Hi everyone I have seen a few threads into this but no real answer. I have a 06 LTR450 and its at the shop now getting looked at but seems to
Hi everyone I have seen a few threads into this but no real answer. I have a 06 LTR450 and its at the shop now getting looked at but seems to have a hard...
PubMed journal article Genomic abundance and transcriptional activity of diverse gypsy and copia long terminal repeat retrotransposons in three wild sunflower specie were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Converting the single-stranded retroviral RNA into integration-competent double-stranded DNA is achieved through a multi-step process mediated by the virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT). With the exception that it is restricted to an intracellular life cycle, replication of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon Ty3 genome is guided by equivalent events that, while generally similar, show many unique and subtle differences relative to the retroviral counterparts. Until only recently, our knowledge of RT structure and function was guided by a vast body of literature on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme. Although the recently-solved structure of Ty3 RT in the presence of an RNA/DNA hybrid adds little in terms of novelty to the mechanistic basis underlying DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H activity, it highlights quite remarkable topological differences between retroviral and LTR-retrotransposon RTs. The theme of overall similarity but distinct ...
LTR retrotransposons are class I transposable element characterized by the presence of Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) directly flanking an internal coding region. As retrotransposons, they mobilize through reverse-transcription of their mRNA and integration of the newly created cDNA into another location. Their mechanism of retrotransposition is shared with retroviruses, with the difference that most LTR-retrotransposons do not form infectious particles that leave the cells and therefore only replicate inside their genome of origin. Their size ranges from a few hundred base pairs to 25kb, like the Ogre retrotransposon in the Pea genome In plant genomes, LTR retrotransposons are the major repetitive sequence class, e.g. able to constitute more than 75% of the maize genome. LTR retrotransposons have direct long terminal repeat that range from ~100 bp to over 5 kb in size. LTR retrotransposons are further sub-classified into the Ty1-copia-like (Pseudoviridae), Ty3-gypsy-like (Metaviridae), and ...
In the PhD project the successful candidate will characterize integration site selection by the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon TRE5-A upstream of tRNA genes. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation will be combined with Illumina sequencing (ChIP-seq) to evaluate whether sites of TRE5-A integration coincide with RNA polymerase III complexes. To analyze the influence of local chromatin structure upstream of tRNA genes on TRE5-A integration, we use nucleosome profiling (MNase-seq), comparing D. discoideum wildtype and a particular mutant in which TRE5-A retrotransposition is compromised. Further, an in vivo tRNA gene targeting assay with genetically tagged TRE5-A retrotransposons will be established to directly test requirements of protein interactions between the retrotransposon and its target sites ...
Long terminal repeats (LTRs) are identical sequences of DNA that repeat hundreds or thousands of times found at either end of retrotransposons or proviral DNA formed by reverse transcription of retroviral RNA[citation needed]. They are used by viruses to insert their genetic material into the host genomes. The LTRs are partially transcribed into an RNA intermediate, followed by reverse transcription into complementary DNA (cDNA) and ultimately dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) with full LTRs. The LTRs then mediate integration of the retroviral DNA via an LTR specific integrase into another region of the host chromosome. The first LTR sequences were derived by A.P. Czernilofsky and J. Shine in 1977 and 1980. Retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) use this basic mechanism. As 5 and 3 LTRs are identical upon insertion, the difference between paired LTRs can be used to estimate the age of ancient retroviral insertions. This method of dating is used by paleovirologists, though it fails ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ryuichi Ono, Masayuki Ishii, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Moe Kitazawa, Takako Usami, Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino, Jun Kanno, Masahito Ikawa, Fumitoshi Ishino].
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Tianxiang Hu, Xingguo Zhu, Wenhu Pi, Miao Yu, Huidong Shi, Dorothy Tuan].
The most parsimonious evo-lutionary scenario relies on a great number of highly unlikely genetic events of which the selective value of individual arrangements remains highly doubtful. First, it requires the integration of a mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposon (MaLR) in the PEX-ODAG intergenic region, which is then lost without a trace leaving only MaLR-like LTR units behind (57 and 106 base pairs, respectively). These LTR units are promoters that drive gene transcription. Strikingly, the 260 base pairs between these LTR sequences, which are independently acquired, make up a functional trophoblast specific enhancer (TSE; a genetic switch active only in trophoblastic tissue). The complete absence among species of flanking duplicated sequences, which should be present as vestiges of the original integration, does not support this hypothesis. In fact, this TSE must have been acquired together with the syncytin gene: without having trophoblastic tissue an enhancer specific for this tissue does ...
Objectives: There is growing evidence to suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have contributed to human evolution, being expressed in development, normal physiology and disease. A key difficulty in the scientific evaluation of this potential viral contribution is the accurate demonstration of virally expressed protein in specific human cells and tissues. In this study, we have adopted the endogenous retrovirus, ERV3, as our test model in developing a reliable high-capacity methodology for the expression of such endogenous retrovirus-coded protein. Design: Two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to ERV3 Env-encoded protein were generated to detect the corresponding protein expression pattern in specific human cells, tissues and organs. Participants: Sampling included normal tissues from 144 individuals ranging from childhood to old age. This included more than forty different tissues and organs and some 216 different cancer tissues representing the twenty commonest forms of ...
Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence showing that the primate-specific HERV-H retroviral elements can delineate TAD boundaries in hPSCs. Previous studies suggested that HERV-H elements integrated into the human genome during primate evolution to regulate human-specific pluripotency by creating novel chimeric transcripts (ESRG, linc-ROR and LINC00458) and providing potential binding sites to recruit pluripotency factors (NANOG, SOX2 and POU5F1). However, our findings indicate that HERV-H sequences may affect gene regulatory programs by also creating new hPSC-specific TAD boundaries that shape the chromatin architecture…. [O]ur findings suggest the intriguing possibility that other endogenous retrovirus families of repeats and/or other families of repetitive elements may have similar abilities to create TADs and insulation. ...
Over 40% of mammalian genomes comprise the products of reverse transcription. Among such retrotransposed sequences are those characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs), including the endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are inherited genetic elements closely resembling the proviruses formed following exogenous retrovirus infection. Sequences derived from ERVs make up at least 8 to 10% of the human and mouse genomes and range from ancient sequences that predate mammalian divergence to elements that are currently still active. In this chapter we describe the discovery, classification and origins of ERVs in mammals and consider cellular mechanisms that have evolved to control their expression. We also discuss the negative effects of ERVs as agents of genetic disease and cancer and review examples of ERV protein domestication to serve host functions, as in placental development. Finally, we address growing evidence that the gene regulatory potential of ERV LTRs has been exploited
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are spread throughout the genome and their long terminal repeats (LTRs) constitute a wide collection of putative regulatory sequences. Phylogenetic similarities and the profusion of integration sites, two inherent characteristics of transposable elements, make it difficult to study individual locus expression in a large-scale approach, and historically apart from some placental and testis-regulated elements, it was generally accepted that HERVs are silent due to epigenetic control. Herein, we have introduced a generic method aiming to optimally characterize individual loci associated with 25-mer probes by minimizing cross-hybridization risks. We therefore set up a microarray dedicated to a collection of 5,573 HERVs that can reasonably be assigned to a unique genomic position. We obtained a first view of the HERV transcriptome by using a composite panel of 40 normal and 39 tumor samples. The experiment showed that almost one third of the HERV repertoire is indeed
It has been quite some time since the last update to the Quotes of interest series on junk DNA. Most of the posts have sought to demonstrate that the exhausting cliché that scientists dismissed possible functions for non-coding DNA until recently is false. Therefore, I have provided many quotes indicating that many (if not most) biologists continued to consider possible functions for various non-coding elements throughout the mythical period of neglect. This time, I want to discuss an example in which a particular kind of non-coding sequence was considered as probably non-functional - but because of knowledge about its biology, not because no function could be imagined.. The elements under discussion are endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) which, as the name suggests, are viral-like sequences that exist within the genome. Depending on who you ask, they are either very similar to or are interchangeable with long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. ERVs make up approximately 8% of the human ...
Optic morphology ( Om) mutations of Drosophila ananassaeare semidominant, neomorphic and nonpleiotropic, map to at least 22 loci scattered throughout the genome, and are associated with the...
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Some members believe that no such entity as "HIV" exists; others believe that it may exist but has never been proven to; others accept that HIV exists but that it is not harmful. Some who accept that HIV exists mean that there are exogenous virions capable of infecting cells; others believe that it exists only in the same sense as human endogenous retroviruses do, namely, potentially in the form of "pro-viruses" in what used to be called "junk" (non-gene) DNA ...
The Febsilicon is an external surface applied water resistant compound for brickwork and certain typ for Everbuild - Febsilicon Original Exterior Clear Waterproofer (5LTR)
Viral genomes of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) family are integrated into the human chromosome and are transmitted vertically as Mendelian genes. Although viral particles are released by some transformed cells, they have never been shown to be infectious. In general, gammaretroviruses are produced as immature viral particles by accumulation of the Gag polyproteins at the plasma membrane, which subsequently bud from the cell surface. After release from the cell, Gag is further processed by proteolytic cleavage by the viral protease (PR), which results in morphologically mature particles with condensed cores. The HERV-K Gag polyprotein processing and function has not yet been precisely determined. We generated a recombinant poxvirus, encoding the human endogenous retrovirus K consensus gag-pro-pol genes (MVA-HERV-Kcon) and obtained high levels of HERV-K Gag expression. The resulting retroviral particle assembled at the plasma membrane, as is typical for gammaretroviruses; and immature as well
Mammalian genomes harbor many families of repetitive sequences which are unique in their genomic distributions, evolutionary histories, mechanisms of replication, and degree of activity. It is not clear why some elements, such as LINE-1s, have maintained activity in nearly all mammals, while others, such as SINEs and ERVs, tend to be limited in their phylogenetic distribution and subject to more frequent extinction events. Even with respect to ERVs, it is not clear why some genomic invasions result in only a limited number of copies and a limited phylogenetic distribution, whereas others, such as intracisternal A-particle (IAP) elements, are more widely distributed and prolific in some genomes. The large phylogenetic distances between well-characterized mammalian genomes make it more difficult to address these questions.. In the present study we have identified members of a group of endogenous retroviruses we call mysTR. This group includes an endogenous retrovirus fragment that was recently ...
Background In contrast to DNA-mediated transposable elements (TEs), retrotransposons, particularly non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs), are generally considered to have a much lower propensity towards horizontal transfer. selection due to functional constraint. Vertical transmission of Juan and a few cases of phylogenetic incongruence Comparison of host phylogeny with TE phylogeny is one method used to address the question of vertical vs. horizontal transmission. A detailed mosquito phylogeny has been previously constructed using Vg-C [30]. We have only included Vg-C sequences from species for which Juan sequences were obtained in this study (Figure ?(Figure2A).2A). In addition, we have also obtained sequence for Vg-C from Ae. simpsoni, which was not available from the previous dataset [30]. We used nt sequences for phylogenetic inference as in the previous study, and our phylogeny is consistent with the phylogeny based on the larger Vg-C dataset [30]. Phylogenetic inference ...
Davison, A.J., Marsden, H.S. and Wilkie, N.M. (1981) One functional copy of the long terminal repeat gene specifying the immediate-early polypeptide IE 110 suffices for a productive infection of human foetal lung cells by herpes simplex virus. Journal of General Virology, 55(1), pp. 179-191. (doi:10.1099/0022-1317-55-1-179) ...
Schatz, M. C. (2017) Nanopore sequencing meets epigenetics. Nat Methods, 14 (4). pp. 347-348. ISSN 1548-7091 Scholes, D. R., Dalrymple, J., Mesa, J. M., Banta, J. A., Paige, K. N. (2017) An assessment of the molecular mechanisms contributing to tolerance to apical damage in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Ecology, 218 (3). pp. 265-276. ISSN 1385-0237 Schorn, A. J., Gutbrod, M. J., LeBlanc, C., Martienssen, R. (2017) LTR-Retrotransposon Control by tRNA-Derived Small RNAs. Cell, 170 (1). 61-71.e11. ISSN 0092-8674 Sekiya, Michiko, Maruko-Otake, Akiko, Hearn, Stephen, Sakakibara, Yasufumi, Fujisaki, Naoki, Suzuki, Emiko, Ando, Kanae, Iijima, Koichi M. (2017) EDEM Function in ERAD Protects against Chronic ER Proteinopathy and Age-Related Physiological Decline in Drosophila. Developmental Cell, 41 (6). 652-664.e5. ISSN 1534-5807 Senturk, S., Shirole, N. H., Nowak, D. G., Corbo, V., Pal, D., Vaughan, A., Tuveson, D. A., Trotman, L. C., Kinney, J. B., Sordella, R. (2017) Rapid and ...
Endogenous retroviruses are relics of ancient infections from retroviruses that managed to integrate into the genome of germline cells and remained vertically transmitted from parent to progeny. Subsequent to the endogenization process, these sequences can move and multiply in the host genome, which can have deleterious consequences and disturb genomic stability. Natural selection favored the establishment of silencing pathways that protect host genomes from the activity of endogenous retroviruses. RNA silencing mechanisms are involved, which utilize piRNAs. The response to exogenous viral infections uses siRNAs, a class of small RNAs that are generated via a distinct biogenesis pathway from piRNAs. However, interplay between both pathways has been identified, and interactions with anti-bacterial and anti-fungal immune responses are also suspected. This review focuses on Diptera (Arthropods) and intends to compile pieces of evidence showing that the RNA silencing pathway of endogenous retrovirus
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[3] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease. The role of endogenous retroviruses in human gene evolution is explored in a 2005 peer-reviewed article.[4]. While transcription was classically thought to only occur ...
Principal Investigator:MARUYAMA Naoki, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Experimental pathology
Many different human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families are expressed in normal placental tissue at high levels, suggesting that HERVs are functionally important in reproduction. This gene is part of an HERV provirus on human chromosome 19 that has inactivating mutations in the gag and pol genes. The genes envelope protein is expressed in the human placenta but is truncated at its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015 ...
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Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
One of the interesting things about the retrovirus family is that it contains some of the most lethal viruses we know of, and also some of the least harmful.
Endogenous retroviruses wormed into the human genome eons ago. Today viral genes continue to produce a variety of mysterious proteins in the body ...
Erin joins the TWiVirions to discuss a computer exploit encoded in DNA, creation of pigs free of endogenous retroviruses, and mutations in the gene encoding an innate sensor of RNA in children with severe viral respiratory disease.. ...
Evolutionary changes in genome size result from the combined effects of mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Insertion and deletion mutations (indels) directly impact genome size by adding or removing sequences. Most species lose more DNA through small indels (i.e., ∼1-30 bp) than they gain, which can result in genome reduction over time. Because this rate of DNA loss varies across species, small indel dynamics have been suggested to contribute to genome size evolution. Species with extremely large genomes provide interesting test cases for exploring the link between small indels and genome size; however, most large genomes remain relatively unexplored. Here, we examine rates of DNA loss in the tetrapods with the largest genomes-the salamanders. We used low-coverage genomic shotgun sequence data from four salamander species to examine patterns of insertion, deletion, and substitution in neutrally evolving non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon sequences. For comparison, we ...
Transposable elements constitute about half of the mammalian genome, and can be divided into two classes: the class I (retrotransposons) and the class II (DNA transposons). A few hundred types of retrotransposons, which are dynamic and stage specific, have been annotated. The copy numbers and genomic locations are significantly varied in species. Retrotransposons are active in germ cells, early embryos and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) correlated with low levels of DNA methylation in epigenetic regulation. Some key pluripotency transcriptional factors (such as OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG) bind retrotransposons and regulate their activities in PSCs, suggesting a vital role of retrotransposons in pluripotency maintenance and self-renewal. In response to retrotransposons transposition, cells employ a number of silencing mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modification. This review summarizes expression patterns, functions, and regulation of retrotransposons in PSCs and early embryonic development.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retrotransposons manipulating mammalian skeletal development in chondrocytes. AU - Kubota, Satoshi. AU - Ishikawa, Takanori. AU - Kawata, Kazumi. AU - Hattori, Takako. AU - Nishida, Takashi. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. N2 - Retrotransposons are genetic elements that copy and paste themselves in the host genome through transcription, reverse‐transcription, and integration processes. Along with their proliferation in the genome, retrotransposons inevitably modify host genes around the integration sites, and occasionally create novel genes. Even now, a number of retrotransposons are still actively editing our genomes. As such, their profound role in the evolution of mammalian genomes is obvious; thus, their contribution to mammalian skeletal evolution and development is also unquestionable. In mammals, most of the skeletal parts are formed and grown through a process entitled endochondral ossification, in which chondrocytes play central roles. In this review, current knowledge ...
Transcription from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Long terminal repeat (LTR) in untransformed rat 3Yl fibroblasts is dependent on the presence of serum. Within an hour of addition of serum to a serum-deprived culture there is a 5 fold stimulation in the level of transcripts initiated at the LTR. This stimulation does not require synthesis of new proteins. Mutations in the RSV LTR revealed that serum-stimulated transcription was mostly dependent on two CCAAT boxes in the LTR, though other upstream sequences may play a secondary role. Serum caused the rapid appearance of a nuclear protein that binds to the two CCAAT boxes. This serum-induced CCAAT factor was also bound by CCAAT sequences from other promoters, e.g. those of human heat shock protein 70, human c-Ha-ras, human histone 1 etc, but not by the adenovirus origin of replication, or the SV40 enhancer core sequence. This data suggests that the serum induced CCAAT factor is related to CPl or CP2 rather than the NFl or CjEBP types of CCAAT binding
Retroviruses replicate by integrating a DNA version of their genomes (called a provirus) into host DNA. The provirus consists of several genes, all of them oriented to the retroviral replication cycle. But these genes are useless to the process unless they are transcribed back into RNA by the host. This is why retroviral genomes also include transcription promoters. Retroviral promoters are called Long Term Repeats, or LTRs. They are very powerful and indiscriminate promoters likely to promote some "native" DNA as well as retroviral genes - the retrovirus doesnt "care". There are many "solo LTRs" which can be understood as remnants of mutational and recombination events in the genome. Drop an LTR at random into a hosts genome, and there is a good chance it will promote something. Just as with more conventionally understood mutations, some of these will be harmful, some will have little or no effect, and some will be beneficial. As these are heritable, good old natural selection will go to work ...
Additionally, several other structural elements are required for successful transposition. These include the primer binding site (PBS), which is essential as the start point for reverse transcription[6-8]. Typically the PBS is 8 to 18 base pairs long and expected to be found directly downstream of the inner 5 LTR boundary. In this region of 8 to 18 nucleotides, it is also highly complementary to the 3 region of a transfer RNA of the host organism. Another important feature is the polypurine tract (PPT), needed as a primer for plus-strand DNA synthesis. The A/G-rich polypurine tracts vary in length and are usually in the range of 8 to 22 bases[8]. Often a U-rich section (the so-called U-box) can be found just upstream of the PPT[9].. The presence of these distinctive structural features have led to the development of various software tools using these features as markers to identify potential LTR retrotransposon insertions (called candidates in the scope of this paper)[10-14]. These tools do ...
An exogenous retrovirus (XRV) that integrates into a germ cell may be inherited as a Mendelian gene; it becomes an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). The human genome consists of up to 8% HERVs.. The gammaretroviral (ERV class I) HERV-H, with 926 members, is the largest ERV group. Despite millions of years since integration, it has polymorphic envelope open reading frames in at least three loci. Selections for functional envelopes are indicated on chromosomes 1 and 2. However, envelopes were present only in a fraction of the total HERV-H. Mutated polymerases, indicating old ERVs, contradicted relatively intact long terminal repeats. To explain this, we formulated a "Midwife" element theory where proteins are complemented in trans.. A phylogenetic analysis did not support separate HERV-H and -F groups. The new taxonomy included HERV-H like (RGH2-like and RTVLH2-like subgroups) and Adjacent HERV-H like. A bioinformatic reconstruction of a putative ancestral HERV-H exposed novel traits. Two nucleocapsid ...
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor, involved in many immune and inflammatory responses. It is critical in HIV gene expression as it has kappa B binding sites in the HIV-1 long-terminal repeat. Hence, targeting NF-kappaB to prevent its DNA binding holds a signific …
elements are a distinct group of grow Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons characterized by several specific features, one of which is a separation of the region into two non-overlapping open reading frames: ORF2 coding for Gag-Pro, and ORF3 coding for RT/RH-INT proteins. buy PHA-680632 region between ORF2 and ORF3 is usually spliced from transcripts and showed that this process is only partial, probably due to poor splice signals. This is one of very few known cases of spliced LTR retrotransposons and the only one where splicing does not involve parts of the elements coding sequences, thus resembling intron splicing found in most cellular genes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-008-0376-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. gene codes for proteins needed for an assembly of virus-like particles and RNA packaging. The gene encodes enzymes protease (Pro), reverse transcriptase/RNaseH (RT/RH) and integrase ...
The current edition of the New Yorker magazine has a fascinating story about endogenous retroviruses in the genomes of humans and other species. Although researchers have known about such non-functional retroviral fossils in the human genome for some time, the large amount of recent genomic data u...
Retrotransposons are small genetic sequences that have the ability to replicate and position themselves in new locations in their hosts genome. "The ability of retrotransposons to copy themselves and integrate these new copies into the host genome makes them genetic parasites," says geneticist and principal investigator, Manuel Aranda. "Every integration event is basically a new mutation in the host genome. Very often these new copies disable or disrupt host genes. However, sometimes they can also change how certain genes behave. They are often bad, like most mutations, but some can produce advantageous effects ...
This protocol describes a modified version of flanking sequence exponential anchored \(FLEA) PCR. The original FLEA-PCR method was developed to amplify integration sites of retroviruses or retro-transposons. Such transposons contain two long terminal repeats \(LTR), which have the same orientatio...
Originally published as: Kurth, R., Bannert, N. Beneficial and detrimental effects of human endogenous retroviruses (2010) International Journal of Cancer, 126 (2), pp DOI: /ijc.24902
The accessory proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are involved in viral replication and may play a role in the disease process.{ref25}{ref26} The outer part of the genome consists of long terminal repeats (LT... more
Optimus- Its just an answer. Maybe if it were an exogenous retrovirus, we could try antiretrovirals…. PaperHand- Its actually rather odd that humans dont have a retrovirus that exists in exogenous and endogenous form (another reason scientists were wary about the MS virus being endogenous)- lots of other species do (eg MMTV).. Jason- When BPR3 started it was super-serial. I am not a serious blagger, so I felt it was inappropriate for me to join their group. Now I might, but Im just not in the habit.. Mito and Sili- Dunno. Active ERV proteins could be a cause of MS, an effect of the cause of MS, or an effect of a cause that ends up perpetuating MS. So even though the putative ERV gene is on X, what starts the production of the protein might not be on X, thus wouldnt be sex-linked.. And its really hard to figure this all out because we all have the same ERVs (see tims comment, #2). Our lab is currently playing some scientific tricks with mice that lack certain ERVs to see what happens to them ...
It is rather like reading computer code. I am now a programmer. I work in higher level languages than some of my colleagues, whose ability to read code that they have never previously looked at astonishes me. they can describe what it does, but they are looking at very small stretches of code in a very large system. There are very few who have a grasp of the whole thing and how a change in one small area might affect many others, on the other hand some small changes have nothing more than a cosmetic effect. When I write code I take into account the three things I mentioned earlier - economy, efficiency and security. Sometimes, if the code is for one off use by me then it will be efficient, and complete disregard security. At the other extreme if it will be used mutliple times under automated control then security will be high on the agenda, and economy may well be very low. The code in both cases may do exactly the same thing, ie have the same function, but it will look very different. Sometimes ...
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