Intracellular measurements of the resting potential were made in fibers of the frog sartorius muscle in solutions of varying salt composition and concentration to determine the effects of low ionic strength extracellular solutions on the resting potential. Changes in the glass microelectrode tip potential in low ionic strength solutions were minimized by adding ThCl4 to the extracellular solution. These experimental conditions allowed measurement of the relationship of the resting potential to the concentration of the salt in the extracellular solution by replacing it with the nonionic substance, sucrose. Substitution of sucrose for the extracellular NaCl produced a stable depolarization which was logarithmically related to the NaCl concentration. Substitution of sucrose for choline Cl, instead of NaCl, produced the same degree of depolarization. When Na salts of anions less permeable than chloride (Br, I, NO3) were used, the resting potentials in 116 mM solutions were close to those with ...
Despite the burgeoning field of uranium-ligand multiple bonds, analogous complexes involving other actinides remain scarce. For thorium, under ambient conditions only a few multiple bonds to carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium are reported, and no multiple bonds to phosphorus are known, reflecting a general paucity of synthetic methodologies and also problems associated with stabilising these linkages at the large thorium ion. Here we report structurally authenticated examples of a parent thorium(IV)-phosphanide (Th-PH2), a terminal thorium(IV)-phosphinidene (Th=PH), a parent dithorium(IV)-phosphinidiide (Th-P(H)-Th) and a discrete actinide-phosphido complex under ambient conditions (Th=P=Th). Although thorium is traditionally considered to have dominant 6d-orbital contributions to its bonding, contrasting to majority 5f-orbital character for uranium, computational analyses suggests that the bonding of thorium can be more nuanced, in terms of 5f- versus 6d-orbital ...
Thorium is usually detected by radioactivity (due, in part, to the daughter elements such as radium). Uranium is also naturally radioactive; however, many uranium minerals are generally yellow or green and fluorescent, so if not, then suspect Th. Any radioactive mineral with a negative reaction to uranium tests is probably thorium. Thorium is usually associated with the rare earth elements and use complicated schemes to identify the element. Basically, the rare earths and thorium are precipitated as hydroxides from acid solutions. The precipitate is dissolved in HCl and precipitated as insoluble oxalates, washed, filtered and ignited to the oxides. The oxide is dissolved in H2SO4 and ignited to dryness. Dissolve the sulphates in water and precipitate Th using boiling sodium thiosulfate solution. Repeat the thiosulfate step if necessary to eliminate excess Ce, Zr, and Hf.. Infusible thorium minerals glow with exaggerated incandescence in the flame test (along with Sr, Mg, Zr, Zn, Ca - the lime ...
Thorium is also used as an alloying agent in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to increase the melting temperature of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability. The electrodes labeled EWTH-1 contain 1% thorium, while the EWTH-2 contain 2%. Thorium is a very effective radiation shield, although it has not been used for this purpose as much as lead or depleted uranium. Thorium is a fertile material for producing nuclear fuel in a breeder reactor. Uranium-thorium age dating has been used to date hominid fossils ...
Last year, Dr. Alexander Cannara wrote a letter to IEER/PSR pointing out errors and omissions in the "fact sheet" and requesting IEER/PSR to implement corrections. To the best of my knowledge no amendment or correction was ever issued.. This is an extended rebuttal of the claims made about thorium by Makhijani and Boyd; the entirety of their original statement is included in the rebuttal and denoted by italics.. Thorium "fuel" has been proposed as an alternative to uranium fuel in nuclear reactors. There are not "thorium reactors," but rather proposals to use thorium as a "fuel" in different types of reactors, including existing light-water reactors and various fast breeder reactor designs.. It would seem that Mr. Makhijani and Ms. Boyd are unaware of the work done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Dr. Alvin Weinberg from 1955 to 1974 on the subject of fluid-fueled reactors, particularly those that used liquid-fluoride salts as a medium in which to sustain nuclear reactions. The ...
Quite a number of thorium-advocacy web sites can be found on the Internet; just look at the links list in the left panel at the Thorium Energy Alliance web site. The sites all tell a compelling story. By most estimates (though nobody seems to be certain), thorium is at least four times as common in the earths crust as uranium, and has the advantage of being commonly found in a single isotope, thus not requiring much purification. Thorium itself is not fissile, or spontaneously useful as an energy source, but if it is bombarded with neutrons, it can be cheaply converted to uranium-233, which is a very useful nuclear fuel. While uranium-233 can be used in nuclear bombs in pure form, in the thorium fuel cycle (especially if properly designed), it is contaminated with other isotopes and hence cannot be easily extracted to use in weapons. Plus, the decay products of the reaction are such that the waste remains radioactive for only a couple hundred years, instead of tens of thousands ...
By Mark Halper , December 4, 2012, 4:57 AM PST. SHANGHAI - Nuclear reactors based on the alternative fuel thorium will play a significant role in establishing clean power and giving the country energy independence, a key figure from the Chinese Academy of Sciences said here recently.. Jiang Mianheng, the son of Chinas former president Jiang Zemin, said that power from thorium reactors will help extract hydrogen that the country would convert to methanol, a clean burning fuel for cars.. The reactors will also provide process heat to industry, replacing CO2-emitting fossil fuels, Jiang said in an address to the Thorium Energy Conference 2012. And combined with more conventional nuclear, they will also help establish energy independence in a country that today relies heavily on imported coal and that by 2030 will import 75 percent of its oil and about 40 percent of its natural gas, according to a BP report.. Read more: Son of Chinas ex-president: Thorium will help shape countrys energy future , ...
Ive seen Transatomic give presentations before but never in a forum where theyd field questions from a room full of people with doctorates and masters in engineering and physical sciences. It would be interesting to see them present at a Thorium Energy Alliance Conference, which is unlikely. First, they do not intend to use thorium as a primary fuel and so presenting at TEAC would be the wrong crowd. If they did put thorium in their reactors it would be after theyve proven their waste annihilating designs and years later they wanted to show they could breed thorium too. Second, I believe that if they did present at TEAC or a similar forum that theyd get questions that theyd rather not answer. As in if presented to a crowd knowledgable on the subject the FUD from their papers would be exposed as such, and done so in a way that their fear mongering is undeniably built of straw men ...
An area about 6 miles north of Sundance, in the Bear Lodge Mountains, in Crook County, Wyo., was examined during August 1950 for thorium, uranium, and rare-earth oxides and samples were collected. Uranium is known to occur in fluorite veins and iron-manganese veins and in the igneous rocks of Tertiary age that compose the core of the Bear Lodge Mountains. The uranium content of the samples ranges from 0.001 to 0.015 percent in those from the fluorite veins, from 0.005 to 0.018 percent in those from the iron-manganese veins, and from 0.001 to 0.017 percent in those from the igneous rocks. The radioactivity of the samples is more than that expected from the uranium content. Thorium accounts for most of this discrepancy. The thorium oxide content of samples ranges from 0.07 to 0.25 percent in those from the iron-manganese veins and from 0.07 to 0.39 percent in those from the sedimentary...
Go Thorium sheds insight to its long-time study: "What China is attempting is to turn the nuclear clock back to the mid-1960s, when Oak Ridge successfully operated a reactor with fuel derived from thorium and cooled with molten salts. The lab also produced detailed plans for a commercial-scale power plant. Despite considerable promise, the thorium test reactor was shut down in 1969 after about five years of operation. Research was effectively shelved when the Nixon Adminsitration decided in the 1970′s that the U.S. Nuclear industry would concentrate on a new generation of uranium-fueled, fast-breeder reactors. For a range of technical and political reasons, not least the publics fear of nuclear plants, these new uranium reactors have yet to come into widespread commercial use ...
THORIUM: energy cheaper than coal is a new book about two energy technologies that can solve global warming, sustainability, and energy poverty. Energy cheaper than coal is the only realistic way to dissuade 7 billion people in 250 countries from burning coal to make electricity. Thorium and the molten salt reactor provide the means to manufacture liquid fluoride thorium reactors (LFTR) at a price that will undercut coal, economically ...
This list of minerals containing Thorium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Thorium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species ...
article{211470, abstract = {The capabilities of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in a gel after gel electrophoresis were systematically studied. Figures of merit, such as limit of detection, linearity, and repeatability, were evaluated for various elements (Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Pt, Tl, Pb). Two ablation strategies were followed: single hole drilling, relevant for ablation of spots after two-dimensional (2-D) separations, and ablation with translation, i.e., on a line, relevant for one-dimensional (1-D) separations. This technique was applied to the detection of selenoproteins in red blood cells extracts after a 1-D separation (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and the detection of selenium-containing proteins in yeast after 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). The detection procedure was further improved by using the dynamic reaction cell technology, which allowed the removal of the ...
article{8536566, abstract = {Multicellular tumor spheroid models serve as an important three-dimensional in vitro cell model system as they mimic the complex tumor micro-environment and thus have contributed to valuable assays in drug discovery studies. In this study, we present a state-of-the-art laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) setup for high spatial resolution elemental imaging of multicellular tumor spheroids and an approach to account for variations in cell density. A low dispersion LA-ICP-MS setup was employed, providing accelerated throughput, high sensitivity and permitting a lateral image resolution down to {\texttildelow}2.5 {\textmu}m for phosphorus and platinum in HCT116 colon cancer spheroids upon treatment with the clinically used anti-cancer drug oxaliplatin. Phosphorus was introduced as scalar to compensate for differences in cell density and tissue thickness and the Pt/P ratios together with the high resolution adopted in our approach ...
The incorporation of naturally occurring thorium isotopes in human femur bones was studied by analyzing 28 bone samples. The results show that the activity concentrations of 232Th and 230Th are in the range of the blank values resulting in an upper limit of theirs activity concentrations in human bones. The presence of 228Th can be attributed, on the basis of model calculations, to the radioactive decay of deposited 228Ra. We conclude that thorium is not detectably incorporated into human bones. ...
I was thinking one way to go would be to startup on TRU (as trichlorides) and balance with thorium (as tetrachloride) with NaCl or KCl (or both) for eutectic melting point depression. It appears such eutectics have nadirs on the low end of 300 degrees C, which is great because we get compatibility with cheaper easy to work with materials, as well as current steam cycles. (perhaps as low as 400 C primary cold leg temp). As the reactor goes through the once through cycle, fission product buildup would take over some of thoriums role in absorptions (ie we balance with fewer fertile shim) and the reactor starts to run on U233 mostly. This rids us of most of the TRU at the end of the once through operation so it will be easier to reprocess. Chlorination may not be optimal for fuel removal, but U233Cl4 is easily removed by vacuum distillation, as is ThCl4, all at much lower temperatures than for fluorides (eg LiF, ThF4), so thats fine ...
... Although thorium (Th) has multiple isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope is relatively stable (232Th). As such,
Anonymous then writes the truly funny statement: "It literally would have rendered the entire fossil fuel industry of oil, gas and coal, not to mention conventional nuclear power obsolete." That is a bold conclusion, with zero facts provided to support the conclusion. Here are the important points that Anonymous must prove to support such a conclusion: how would nuclear-produced electricity make obsolete the oil and gas industry, given that oil provides transportation fuels for cars, trucks, ships, aircraft, and trains, plus lubricants, asphalts, and petrochemical feedstocks, and natural gas provides critical feedstock for agricultural and petrochemical production? That thorium nuclear-produced electricity must indeed be novel, even Nobel-Prize worthy stuff. Also, coal has many non-electricity uses, but perhaps Anonymous is not aware of such things, or he has a plan for substituting his thorium nuclear-produced electricity for those services. Here is a partial summary of non-electricity uses of ...
This thesis examines the as of yet undecided fate of thorium in Norway. The aims are to disclose its links to history and surroundings; shed light to the controversy enfolding it; divulge the true size and dimension of the topic as well as the prospects and influence of the most relevant actors; and attempt some degree of technological forecasting. For this purpose the thesis employs concepts and insights from the realm of the Large Technical Systems and the Technological Innovation Systems approaches. Therein the topic at hand is unveiled; hazy aspects and unclear roles of actors become better defined and scrutinized. The bona fide prospects of thorium in Norway become clearer, with obstacles and opportunities more clearly distinguished ...
The Thorium Car. Car Runs For 100 Years Without Refueling. If your car was powered by thorium, you would never need to refuel it. The vehicle would bu...
Algeta ASA announces a collaboration with Australian biotechnology company Avipep Pty Ltd to evaluate a novel Targeted Thorium Conjugate based on combining Algetas proprietary thorium-227 alpha-pharmaceutical ...
mrshermanoaks writes When the choices for developing nuclear energy were being made, we went with uranium because it had the byproduct of producing plutonium that could be weaponized. But thorium is safer and easier to work with, and may cause a lot fewer headaches. Its abundant — the US ha...
mrshermanoaks writes When the choices for developing nuclear energy were being made, we went with uranium because it had the byproduct of producing plutonium that could be weaponized. But thorium is safer and easier to work with, and may cause a lot fewer headaches. Its abundant — the US ha...
De Vleeschouwer, David; Dunlea, Ann G; Auer, Gerald; Anderson, Chloe H; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; de Loach, Aaron; Gurnis, Michael; Huh, Youngsook; Ishiwa, Takeshige; Jang, Kwangchul; Kominz, Michelle A; März, Christian; Schnetger, Bernhard; Murray, Richard W; Pälike, Heiko; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists (2017): Quantifying potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) of IODP Site 329-U1368C. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873137, In supplement to: De Vleeschouwer, D et al. (2017): Quantifying K, U, and Th contents of marine sediments using shipboard natural gamma radiation spectra measured on DV JOIDES Resolution. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18(3), 1053-1064, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GC006715
De Vleeschouwer, David; Dunlea, Ann G; Auer, Gerald; Anderson, Chloe H; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; de Loach, Aaron; Gurnis, Michael; Huh, Youngsook; Ishiwa, Takeshige; Jang, Kwangchul; Kominz, Michelle A; März, Christian; Schnetger, Bernhard; Murray, Richard W; Pälike, Heiko; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists (2017): Quantifying potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) of IODP Site 329-U1368F. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873140, In supplement to: De Vleeschouwer, D et al. (2017): Quantifying K, U, and Th contents of marine sediments using shipboard natural gamma radiation spectra measured on DV JOIDES Resolution. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18(3), 1053-1064, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GC006715
China isnt alone in turning to thorium as a potential source of power. Enthusiasm for exploiting this alternative to uranium is on the rise across the world, even as the cleanup continues from the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.
Robert Hargraves on thorium Energy Cheaper than coal. Uranium energy is also cheaper than coal, and it we can build UMSRs more quickly than LFTRs, at even lower costs, We can have very large numbers of MSRs within 10 years, of the start of a well funded MSR development and manufacturing process ...
the fission products from a Thorium reactor are a worry, Technetium-99 has a half life of 220,000 years, uranium-232 produces thallium-208 (a nasty wee gamma emitter), Selenium-79 (another gamma emitter with a 327,000 year half-life), evenThorium-232 is a problem with its half life of 14 Billion years (and while the T-232 isnt a major worry, all the time during this 14 Billion years it…
10 Jan 2012 : Column 137W The current view of thorium reactor technologies from the nuclear industry is that, while the science is reasonably sound, developing reactors based on a thorium fuel cycle would carry major technological and commercial risks. The resources required to develop these technologies to the point at which they might be deployed successfully at a commercial scale are also very significant.. To date, both in the UK and elsewhere in the world, this has prevented private industry and government from investing significantly in the development of the technology. No thorium reactor design has yet been implemented as a commercial power reactor, while many either exist only on paper or have only had specific subsystems demonstrated. As an indicator of the challenge of taking this technology further, the Chinese Academy of Sciences estimates a development period of at least 20 years will be required before a demonstration thorium molten salt breeder reactor might be available.. While ...
there is certainly some scepticism, but it may make sense for india, which has some of the largest deposits of thorium (i think the third largest ...
Hakkari Thorium Vein is a mining vein that can be found in Zul'Gurub. Requires Mining (215). In the Mining Nodes category. An object from Classic World of Warcraft.
But if youve seen this thorium ball for the 653d time, you may start wondering what exactly the ball summarizes. And what size it should be - apparently, there are different opinions here.. Does it supply all the energy needed to sustain the life you live? Does it include your yearly trip to the Bahamas? Your kilometers made for commuting? Or just the electricity to last you a lifetime? It looks so small.. Fortunately, we have David MacKays great calculations of what we actually use. A handy number is the consumption of 195 kWhs per person per day: the amount of energy used by the average affluent person, including household electricity, heating, transportation, food, energy contained in the stuff we buy: everything that fits our western lifestyle.. From here, its easy to calculate how much energy we need for a lifetime. Lets say we live 80 years. Of course, we live a bit longer, but I assume we use a bit less energy at infancy and at old age. That means we need 80 x 365 x 195 kWhs = ...
The fact that the message of thorium is reaching people that are not really involved in the molten salt movement is an indication that a critical mass is building up in favour of cheap, clean and abundant power for all.. I thought the following recording of Actual Proof, performed in Montreux in 2014, would be a nice and appropriate addition to the above. And sufficient proof that Herbie rocks on and has a keen eye for young talent too…. ...
Read "Kinetics of thorium(IV) and lanthanum(III) extraction from aqueous salt solutions with composite material based on trialkylamine and polymeric support at various temperatures, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Publishers Accepted Manuscript: Bond energies of ThO + and ThC + : A guided ion beam and quantum chemical investigation of the reactions of thorium cation with O 2 and CO ...
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Thorium: Th(e) Best Element - Chemistry- Waz by Emmy Francek | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
Pulse NMR in solids : chemical shift, lead fluoride and thorium hydride Lau, Kei-Fung (1976) Pulse NMR in solids : chemical shift, lead fluoride and
For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test
The team at periodicvideos has created a TED-Ed Lesson for every element of the periodic table. Thorium is element number 90 on the periodic table.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Euxinia and primary production in Late Cretaceous eastern equatorial Atlantic surface waters fostered orbitally driven formation of marine black shales. AU - Wagner, Thomas. AU - Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe. AU - Hofmann, Peter. AU - Beckmann, Britta. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - [1] Oceanic anoxic events (OAE) in the Cretaceous represent major perturbations in the global climate and ocean system characterized by widespread deposition of organic carbon in the ocean. The causes and effects of these events are poorly constrained, mainly because of the lack of high-resolution marine records. Here we report the distribution of molecular markers from a millennial-scale record of Coniacian-Santonian black shale (OAE-3) from Ocean Drilling Program Site 959 in the Deep Ivorian Basin in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. Highly branched isoprenoids and alkenone-derived organic compounds indicate that diatoms and calcareous nanoplankton were important primary producers. Changes in redox ...
Three of the stable isotopes are found in three of the four major decay chains: lead-206, lead-207, and lead-208 are the final decay products of uranium-238, uranium-235, and thorium-232, respectively. These decay chains are called the uranium chain, the actinium chain, and the thorium chain.[35] Their isotopic concentrations in a natural rock sample depends greatly on the presence of these three parent uranium and thorium isotopes. For example, the relative abundance of lead-208 can range from 52% in normal samples to 90% in thorium ores;[36] for this reason, the standard atomic weight of lead is given to only one decimal place.[37] As time passes, the ratios of lead-206 and lead-207 to lead-204 increase, since the former two are supplemented by radioactive decay of heavier elements while the latter is not; analysis of lead-207/lead-204 ratios versus lead-206/lead-204 ratios constitutes lead-lead dating. As uranium decays into lead, their relative amounts change; analysis of ...
Define antineutrinos. antineutrinos synonyms, antineutrinos pronunciation, antineutrinos translation, English dictionary definition of antineutrinos. n. pl. an·ti·neu·tri·nos The antiparticle of a neutrino. n , pl -nos the antiparticle of a neutrino; a particle having oppositely directed spin to a...
True metal nanoparticle (NP) analysis directly in solid biomatrices, involving sizing and counting, using the recently introduced laser ablation-single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-SP-ICPMS) technique, is prone to produce erratic results when the instrument is not set up correctly and n
Thorium is a promising candidate as a future source of energy. I just wonder what it is about the stuff that inspires so many people to write nonsense about it. It doesnt take a Ph.D. in physics to spot the mistakes. Most of them should be obvious to anyone whos taken the trouble to read a high school science book. Another piece of misinformation has just turned up at the website of Popular Mechanics, dubiously titled The Truth about Thorium and Nuclear Power.. The byline claims that, "Thorium has nearly 200 times the energy content of uranium," a statement I will assume reflects the ignorance of the writer rather than any outright attempt to deceive. She cites physicist Carlo Rubbia as the source, but if he ever said anything of the sort, he was making some very "special" assumptions about the energy conversion process that she didnt quite understand. I assume it must have had something to do with his insanely dangerous subcritical reactor scheme, in which case the necessary assumptions to ...
We analyzed the unsaturation ratio (U k/37 ) of long-chain ketones-a molecular sea-surface temperature (SST) indicator-concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon in sediments from Site 846 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Based on an isotopic age model for the composite depth section of 0-46 m below seafloor and on estimates of sediment density, accumulation rates of these biogenic compounds were calculated. Our combined temperature and biogenic flux record traces conditions at the origin of the South Equatorial Current over the last 1.3 m.y. S STs have fluctuated considerably over the interval studied. A long trend of gradual decrease from 24°C at 1.3 Ma ends between 500 and 400 Ka, when lowest values of 19°C were reached. Since this time, the temperature data indicate a warming trend to the Holocene modulated by high-amplitude variation (19° to 27°C). The inversion of the trend between 400 and 500 Ka coincides with maximal accumulation rates of carbonate, which since then have ...
Since the Fukushima incident which followed Japans massive earthquake and consequent tsunami in Marcj of this year, the issue of nuclear energy has been at the forefront of current affairs across the globe. Germany made headlines when its coalition government declared it was to terminate its nuclear energy programme by the year 2022. There had…
Zircon has played an important role during the evolution of radiometric dating. Zircons contain trace amounts of uranium and thorium (from 10 ppm up to 1 wt%) and can be dated using several modern analytical techniques. Because zircons can survive geologic processes like erosion, transport, even high-grade metamorphism, they contain a rich and varied record of geological processes. Currently, zircons are typically dated by uranium-lead (U-Pb), fission-track, cathodoluminescence, and U+Th/He techniques. For instance, imaging the cathodoluminescence emission from fast electrons can be used as a prescreening tool for high-resolution secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) to image the zonation pattern and identify regions of interest for isotope analysis. This is done using an integrated cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscope.[19] Zircons in sedimentary rock can identify the sediment source. Zircons from Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, have ...
In 2007, Scientific American noted that, over the past few decades, a series of studies had found coal waste produced by coal plants is actually more radioactive than that generated by nuclear plants. The fly ash emitted by a power plant carries into the surrounding environment 100 times more radiation than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy, due to coals content of uranium and thorium, both radioactive elements. They occur in such trace amounts in natural, or "whole," coal that they arent a problem. But when coal is burned into fly ash, uranium and thorium are concentrated at up to 10 times their original levels.[3]. Fly ash uranium sometimes leaches into the soil and water surrounding a coal plant, affecting cropland and, in turn, food. People living within a "stack shadow"-the area within a half- to one-mile (0.8- to 1.6-kilometer) radius of a coal plants smokestacks-might then ingest small amounts of radiation. Fly ash is also disposed of in landfills and abandoned ...