Conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses explained nearly every instance of horns in female bovids (80 of 82 species; table 1). In all models, measures of conspicuousness (openness and exposure) explained the greatest amount of variance in the presence of horns, followed by female territoriality. That body mass was also a significant factor in the evolution of horns suggests that heavier animals are less able to rely on swift flight to escape predators and, as Packer (1983) suggested, may be better able to defend themselves against predators. Group size was less effective at explaining the variance in female horn presence and its significant role in past studies may be a byproduct of its significant correlation with the other predictors in the model. Figure 1 shows that horns probably evolved several times in female bovids for defence (bovines, antilopines, caprines, hippotragines and alcelaphines) and once for intrasexual combat (cephalophines). Interestingly, in female territorial species ...
Conspicuousness and territoriality hypotheses explained nearly every instance of horns in female bovids (80 of 82 species; table 1). In all models, measures of conspicuousness (openness and exposure) explained the greatest amount of variance in the presence of horns, followed by female territoriality. That body mass was also a significant factor in the evolution of horns suggests that heavier animals are less able to rely on swift flight to escape predators and, as Packer (1983) suggested, may be better able to defend themselves against predators. Group size was less effective at explaining the variance in female horn presence and its significant role in past studies may be a byproduct of its significant correlation with the other predictors in the model. Figure 1 shows that horns probably evolved several times in female bovids for defence (bovines, antilopines, caprines, hippotragines and alcelaphines) and once for intrasexual combat (cephalophines). Interestingly, in female territorial species ...
Title: Behavioral and physiological responses to simulated territorial intrusions of short- and long-range song in male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)  Author: Ferguson, S. M., Reichard, D. G., Rosvall, K. A., Whittaker, D. J., Ketterson, E. D Date: 2013-03-29 ...
The dear enemy effect or dear enemy recognition is an ethological phenomenon in which two neighbouring territorial animals become less aggressive toward one another once territorial borders are well-established. As territory owners become accustomed to their neighbours, they expend less time and energy on defensive behaviors directed toward one another. However, aggression toward unfamiliar neighbours remains the same. Some authors have suggested the dear enemy effect is territory residents displaying lower levels of aggression toward familiar neighbours compared to unfamiliar individuals who are non-territorial "floaters". The dear enemy effect has been observed in a wide range of animals including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. The behavioural effect can be modulated by factors such as the location of the familiar and unfamiliar animal, the season, and the presence of females. The dear enemy effect is the converse of the nasty neighbour effect in which some ...
Attachment to the mother and siblings on the one hand and the man on the other hand is the basis for the development of social relations. The necessary proximity to attachment figures allows the puppy to observe and then to mimic social behavior alteration. He thus learns a number of social rituals, basis of a healthy social communication. This position of pet is therefore essential from a simple pet.. We must keep in mind the specificities of communication of each for a good relationship and resist the urge to do one with her pet. This is in recognition of the difference that the identity of each will be recognized.. The pets are pets. The fundamental difference between the livestock and pets is the concept of territoriality. Herbivores are not attached to a territory. They remain only if the food is sufficient, otherwise they move. These animals tolerate a high concentration inside their living space as long as the food is sufficient.. Carnivores like the man are territorial animals, they need ...
Survival in hypoxia, oxygen-limitation of respiration and effects of hypoxia on precopulatory mate-guarding behavior of the amphipod, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, were tested to determine if seasonal hypoxia in Lake Taneycomo could be a limiting factor for amphipods in the lake. Currently, the Army Corps of Engineers uses oxygenation procedures at Table Rock Dam to defend 4.0 ppm dissolved oxygen (D.O.) in water entering Lake Taneycomo. However, little information exists to indicate whether this level of oxygenation is sufficient for survival, growth, and reproduction of G. pseudolimnaeus. Male, female, and juvenile amphipods survived 48 hours exposure to dissolved oxygen below the minimum daily average that is currently defended in the lake. Survival of hypoxia below 3.5 ppm was differed among genders and age with females being most sensitive, and juveniles being least sensitive. Sensitivity to hypoxia increased with an increase in temperature. Respiration of adult G. pseudolimnaeus was found to be oxygen
The testicles are accountable for generating testosterone: the hormone that makes male animals seem and act like male animals. It is the testicles that make male catsexhibit the sorts of "male" testosterone-dependent behaviors normally attributed to an entire animal. Full cats are likely to be more intense plus more dominant and Discover More Here more prone to male-to-male aggression (inter-male aggression) and battling than neutered animals are: i.e. they act like bossy complete males. Theyre going to often exhibit sexualised behaviors such as: aroused interestin females of their very own species; mounting of females Go Here (especially in-warmth, estrus females) andmating of females. They are really more liable to exhibiting unwanted masculine territorial behaviours including the guarding of methods (foodstuff, territory, companion men and women and so on) and the marking of territory with urine and feces (e ...
The Top 5 Reasons for Aggression in Rabbits and how to systematically deal with each to avoid stress, sickness, sense deprivation, territorial behaviour and bad habits.
Eucalyptol is used as an insecticide and insect repellent.[5][6]. In contrast, eucalyptol is one of many compounds that are attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, which gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study.[7] One such study with Euglossa imperialis, a non-social orchid bee species, has shown that the presence of cineole (also eucalyptol), elevates territorial behavior and specifically attracts the male bees. It was even observed that these males would periodically leave their territories to forage for chemicals such as cineole, thought to be important for attracting and mating with females, to synthesize pheromones.[8]. ...
Dr Walters original hypothesis came true. The interaction between the "nervous systems" of his "tortoises" and the environment generated unexpected and complex behavior. They never exactly repeated the same behavior, but rather followed a general pattern, just like animals do. For instance, Dr. Walter built a small hutch, where Elsie could enter and recharge its battery. At the top of the hutch he put a lamp. He immediately noticed that the turtles wandered a lot about the "room", but eventually they they would turn toward the hutch as the battery gradually lose power, in order to recharge them. Then they would leave again, scanning the environment for new light sources. Dr. Walter also placed a lamp on the top of each turtles shell and observed the appearance of a kind of "social behavior", that is, a kind of interaction between them as they danced around each other, in movements of attraction and repulsion, eerily evocative of mating and territorial behavior! Observing this, an astonished ...
Territorial behavior in male mice might be linked to more girl-power than ever suspected, according to new findings at UCSF. For the first time, researchers have identified networks of nerve cells in the brain that are ...
Anadromous, adults enter rivers from autumn to winter and spawn about 2,500 to 7,000 eggs in headwaters. Fry emerge from bottom gravel in spring, spending about one year in the river. Instead of territorial behavior in the parr, the smolt make schools and are carried out to sea. Young fish remain close to shore. Immature migrate more than 1600 km offshore.Main food items are insects in the river, small fishes such as sandlance and herring and many crustaceans near shore, and squids and krill in the open ocean.After 1 or 2 years of at sea, adults return to the river ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction. One: Microbes in Every Mouth. The Germ Theory. The Dawning of the Probiotic Era. The Anti-Microbial Mouth. How Do Bacteria Become Resistant?. Foodborne Illness. Microorganism Mania. How Many Bacteria Does it Take to Get Sick?. Two: The Oral Immune System. The Non-specific Immune System. Humoral Immune Response. Cell-Mediated Immune Response. The Probiotic Immune Response. Oral and Nasal Immunity. Stimulating the Oral Immune System. Digestive Immunity. Immune Colonization. Three: The Probiotic Gatekeepers. Probiotic Inoculation. Housing the Resident Strains. Territorial Behavior. Four: Oral Probiotics and Disease. Summary of Probiotic Mechanisms. Oral Cavity Probiotic Research. Periodontal Disease and Dental Caries. Bacterial Infections. Allergies. Intestinal Permeability. Ulcers. Vaginosis and Vaginitis. Candida Infections. Baby Colic. Ear Infections. Anorexia Nervosa. Keratoconjunctivitis. Viral Infections. Halitosis (Bad Breath). Respiratory ...
The social behavior of extinct species has long been a subject for speculation. Group size and composition, mating systems, territoriality, resource defense, predator defense, cooperation, and...
Although cats make affectionate pets, many domestic cats hunt as effectively as wild predators. However, they differ from wild predators in three important ways: First, people protect cats from disease, predation and competition, factors that can control numbers of wild predators, such as bobcats, foxes, or coyotes. Second, they often have a dependable supply of supplemental food provided by humans and are, therefore, not influenced by changes in populations of prey. Whereas populations of native predators will decline when prey becomes scarce, cats receiving food subsidies from people remain abundant and continue to hunt even rare species. Third, unlike many native predators, cat densities are either poorly limited or not limited by territoriality [19]. These three factors allow domestic cats to exist at much higher densities than native predators. In some parts of rural Wisconsin, densities of free-ranging cats reach 114 cats per square mile. In these areas, cats are several times more ...
Miguel S. Fontan and Maja J. Matarić. "A Study of Territoriality: The Role of Critical Mass in Adaptive Task Division". In Pattie Maes, Maja Mataric´, Jean-Arcady Meyer, Jordan Pollack, and Stewart W. Wilson (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB), 553-561, 1996. MIT Press/Bradford Books. (Details ...
Tags: MiddleEast, territoriality, transportation, borders, conflict, governance, political, unit 4 political. | The Geography Classroom
Polands military is set to launch an ambitious campaign to recruit volunteers for a militia to counter potential Russian aggression. The new Territorial Defense Force is expected to have 35,000 members. Poland hopes to enlist a growing number for patriotic citizens whove already joined paramilitary groups. (Camera: Marek Hajduk. Producer: Stuart Greer)
This morning I also enjoyed another encounter with the lingering first-winter male Black Redstart, he was at Axe Yacht Club. In flight the pale wing panels were so striking I thought I had finally jammed into the elusive adult male, but when he turned and began flying back towards me I could see his underparts were grey and not black. I got some nice views though when he touched down, no Black Redstart could ever disappoint they are such characterful birds ...
In other species: Panuco swordtail , Perugias limia Mendelian trait/disorder: yes Mode of inheritance: Autosomal Considered a defect: no Key variant known: yes Year key variant first reported: 2015 Species-specific description: Lank et al. (1995) described two morphs in this species: independent males have a territorial breeding strategy of defending lek mating courts against other independents while satellites, which are non-territorial, move among, are recruited to and share independents courts. Jukema and Piersma (2006) added a third, namely faeder: Faeders are slightly larger than females and in late April have testes 2.5 time the size of testes of normal males. On leks in aviaries and in the wild they appear to combine feminine and masculine behaviours. Faeders may represent the ancestral, care-giving, male strategy, but their relatively large testes suggest that currently they behave as sneakers. A video demonstrating ruff male reproductive strategies at a lek in Karesuando, ...
Olfactory signals can contain information, such as age and social status, and play a vital role in competitor assessment. In many territorial species, subordinates must leave their natal colony to obt
The problem with this interpretation is that getting big probably isnt a winning strategy for a territorial species living in a limited environment. Chances are, not only is reproduction only an issue for a fish that can claim a territory, its also likely that reaching adult size is only an option if a territory becomes open (much like a tree colonising a gap). If that is the case, then growing large quickly doesnt guarantee success - it only represents one out of a range of strategies. It may be that some fish get big quickly to occupy an immediately available territory (if one exists) while other mature more slowly, with the "objective" of staying to occupy a territory that becomes available later on ...
There are so many people at the moment; a few of those close to me, who possess such bravery & really inspire me. There are people who refuse to be beaten and keep smiling when it seems like the hardest thing possible for them & that in itself is just so inspiring beyond words. Seeing…
A British man who died after trying to save the life of a woman killed in a stabbing attack at an Australian hostel has been nominated for a national bravery award.
Jill Alexandra explains how she learned to face her own chronic illness post-seizure with bravery and determination after watching a pro cheerleader manage her epilepsy the same way.
A five-year-old girls bravery in saving her mother and baby brother following a car crash in Jasper National Park last summer was recognized in a ceremony at Edmonton police headquarters Monday.
Adults occur in rivers and brooks (Ref. 4342), in relatively shallow water as well as in low altitude lakes (Ref. 30578), on stone bottom; in streams, deepest and fastest microhabitats are preferred and sometimes coastal lagoons with low salinity (Ref. 59043). Reported from marine environment (Ref. 58342). A territorial species that lives up to 5 years (Ref. 59043). Adults feed on small benthic organisms, aquatic insects and pupae (Ref. 94105). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Females spawn for the first time at the end of the first year and spawning lasts up to 3 years but with most females dying at the end of the first spawning year. One female spawns up to 1,200 eggs (usually 200-300) in a single layer under a large stone; spawns several egg portions during the season. On the other hand, the males clean, fan and defend the eggs until hatching. Several females may spawn with one male, which may guard the eggs at different stages of development (Ref. 59043). Eggs are demersal and adhesive; eggs hatch in ...
the last Coot I saw with a toad was also on Waters Edge -- it frequently shook the amphibian violently then appeared to break a bit off to eat before dropping it back into the water and upending to pick it out of the water again -- after photographing this action and the gulls I wandered off around the pits unaware that there was a Black Redstart about 200m away! in the opposite direction ...
He was also known for his bravery. One night before going to sleep, a group of Red Indians surrounded him with the intention of killing him for intruding into their territory. They waited it out till he fell asleep. They then saw him pulled out his knife, heat it in the burning campfire and then began searing it to blisters and wounds on his feet. He disinfect his feet without even a word of pain thought the act itself was a painful one. Seeing his extra-ordinary bravery they left him alone and never again disturb him. ...
100 Way - Campaign For Musical Destruction (1) 14 BIS (1) 1853 (1) 1990 Projeto com músicos das bandas LEVIAETHAN (1) 1999) (1) 2010) (1) 2012) (1) 215DB (1) 3 (1) 365 (1) 6SICKS6 (1) 7 DIAS DE MASSACRE (1) A BARCA DO SOL (1) A BOLHA (1) A CASA CAIU (2) A CHAVE (1) A CHAVE DO SOL (2) A FALANGE (1) A FERRO E FOGO VOLUME 7 (1) A RED NIGHTMARE (1) A SEASON IN HELL (1) A SORROWFUL DREAM (1) A TRIBO (1) A TRIBO (PSICODELIA) (1) A Tribute to the Plague (1) A TRIGGER TO FORGET (1) AAMON HAMMER (1) ABADOM (1) abasbaron (1) ABATE (1) ABATE MACABRO (1) ABHOR (1) ABHORRENCE (3) ABHORRENT (1) ABIOSI (1) Abluesados (1) ABOMINADOR (1) Abomination (1) ABOMINATTION (1) ABOMINATUS (2) ABOMYDOGS (1) ABRASION (1) ABRAVANEL (1) ABRUPTOR (1) ABSKE FIDES (1) Abske Fides - Abske Fides (2012) (1) ABSOLUTE DISGRACE (2) ABUSO SONORO (1) ABUSO VERBAL (1) ABUTRE (1) ABYSINTHO (1) ABYSMAL FOREST (VÍDEO) (1) AÇÃO DIRETA (2) AÇÃO LIBERTÁRIA (1) Acceptus Noctifer - Amores De Ofício (2009) (1) ACE 4 TRAYS (1) Acesso ...
If we use Menos example and define operator V = "is virtuous" -- meaning merely "has some virtue;" NOT "is a member of the class of exemplars of virtue" -- then, Virtue can be defined as "all things that are virtuous." Then if we have to sort out, say, bravery from cowardice, since Bravery is a (Meno-)WFF and Cowardice is not, the concept advanced by Meno does the work of sorting them out. The basic idea here is that if you can practically sort out contending examples, even of they lack common characteristics, then the label you put on the covering set neednt really matter, depending upon your purposes ...
If we use Menos example and define operator V = "is virtuous" -- meaning merely "has some virtue;" NOT "is a member of the class of exemplars of virtue" -- then, Virtue can be defined as "all things that are virtuous." Then if we have to sort out, say, bravery from cowardice, since Bravery is a (Meno-)WFF and Cowardice is not, the concept advanced by Meno does the work of sorting them out. The basic idea here is that if you can practically sort out contending examples, even of they lack common characteristics, then the label you put on the covering set neednt really matter, depending upon your purposes ...
The things that seem to matter so much during the prime of life suddenly become trivial at the end of life. The intended purpose of this article is to discuss some of the lessons that dying patients...
I will persist until I succeed. In the Orient young bulls are tested for the fight arena in a certain manner. Each is brought to the ring and allowed to attack a picador who pricks them with a lance. The bravery of each bull is then rated with care according to…
As I prepare to run in my undies, I will not lose sight of why I am really putting myself to this fun and risque challenge. It is for a cause bigger than just m family and I. Being brave enough to bare all is certainly nothing compared to the bravery that those living with the complications of NF have every day. ...
Caring for patients with HIV is challenging, and PCPs need to be mindful of special issues that encompass this population, like medical, psychological, and social challenges involved, along with the s... more
These people state which, "An apple company each day retains a doctor aside. inch. Great nourishment performs a vital part, not just to keep a person through hurrying towards the medication cupboard throughout the period associated with chilly as well as flu computer virus, but additionally within sustaining a proper defense mechanisms. Without a number of associated with important nutrition might avoid the defense mechanisms through working from its maximum.. Working like a complicated internet associated with systems within the body, the actual defense mechanisms is made to safeguard as well as prevent an incredible number of intruders for example things that trigger allergies, germs, infections, along with other possibly dangerous microorganisms, with each other referred to as antigens.. Helping since the very first type of protection towards these types of intruders would be the pores and skin and also the walls which collection the actual gates towards the entire body. These types of gates ...
L-series super telephoto zoom lens with Image Stabilizer Fluorite and Super UD-glass elements largely eliminate secondary spectrum Image Stabilizer has two modes and it is compatible with the Extender EF 1.4x II 17 elements in 14 groups
INTRUSIONS PART 2: INTRUSIVE ROCK FORMATIONS A cactolith is a quasihorizontal chonolith composed of anastomosing ductoliths whose distal ends curl like a harpolith, thin like a sphenolith, or bulge discordantly like an akmolith or ethmolith. This was said - tongue-in-cheek - by the USGS scientist Charles B. Hunt, in his paper about the Henry Mountains…
(Latin intrudere .) Intrusion is the act by which unlawful possession of an ecclesiastical benefice is taken. It implies, therefore, the ignoring of canonical institution, which is the ...
Research Work by WGD. Ecology of Tigers in North Bengal. The project includes assessment of tiger population in the Protected Areas network of North Bengal and study ecological aspects such as population dynamics, prey-predator relationships, territoriality and home range related aspects and finally to develop a tiger conservation plan for the landscape. The project includes mapping of tiger presence and distribution in the PA network of North Bengal using sign survey and genetic sampling based species identification of genuine tiger samples and subsequent population estimation using genetic as well as photographic capture recapture.. Ecology of Leopards in North Bengal. The project primarily focusses on assessment of leopard population status in North Bengal, assessment of leopard distribution, prey preferences and territorial behavior and most importantly to investigate the driving factors of human leopard conflict, in order to develop a leopard management plan for the landscape. The project ...
Free Online Library: Incidental observations of birds in the vicinity of Hell Gate Polynya, Nunavut: species, timing, and diversity.(Report) by Arctic; Earth sciences Regional focus/area studies Animal territoriality Research Bird populations Territoriality (Zoology)
Some species of ants possess an unusual form of social organization in which aggression among nests is absent. This type of social organization, called unicoloniality, has been studied in only a handful of species and its evolutionary origins remain unclear. To date, no study has examined behavioural and genetic patterns at points of contact between the massive supercolonies that characterize unicoloniality. Since interactions at territory boundaries influence the costs of aggression and the likelihood of gene flow, such data may illuminate how supercolonies are formed and maintained. Here we provide field data on intraspecific territoriality for a widespread and invasive unicolonial social insect, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). We observed abrupt and well-defined behavioural boundaries at 16 contact zones between three different pairs of supercolonies. We visited nine of these zones weekly during a six-month period and observed consistent and intense intercolony aggression that ...
Looking for online definition of Medal of Bravery in the Medical Dictionary? Medal of Bravery explanation free. What is Medal of Bravery? Meaning of Medal of Bravery medical term. What does Medal of Bravery mean?
1. An apparatus is described for testing substrate-depth preferences of Corophium volutator (Pallas).. 2. Corophium burrow in mud whatever its depth, if only one depth of mud is available.. 3. If presented with muds of different depths, more animals burrow in the deeper muds. Very shallow muds, of 0.5 cm. depth, are particularly avoided.. 4. Although preferring deeper muds, animals are persuaded to burrow in shallow muds when the surface population density in the deeper muds is at a high level (, 0.1 animals/cm.2). This would be explained by a pattern of territorial behaviour which shows itself only at relatively high population densities.. 5. Analysis of the distribution of animals at low densities indicates some tendency towards gregariousness.. 6. Because of the periodic tendency for animals to vacate their burrows and burrow elsewhere, more than 50% of burrows at very low surface-population densities (ca. 0.01 animals/cm.2) may be unoccupied.. 7. Larger animals tend to be found in deeper ...
Cicero 1996).. Unlike the Oak Titmouse, the Juniper Titmouse is a surprisingly poorly known species, and there is little published information on foraging ecology, territoriality, juvenile dispersal, breeding biology, and demography. The species appears to be largely sedentary, with pairs defending territories year-round. Unlike many other parid species, but similar to the Oak Titmouse, the Juniper Titmouse generally does not form winter flocks. It nests in natural and woodpecker-excavated cavities and clutches typically contain 6-7 unmarked eggs.. The diet includes both invertebrates and seeds, and the species is known to cache food. The Juniper Titmouse is highly vocal, and individuals are most commonly recognized by their raspy calls which males and females utter throughout the year. Males may sing occasionally during the nonbreeding season, with singing intensity increasing toward spring. Vocalizations are directed primarily toward intraspecific defense of territories.. ...
The risks of anthropomorphism. There is plenty of evidence that cats experience emotions, but awareness of this creates a risk that feline behaviours will be misinterpreted due to the tendency to anthropomorphize. Owners may project complex feelings and motivations onto their pets that the animals arent capable of experiencing, or misinterpret an animals motivations and feelings because they dont understand the differences between animal psychology and human psychology. For example, many owners believe that their cats urinate on the floor out of spite or vengefulness, but this behaviour actually results from anxiety, territoriality, illness, dislike of a particular brand of cat litter, or problems with the litter box.. A cat expresses anger impulsively and directly by lashing out, not by planning revenge, and even aggressive responses usually stem from fear rather than rage. In many cases, the cat is launching a pre-emptive strike against someone she views as a threat.. Overall, the evidence ...
Nigeria will go to the South African meeting with a number of demands which are largely in sync with the African Group of the developing nations. Notwithstanding the veracity of the argument of this group of nations, COP 15 in Copenhagen started the increasing demand on these nations too to begin to track their emission levels.. Indeed the tracking of the national GHG emission levels is a crucial component of the KPs mechanism for the various Funds put in place to combat the impacts of climate change.. One major emission problem that has always been put at the doorsteps of Nigeria is the flaring of associated gas by the Petroleum Companies operating in Nigeria. It has often been said that this flaring could account for significant percentage of the overall Nigerias GHG levels.. As it is, combination of miss-up policies and territoriality on the part of Federal Government Agencies are prevent any effective move to curb the flaring and this may come back to haunt Nigeria one day in our Climate ...
You can probably think of variations to the above, but you catch my drift.. The shoals and eddies of the workplace are often treacherous. As an employee, new or old, you deal with over-sized egos, overactive paranoia, territoriality. These realities are always there to a greater or lesser degree, and an employee always has to be aware of them ... or suffer the consequences.. Many times, despite being endlessly pleasant and hard-working, artists suffer bad consequences anyway, because many things are simply outside their control.. How does a labor union enter into all this? Over the years Ive found that the most effective way to counter these kinds of problems is to strategize remedies:. That could mean making "nice" to a supervisor who, frankly, doesnt deserve to be made nice to, but thats the best political move to make. It could mean recruiting allies who will vouch for the quality of the employees work. And in certain situations it means filing -- or threatening to file -- a ...
You do not have to wait to contact an Animal Communicator as a last resort if you have physical, mental or behavioral challenges with your animal companion(s). Animal communication is our birthright. It is a natural way of interacting with another species. The key is remembering. You need not learn anything, only practice in discerning the universal language. If you are ready to deepen your connection and relationship with an animal, I offer a variety of classes and weekend workshops in Beginning and Advanced Animal Communication, Beginning and Advanced Energy Techniques, Connecting with the Consciousness of the Big Cats, Optimizing Performance Levels, Crystal Balancing, Flower Essence Therapy, Energy Clearing and Grounding Techniques, Communicating with Animals in Spirit, Essentials for Competition, Essentials for Therapy Animals, Beginning and Advanced EFT Techniques, Intuitive Development and Connecting with Your Power Animal. You can also continue your journey of accessing the intuitive ...