain. Four triphosphates, XTP, ITP, 7-methyl-GTP and 2′-O-methyl-GTP, gave 50% inhibition of both the poly(C)- and poly(U2,C)-dependent reactions at concentrations from 0.1 to 5 mM. XTP was 10-fold more potent an inhibitor of the reaction with poly(U2,C) as template. None of these four compounds was able to substitute for GTP as substrate to a significant extent. The most active compound, 2′-O-methyl-GTP, was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.4 mM) of GTP in the poly(C)-dependent reaction. ...
125780-86-1 - RDUNYDIEPCWJHF-UKKRHICBSA-N - L-Glutamic acid, 5.5-ester with 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The inhibitory activity of liver extracts on thymidine incorporation into DNA was markedly enhanced by manganese and zinc. Manganese-activated liver extract (Mn-liver extract) also inhibited incorporation of deoxycytidine and adenine into DNA. The Mn-liver extract had no effect on incorporation of thymidine-5′-triphosphate into DNA but blocked the phosphorylation of deoxythymidine. The phosphorylation of deoxycytidine into deoxycytidine-5′-triphosphate was not inhibited by Mn-liver extract. The results indicate that the inhibition of synthesis of thymidine-5′-triphosphate is the primary locus in the blocking of DNA synthesis and that the inhibition of incorporation of deoxycytidine into DNA is secondary to the lack of thymidine-5′-triphosphate.. ...
142003-05-2 - JXDNQHJWBNFXQG-MAUMQABQSA-N - 1-(3-Azido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-L-talofuranosyl)thymine - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
A set of 4 separate 100 mM solutions (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, dTTP). Each tube contains 25 µmol (250 µl) of the corresponding dNTP. ...
This enzyme is involved in nucleotide metabolism: it produces dUMP, the immediate precursor of thymidine nucleotides and it decreases the intracellular concentration of dUTP so that uracil cannot be incorporated into DNA.
Biochemical reactions, even those as complex as replicating the DNA genome of cells, follow the principle that the process is regulated by both the substrate concentration and by the enzymes that mediate the process. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), the substrates for DNA polymerizing enzymes, have long been known to be limited in their concentration in cells because the enzyme that synthesizes deoxynucleotides from ribonucleotides, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), is synthesized and enzymatically activated as cells enter the S phase (1, 2). RNR, discovered by Peter Reichard 52 y ago (3), converts all four ribonucleotide diphosphates (rNDPs) to the respective deoxynucleoside disposphates (dNDPs), which are then rapidly converted to dNTP. Low levels and activity of RNR provide sufficient dNTPs for mitochondrial DNA synthesis and for DNA repair in noncycling cells and during the G1 phase of the cell-division cycle in proliferating cells, but RNR levels and activity are hugely increased as ...
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Primer unblocking and rescue of DNA synthesis by azidothymidine (AZT)-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: comparison between initiation and elongation of reverse transcription and between (-) and (+) strand DNA synthesis.
1E9D: Potentiating Azt Activation: Structures of Wildtype and Mutant Human Thymidylate Kinase Suggest Reasons for the Mutants Improved Kinetics with the HIV Prodrug Metabolite Aztmp
Information on EC 5.3.2.3 - TDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-alpha-D-glucose-3,4-oxoisomerase (dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranose-forming)
[ChEMBL Compound Description] ID:, InChI_Key:, Tradenames:, Synonyms:Thymidine Monophosphate | Thymidine-5-Phosphate | 2-Deoxythymidine Monophosphate | Thymidine-5-Monophosphate Disodium Salt
1E99: Potentiating Azt Activation: Structures of Wildtype and Mutant Human Thymidylate Kinase Suggest Reasons for the Mutants Improved Kinetics with the HIV Prodrug Metabolite Aztmp
AZT definition, azidothymidine: an antiviral drug, manufactured from genetic materials in fish sperm or produced synthetically, used in the treatment of AIDS. See more.
The primary mode of action of 3TC-TP is inhibition [url=http://genericvaltrex.science/]by valtrex online[/url] of reverse transcriptase (RT) through DNA chain termination after fusion of the nucleotide analogue. 3TC-TP is a weak inhibitor of cellular DNA polymerases О±, ОІ, and also Оі. The most [url=http://ventolin.webcam/]ventolin[/url] usual negative effects were abdominal discomfort, looseness of the bowels, queasiness, throwing up, as well as dysgeusia. Prednisone is a medication planned for the therapy of the signs of [url=http://buydoxycycline.science/]doxycycline[/url] reduced corticosteroid degrees, in addition to various other conditions in clients whose corticosteroid levels are typical. It you occur to determine and miss an amount to skip it [url=http://cheapmetformin.webcam/]cheap meds metformin[/url] due to the fact that you quickly need to take a brand-new one, do not take a dual amount later. Irbesartan [url=http://generic-ampicillin.se/]buy ampicillin without ...
Drugs and other reagents. Ganciclovir from Roche Laboratories was prepared (20 mmol/L) in PBS. Azidothymidine from Sigma and ganciclovir triphosphate (GCVTP) from TriLink Biotechnologies were prepared (10 mmol/L) in PBS and stored at −20°C. Azidothymidine triphosphate (AZTTP) from Calbiochem was prepared (10 mmol/L) in PBS and stored at −70°C. Venom phosphodiesterase was obtained from Worthington Biochemical Corp. Acetate kinase was obtained from Roche Applied Sciences.. Synthesis of ganciclovir monophosphate, ganciclovir diphosphate, azidothymidine monophosphate, and azidothymidine diphosphate. Venom phosphodiesterase was used to synthesize ganciclovir monophosphate (GCVMP) from GCVTP ( 26). The reaction mixture consisted of 0.01 mol/L Tris-HCl, 0.01 mol/L MgCl2 (pH 9.0), 1 unit venom phosphodiesterase, and 250 μmol/L GCVTP. The reaction proceeded for 6 h at 37°C and was inactivated by heating for 2 min at 95°C. Generation of GCVMP was confirmed by liquid chromatography/mass ...
BioAssay record AID 18848 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for in vitro percent of 3-fluoro-3-deoxythymidine(FLT) formed upon incubation with glutathione.
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1 (By similarity). ...
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We routinely make oligos that include deoxyuridine in place of deoxythymidine bases. The minimum synthesis scale for oligos containing dU is 100 nmoles. The modification code for internal deoxyuridine in a sequence is /ideoxyU/, while 5 and 3 incorporation have the modification codes of /5deoxyU/ and /3deoxyU/, respectively. More details, including pricing information, are provided on the Modifications page under the Products tab at www.idtdna.com.. ...
Thymine is one of the five bases that form nucleic acids, along with adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The formula of thymine is C5H6N2O2. Thymine is always paired up with adenine through two hydrogen bonds only in DNA to stabilize the nucleic acid structure. Thymine is not present in RNA. Instead, uracil takes place of thymine and binds with adenine. It is a derivative of pyrimidine and can be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon, hence the other name of thymine, 5-methyluracil. Uracil takes its place in RNA, which also binds to adenine. Thymine is a single ring planar molecule. Thymine combined with deoxyribose yields deoxythymidine while Thymine with ribose makes thymidine.. Thymine binds with deoxyribose to form the nucleoside deoxythymidine, which is the same thing as thymidine. This compound can be phosphorylated with one, two, or three phosphoric acid groups creating thymidine mono-, di-, or triphosphate, respectively.. ...
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of 3′‐O‐caged 2′‐deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), namely 3′‐O‐(2‐nitrobenzyl)‐2′‐deoxy ribonucleoside triphosphates (NB‐dNTPs) and 3′‐O‐(4,5‐dimethoxy‐2‐nitrobenzyl)‐2′‐deoxy ribonucleoside triphosphates (DMNB‐dNTPs), are discussed in detail
Retrovir AZT is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Retrovir AZT is available on the Drugs.com website.
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INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: EFFECT ON THE LEVELS OF DEOXYCYTIDYLATE DEAMINASE, THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE, AND THYMIDINE KINASE IN REGENERATING RAT LIVER.:
Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain ATCC 9595 Wzd (wzd), Wze (wze), Wzx (wzx),WelF (welF), WelG (welG), WelH (welH), WelI (welI), Wzy (wzy), WelJ (welJ),Wzm (wzm), RmlA (rmlA), RmlC (rmlC), RmlB (rmlB), RmlD (rmlD), WelE (welE),Wzr (wzr), Wzb (wzb), ClpL (clpL), and Nrp (nrp) genes, complete ...
Our PCR-grade deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) are produced using strict quality control guidelines to ensure the highest purity possible (≥99% pure by HPLC).
Po svojoj kompoziciji, dezoksitimidin je nukleozid koji se sastoji od dezoksiriboze (pentoznog šećera) sjedinjenog sa pirimidinskom bazom timinom. Dezoksitimidin može biti fosforilizovan sa jednim, dve ili tri fosforne grupe, čime nastaju respektivno dTMP, dTDP ili dTTP ((dezoksi) timidin mono- di- ili trifosfat). On se javlja u čvrstom stanju kao mali beli kristali ili beli kristalni prah, sa molekulskom masom od 242.229 Da, i tačkom topljenja od 185 °C. Stabilnost dezoksitimidina pod standardnom temperaturom i pritiskom (STP) je veoma visoka. ...
Azidothymidine (now zidovudine; Retrovir, Burroughs Wellcome Company, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is an agent that appears to be efficacious in the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with a history of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (1). Information on the type and frequency of side effects with this agent, however, is limited (2, 3). We noted progressive pigmentation of all ten fingernails in two black patients after they had received azidothymidine orally at a dose of 200 mg every 4 hours for 2 to 6 weeks. Neither patient was receiving any other drug.. A 36-year-old black woman with a history of P. carinii pneumonia after infection with human immunodeficiency virus began receiving azidothymidine in oral doses of 200 mg every 4 hours according to the Burroughs Wellcome Azidothymidine Treatment Investigational New Drug Protocol. Six weeks later the patient went to an emergency room for evaluation of "cyanosis" after having noted a darkened bluish ...
Definition of Deoxyribonucleotides with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
2D-A-Thiol Nucleotide Set K-1001 2-Deoxynucleoside Alpha-Thiol Nucleotide Kit-Contains 1 umole each of 4 nucleotides: -N-8001 2-Deoxyadenosine-5-O-(1-Thiot
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