Principal Investigator:TAKATANI Tomohiro, Project Period (FY):2014-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Aquatic life science
Z. Januškevič Research Institute of Physiology and Pathology of the Cardiovascular System, Kaunas. (Presented by Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR J. J. Bredikis.) Translated from Byulleten Éksperimentalnoi Biologii i Meditsiny, Vol. 105, No. 6, pp. 692-694, June, 1988. ...
Secondary Objective:. • To assess the duration of analgesia following repeated cycles of tetrodotoxin (TTX) treatment.. Overall Study Design:. This will be a multicentre, open-label, continuation trial of the efficacy and safety of tetrodotoxin in patients with inadequately controlled moderate to severe pain associated with cancer. All patients who participated in the TEC-006 study (tetrodotoxin and placebo-treated), who would like to continue with tetrodotoxin treatment and meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria, are eligible to receive the First Treatment Cycle for this continuation study.. The study will be conducted at all centres participating in the TEC-006 study. Patients may receive repeated cycles of treatment with tetrodotoxin. Each Treatment Cycle will consist of 4 days of treatment with 30 μg b.i.d. of tetrodotoxin injected subcutaneously. Each Treatment Cycle will last from the start of treatment to the end of the analgesic response. All patients completing the first Treatment ...
Nielsen, Katherine J. and Watson, Michael and Adams, David J. and Hammarstrom, Anna K. and Gage, Peter W. and Hill, Justine M. and Craik, David J. and Thomas, Linda and Adams, Denise and Alewood, Paul F. and Lewis, Richard J. (2002) Solution structure of μ-conotoxin PIIIA, a preferential inhibitor of persistent tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277 (30). pp. 27247-27255. ISSN 0021-9258 ...
The octopus produces venom that contains tetrodotoxin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, hyaluronidase, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine, octopamine, taurine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. The major neurotoxin component of Blue-ringed Octopus venom was originally known as maculotoxin, but was later found to be identical to tetrodotoxin, a neurotoxin which is also found in pufferfish and cone snails. Tetrodotoxin blocks sodium channels, causing motor paralysis and sometimes respiratory arrest leading to cardiac arrest due to a lack of oxygen. The toxin is created by bacteria in the salivary glands of the octopus ...
The current density of TTX-S and TTX-R Na+ channels functionally expressed in low extracellular Na+ (50 mM Na+) and physiological extracellular Na+ environment.
Gellens ME, George AL, Chen LQ, Chahine M, Horn R, Barchi RL, Kallen RG. Primary structure and functional expression of the human cardiac tetrodotoxin-insensitive voltage-dependent sodium channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89(2):554-8. ...
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play an important role in the control of membrane excitability. We previously reported that the excitability of nociceptor was increased by hypotonic stimulation. The present study tested the effect of hypotonicity on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S current) in cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Our data show that after hypotonic treatment, TTX-S current was increased. In the presence of hypotonicity, voltage-dependent activation curve shifted to the hyperpolarizing direction, while the voltage-dependent inactivation curve was not affected. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 receptor (TRPV4) activator increased TTX-S current and hypotonicity-induced increase was markedly attenuated by TRPV4 receptor blockers. We also demonstrate that inhibition of PKC attenuated hypotonicity-induced inhibition, whereas PKA system was not involved in hypotonic-response. We conclude that hypotonic stimulation enhances TTX-S current, which contributes to
The effect of tetrodotoxin on the sodium currents of the squid (Doryteuthis plei and Sepioteuthis sepiodea) giant axons was studied under potential control conditions. The axons were immersed in artificial seawater at 21 degrees C and pH 7.5. When the effect of the toxin is studied in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50 nM the Eadie-Haldane plot is not a straight line and indicates that there are two populations of sodium channels open during activity. 19.0 +/- 4.7% of the channels are accociated to receptors with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.11 +/- 0.05 nM and 84.0 +/- 4.1% of the channels are related to receptors having an affinity constant of 4.90 +/- 0.49 nM (nine nerves). ...
In this study, we found that focal injection of the sodium channel blocker TTX into the injury site after a standardized spinal cord contusion dramatically reduced acute WM pathology. Specifically, TTX significantly attenuated the loss of large (≥5 μm)-diameter axons. The surviving axons in the TTX group demonstrated less axoplasmic pathology in comparison to those in the VEH group. The effectiveness of TTX appears to be in its ability to reduce axonal pathology per se as opposed to reducing injury-induced loss of glia or myelin pathology after SCI.. We previously showed that focal microinjection of TTX (0.15 nmol) into the lesion site significantly reduced WM loss at the injury epicenter chronically at 8 weeks after SCI (Teng and Wrathall, 1997). Morphometry analysis showed a three-fold sparing of WM in the TTX-treated group compared with VEH controls. This led us to hypothesize that TTX treatment was sparing axons. The finding that TTX treatment spared large axons is particularly ...
The octopus produces venom containing tetrodotoxin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, hyaluronidase, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine, octopamine, taurine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. The major neurotoxin component of blue-ringed octopus venom was originally known as maculotoxin but was later found to be identical to tetrodotoxin, a neurotoxin also found in pufferfish and some poison dart frogs that is 10,000 times more toxic than cyanide. Tetrodotoxin blocks sodium channels, causing motor paralysis and respiratory arrest within minutes of exposure, leading to cardiac arrest due to a lack of oxygen. The toxin is produced by bacteria in the salivary glands of the octopus. Their venom can result in nausea, respiratory arrest, heart failure, severe and sometimes total paralysis and blindness and can lead to death within minutes if not treated. Death is usually from suffocation due to lack of oxygen to the brain ...
The effects of tetrodotoxin on sinus node activity were studied by direct perfusion through its nutrient artery. Tetrodotoxin suppresses action potentials by blocking sodium entry into the cell. In the open-chest anesthetized dog, direct perfusion of the sinus node artery with tetrodotoxin, 1.0 µg/ml, caused immediate sinus slowing lasting 12 to 60 minutes. This slowing was not affected by intranodal atropinization. Tetrodotoxin also produced complete blockade of sinus node response to vagal stimulation. Blockade of sinus node responses to stellate stimulation was less profound. Tetrodotoxin had no effect on chronotropic responses to intranodal acetylcholine and norepinephrine. These findings suggest that blockade of transmembrane sodium transport (or the rapid entry channel) has a negative chronotropic effect which is not cholinergic and during which response to neurotransmitter substances is normal. Concomitant with this effect there is blockade of neurotransmitter release (or synthesis) in ...
Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory synapses in the brain. Past theoretical work and recent experimental evidence have suggested that spines could contain sodium channels. We tested this by measuring the effect of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) on depolarizations generated by two-photon uncaging of glutamate on spines from mouse neocortical pyramidal neurons. In practically all spines examined, uncaging potentials were significantly reduced by TTX. This effect was postsynaptic and spatially localized to the spine and occurred with uncaging potentials of different amplitudes and in spines of different neck lengths. Our data confirm that spines from neocortical pyramidal neurons are electrically isolated from the dendrite and indicate that they have sodium channels and are therefore excitable structures. Spine sodium channels could boost synaptic potentials and facilitate action potential backpropagation.
Squid giant axons internally perfused with a 30 mM NaF solution and bathed in a 100 mM CaCl2 solution, which are known to produce long lasting action potentials in response to pulses of outward current, were investigated. The effects of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of tetraethylammonium ion (TEA+) on such action potentials were studied. The results are summarized as follows: (a) An addition of 1--3 microM TTX to the external solution altered but did not block the action potentials; it increased the height of the action potential by approximately 15 mV, and it decreased the membrane conductance as the peak of excitation by about two-thirds. (b) Voltage-clamp experiments performed with both NaCl and TTX in the external CaCl2 solution revealed that the TTX-insensitive action potential does not involve a rise in gNa, whereas the experiments performed without TTX showed that the action potential is accompanied by a large rise in gNa. (c) Internally applied TEA+ was shown to selectively block the ...
Cells were dispersed from the brains of the triclad flatworm Bdelloura candida and maintained in primary culture for up to 2 weeks. Cultured cells assumed a variety of morphologies consistent with those of neurones in vivo. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from cultured cells revealed that these cells possess a variety of ionic currents, including a fast transient sodium current, a calcium current and several potassium currents. The sodium current does not inactivate completely but instead decays to a steady-state component which has the same physiology and pharmacology as the fast transient component, suggesting that the two components are carried by the same population of channels. The physiology and pharmacology of these various currents were not remarkable save for the fact that, contrary to earlier reports, all sodium currents examined were sensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX). These animals are, therefore, the lowest animals known to possess TTX-sensitive sodium currents and, as such, ...
A-887826 is a structurally novel, potent and voltage-dependent Na(v)18 sodium channel blocker that attenuates neuropathic tactile allodynia in rats | Laser spine institute london ontariopost_content%%
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Buy Hainantoxin-III, a potent, selective TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker. Join researchers using high quality Hainantoxin-III from Abcam and…
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The (−)-gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG) concentration in some tea beverages can account for as much as 50% of the total catechins. It has been shown that catechins have analgesic properties. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant compared to other isoforms and functionally linked to nociception. In this study, the effects of GCG on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents were investigated in rat primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons via the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that 1 μM GCG reduced the amplitudes of peak current density of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents significantly. Furthermore, the inhibition was accompanied by a depolarizing shift of the activation voltage and a hyperpolarizing shift of steady-state inactivation voltage. The percentage block of GCG (1 μM) on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ current was 45.1% ± 1.1% in 10 min. In
The secretory epithehum of the mantle of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana is excitable. The ionic dependence of its action potentials was investigated. Two distinct phases could be recognized by their ionic dependences. The early spike phase, that appeared in all action potentials, was dependent on the Na+ concentration of the solution in the interstitial space and was insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) at concentrations as high as 36μmol l−1. It was inhibited by local anesthetics, and its repolarization was inhibited by veratrine. The data show this electrogenesis is caused by TTX-insensitive sodium channels located at the basolateral membrane of this epithelium. Cardiac-like action potentials were recorded in several specimens: the rapid Na+-dependent spike was followed by a slower repolarization phase that formed a plateau and increased the action potential duration. The plateau amplitude was markedly increased when the external Ca2+ concentration was increased to (60 mmol l−1 and it was ...
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain.
Voltage clamp experiments were done on single nodes of Ranvier to study the inhibition of the sodium permeability by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Equilibrium results could be excellently fitted on the assumption that a sodium channel is blocked when one toxin molecule binds to it, the equilibrium dissociation constant, KT of this reaction being 3.6 nM at 20 °G. Onset and offset of block could be quantitatively interpreted to be determined by the rates of the TTX-channel reaction whose average constants, at room temperature, were 3 x 106 m-1 s-1 for the association (k1) and 1.4 x 10-2 s-1for the dissociation (k2). The dependence of the constants on temperature could be described by Arrhenius plots yielding activation energies of 29.3, 85.5 and 41.0 (57.3) kJ/mol for KT, k2 and k1 (k1 derived from onset alone), respectively. At low pH the relative TTX effect was clearly less than at neutral pH. These results could be explained by a model involving the competition of TTX and protons for the samereceptor ...
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents including vincristine, paclitaxel, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, bortezomib and ixabepilone. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy commonly occurs in greater than 40% of patients. To improve the peripheral neuropathy, the chemotherapy dosing is often either decreased or discontinued potentially affecting tumor responsiveness, prognosis, and survival.. There is an unmet medical need for treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain (CINP) and the proposed study will investigate the efficacy and safety of multiple dose levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) versus placebo in moderate to severe neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapy. ...
The effect of chronic membrane depolarization on the regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) number was studied in neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115). Receptor number was determined by a filter binding assay using 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) in membrane and crude cellular homogenates. Incubation with 50 microM veratridine (VTN), an activator of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, induced a 50-200% increase in mAChR number at 24 hr, which was inhibited 80% by TTX. Scatchard analysis showed that affinity of the mAChR for 3H-QNB was not affected by VTN. Upon withdrawal of VTN, mAChR number returned to control levels within 20 hr. Chronic membrane depolarization caused by incubation in medium containing 60 mM K+ induced a TTX-insensitive 50% increase in mAChR number at 24 hr. AChE activity was unaffected by chronic membrane depolarization. The VTN- induced increase in mAChR number was not blocked by coincubation with cycloheximide or tunicamycin, both inhibitors of de novo mAChR ...
Signalling pathway causes increases accumulation of AMPAR in postsynaptic membrane at all excitatory synapses. This scales up mini amplitude and enhances evoked transmission. Global enhancement of AMPAR abundance in response to activity blockade requires sequences on C-terminal of GluR2 subunit on AMPAR. This distinguishes synaptic scaling from other forms of synaptic enhancement such as LTP that requires sequences on GluR1 subunit. Synaptic scaling up is different from LTP. It takes longer time (hours) and wider spatial scale (global). It uses trafficking steps that target GluR2 subunit to enhance AMPAR abundance at synapses ...
Pseudomugil sp. red neon (Pseudomugil iriani, Pseudomugil cf. paskai). Guys, look at this paper ;) Allen G.R., P.J. Unmack and R.K. Hadiaty (2016) Pseudomugil luminatus, A New Species of Blue-eye (Teleostei: Pseudomugi.... 4th Dec 2017. Petitella georgiae (False Rummy-nose). I think there is mix up in the photos....the real petitella looks like this http://www.tierdoku.com/images/Petitella-georgiae-1.jpg Cheers Andy. 11th Nov 2017. Baryancistrus demantoides - Green Phantom Pleco, L200. It seems to me that at least some of the photos present Hemiancistrus subviridis instead of B. demantoides, which should have dorsal and adipose fins .... 23rd Sep 2017. Microdevario kubotai (Microrasbora kubotai). My M. Kubotais are bigger, almost as big as paracheirodon Innesi. ~3 cm for sure.. 26th Aug 2017. Aphanius mento. I have Aphanius mento TR-K 2006 Titreyengöl, or now its called orontis. Very easy to keep and breed. They starts breeding in april, and they prefer l.... 10th Jul 2017 ...
Action potentials are depolarizations that start at the initial segment of an axon and are propagated toward the synaptic terminals. They are called ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na+ channel activators, veratridine and batrachotoxin. AU - Shinjo(H), Masayoshi. AU - Toshio, Nakaki. AU - Yukari, Otsuka. AU - Nobuyuki, Sasakawa. AU - Ryuichi, Kato. PY - 1991/11/26. Y1 - 1991/11/26. N2 - The effects of the sodium channel activators veratridine and batrachotoxin on isolated rat aorta were investigated. Veratridine caused gradual contraction, independent of the presence of endolhelium, with an EC50 of 35 μM. Batrachotoxin (1 μM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 μM). The veratridine (60 μM)-induced contraction was inhibited by nifedipine (0.1 μM). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, veratridine (60 μm) did not cause contraction. Sodium nitroprusside (80 nM), acetylcholine (10 μM) and isoproterenol (1 μM) caused relaxation of rings precontracted with veratridine (60 μM). An inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) ...
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in animals[citation needed]. Tetrodotoxin is a sodium channel blocker. It inhibits the firing of action potentials in neurons by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cell membranes and blocking the passage of sodium ions (responsible for the rising phase of an action potential) into the neuron. This prevents the nervous system from carrying messages and thus muscles from flexing in response to nervous stimulation. Its mechanism of action, selective blocking of the ...
The x-ray structure of bacterial sodium channel NavAb provides a new template to study sodium and calcium channels. Unlike potassium channels, NavAb contains P2 helices in the outer-pore region. Since the sequence similarity between eukaryotic and prokaryotic sodium channels in this region is poor, the structural similarity is unclear. We analyzed it by using experimental data on tetrodotoxin block of sodium channels. Key tetrodotoxin-binding residues are outer carboxylates in repeats I, II, and IV three positions downstream from the selectivity-filter residues. In a NavAb-based model of Nav1 channels derived from the sequence alignment without insertions/deletions, the outer carboxylates did not face the pore and therefore did not interact with tetrodotoxin. A hypotheses that evolutionary appearance of Nav1 channels involved point deletions in an ancestral channel between the selectivity-filter and the outer carboxylates allowed building a NavAb-based model with tetrodotoxin-channel contacts ...
Puffer fish have evolved two remarkable abilities. First and most visually striking is the ability of the puffer fish to inflate itself to over three times its natural size. The second outstanding ability of the puffer fish is to produce a deadly poison, tetrodotoxin.
The alkaloid ervatamine blocks the voltage-sensitive Na+ conductance. EC50 for different cell lines and for synaptosomes range between 1-3 and 5-12 µM. The toxic compound also alters the K+ conductance, although less efficiently than the Na+ conductance. Epiervatamine, a structural analogue of ervatamine, is 4-8 times more potent than ervatamine. Dose-response curves for ervatamine and epiervatamine show that the compounds bind to a single class of binding sites. Competition experiments with a radiolabeled tetrodotoxin (TTX) derivative indicate that these binding sites are distinct from the TTX receptor site. Ervatamine and epiervatamine seem to inhibit the Na+ current (or Na+ flux) by acting on the channel-gating mechanism. 22Na+ uptake measurements with neuroblastoma cells show that epiervatamine is a competitive inhibitor of the action of batrachotoxin, a well known specific activator of the Na+ channel. The dissociation constant of epiervatamine from its receptor site is 1.7 µM, very ...
There are five main stages of action potential: rising, overshoot, falling, undershoot, and recovery. During the first two stages...
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Tetrodotoxin has also been isolated from widely differing animal species, including western newts of the genus Taricha (where it was termed "tarichatoxin"), parrotfish, toads of the genus Atelopus, several species of blue-ringed octopodes of the genus Hapalochlaena (where it was called "maculotoxin"), several starfish, an angelfish, a polyclad flatworm, several species of Chaetognatha (arrow worms), several nemerteans (ribbonworms) and several species of xanthid crabs. The toxin is variously used as a defensive biotoxin to ward off predation, or as both a defensive and predatory venom (the octopodes, chaetognaths and ribbonworms). Tarichatoxin and maculotoxin were shown to be identical to tetrodotoxin in 1964 and 1978, respectively. Recent evidence has shown the toxin to be produced by bacteria within blue-ringed octopodes [1], and it is believed that pufferfish acquire the toxin through their diet. Evidence for the source of the toxin in other sources has not yet been determined[citation ...
How is isolated rabbit sino-atrial abbreviated? SA stands for isolated rabbit sino-atrial. SA is defined as isolated rabbit sino-atrial very rarely.
In Wade Davis excellent article The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombi (abstract), he lists the composition of zombie poisons from five separate locations around Haiti. Although there were many differences, based on what was available at the different geographical locations, there were several key ingredients. One of the most important was the puffer fish (Diodon hystrix, Diodon holacanthus, and others). Puffer fish in the region have very high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is, of course, the same toxin found in Japanese fugu fish. Tetrodotoxins are extremely toxic molecules and act by blocking Na ion channels, presumably through the positively charged guanidido group, which competes for the Na binding site in the channel. Without Na exchange, nerve impulses do not propagate which leads to paralysis, as well as cardiac and respiratory failure. The LD50 of TTX is estimated to be about 5 ug/kg in humans (less than1 mg of TTX), so what if a person ingested something a little less than that? ...
Besides the induction of acute neurotrophin effects through intracellular signaling cascades within seconds to minutes (11, 43, 44, 47), a much faster and distinctly different excitatory action of neurotrophins has been reported. BDNF and NT-4/5, when applied locally and transiently to various types of central neurons, depolarize neurons within milliseconds, resulting in trains of action potentials (29). Intriguingly, application of only 6.43 nM (175 ng/ml) exogenous BDNF to CA1 pyramidal neurons elicits a response comparable with application of 25 μM glutamate. Thus the neurotrophins BDNF and NT-4/5 are effective at much lower concentrations than glutamate (29). The study cited also revealed that the rapid neurotrophin-evoked depolarization results from the immediate activation of a Na+ conductance. The Na+ conductance (BDNF-evoked INa) is insensitive to tetrodotoxin, a highly potent blocker of those voltage-gated Na+ channels that are involved in action potential firing (13).. Molecular ...
1 . Platkiewicz J, Brette R (2011) Impact of fast sodium channel inactivation on spike threshold dynamics and synaptic integration. PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1001129-78 [PubMed] ...
Video created by デューク大学(Duke University) for the course Medical Neuroscience. We now turn our attention from the tangible (human neuroanatomy) to the physiological as we explore the means by which neurons generate, propagate and communicate ...
Video created by Universidade Duke for the course Neurociência Médica. We now turn our attention from the tangible (human neuroanatomy) to the physiological as we explore the means by which neurons generate, propagate and communicate electrical ...
Video created by Université Duke for the course Neurosciences médicales. We now turn our attention from the tangible (human neuroanatomy) to the physiological as we explore the means by which neurons generate, propagate and communicate ...
english) Those fishes causing tetraodon or puffer poisoning, certain members of the tetraodontiform families Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae, Canthigasteridae, and possible the Molidae and Triodontidae. The toxicity of a species is often subject to variation from specimen to specimen and from one locality to another, some being harmless, others highly toxic. They are generally most toxic immediately preceding and during the height of gonadal activity. Female puffers are considerably more toxic then the male. The skin, liver, ovaries and intestines are the most toxic parts; the musculature is usually safer to eat than other parts but may be at times toxic. Immunity is not gained by repeated ingestion. The poison is not inactivated by cooking. (See also: tetraodon poisoning, puffer poisoning, tetrodotoxin ...
u.n. owen: I certainly believe you- the most important thing is to listen to your body. One of the above links states that something like 15% of the population is sensitive to MSG, and the symptomology ranges from nervous energy to the kind of experience that you had. I used to avoid MSG as a matter of course, basically because I didnt know what it was, exactly. I found out a while ago, and having no detectable problems, I am not averse to foods containing it. As Malor stated earlier in the thread, a LOT of foods that have natural flavoring in the ingredient list have MSG. If you folks want to talk about real neurotoxins, we shouldnt forget C. botulinum or tetrodotoxin, the carefully-removed component of fugu ...
What I am confused about is why the action potential goes negative first before then going back up. From my readings online, I thought that the action potentials were meant to go up first then travel down and then continue on its course. If it helps I used a program called audacity to record the action potentials ...
Does using a puffer for asthma in the mouth during the day in Ramadaan invalidate the fast for one who is suffering difficulty in breathing.
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