Introduction Injuries to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) play a prominent role in the orthopaedic disorders and form an important threat to both the equine athletic potential and welfare. Therefore this thesis aims at in-depth understanding the development of ECM composition in equine SDFT, and the biological effect of ... read more non-invasive physical therapy on tendons. Tendon development and ageing In the first part of the thesis two differently loaded regions were chosen deliberately, the mid-metacarpal region (tensile strain) and the sesamoid region (tensional and compressive loading). In the newborn tendon there were significant differences in ECM composition between these 2 loaded regions, which might be probably caused by the fetus movement in utero (chapter II). Directly after birth the functional adaptation of tendon to weight bearing and loading take place for during the first months of life and this can be assumed to affect the loading capacity of tendons and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Digital Resistance and Tendon Strength during the First Week after Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Repair in a Canine Model in Vivo. AU - Zhao, Chunfeng. AU - Amadio, Peter C.. AU - Paillard, Philippe. AU - Tanaka, Tatsuro. AU - Zobitz, Mark E.. AU - Larson, Dirk R.. AU - An, Kai Nan. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Background: After flexor tendon repair, the strength of the repair and the resistance to digital motion are important considerations in deciding when to initiate postoperative rehabilitation. Our objective was to assess these factors in a short-term in vivo canine model of flexor tendon repair. Methods: Forty-eight dogs were randomly allocated to four groups based on the duration of postoperative follow-up (one, three, five, or seven days). In each group, two flexor digitorum profundus tendons of one forepaw were exposed. One tendon (the repair tendon) was sharply transected and repaired with a modified Kessler suture, and the other one (the sham tendon) was simply ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tibialis Anterior Tendon Lengthening. T2 - Adjunctive Treatment of Plantar Lateral Column Diabetic Foot Ulcers. AU - Kim, Paul J.. AU - Steinberg, John S.. AU - Kikuchi, Mamoru. AU - Attinger, Christopher E.. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - Tendon lengthening and rebalancing are adjunctive procedures for the treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot. For example, the equinus deformity has been implicated as a major deforming force and is surgically treated by lengthening the Achilles tendon. A contracted tibialis anterior tendon can also play a role by potentiating a varus rotational force, increasing the pressures along the lateral column of the forefoot, and resulting in the development or chronicity of an ulceration. We present a novel application of tibialis anterior tendon lengthening for the adjunctive treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot.. AB - Tendon lengthening and rebalancing are adjunctive procedures for the treatment of chronic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Active hyaluronidase 2 expression in the granulation tissue formed in the healing process of equine superficial digital flexor tendonitis. AU - Yuda, Yohei. AU - Kasashima, Yoshinori. AU - Kuwano, Atsutoshi. AU - Sato, Kan. AU - Hattori, Shunji. AU - Arai, Katsuhiko. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Upregulation of hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2), one of somatic hyaluronidase (HAase), was demonstrated in granulation tissue during the healing of equine superficial digital flexor tendon injuries. The activity of HAase was assessed by hyaluronan (HA)-containing gel zymography and in situ zymography using frozen sections obtained from normal and injured tendon tissues. Elevated HAase activity was identified in the extract from the tendinopathic tissues, with lower levels of the activity in normal tendons. In situ zymography using fluorescently-labeled HA demonstrated HAase activity in the granulation tissue formed in the injured region. In addition, in situ hybridization analysis indicated that ...
Abstract: Tendons are frequently injured, but current treatment strategies aimed at repairing or regenerating tendon have remain insufficient due to a limited understanding of which factors regulate cell behavior, matrix assembly, and mechanical properties. By elucidating these factors, we will gain valuable insights into how tendons heal and develop, which may allow for improved tendon tissue eng... read moreineering strategies. Tendon healing and development are characterized by substantial extracellular matrix turnover, which is thought to be driven by matrix metalloproteinases, including MT3-MMP. MT3-MMP has been shown to be present in embryonic tendon, but only at late stages of development by Western blot. MT3-MMP has been implicated as a possible regulator of tissue development, but its role in tendon development has not yet been revealed. Here, a detailed description of MT3-MMP production during embryonic tendon development is presented, and substrate elastic modulus is explored as a ...
Tendon is a connective tissue that transmits the forces generated by muscle to bone and allows body motion. Type I collagen is the main structural and functional component of tendons. The signals regulating the production and the spatial organisation of type I collagen in developing tendons have not been fully identified. Moreover, because type I collagen is not specific to tendons, it is not possible to follow tendon development by mapping collagen expression (reviewed by Gaut and Duprez, 2016). The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx) has been identified as an early tendon marker during development. Scx is expressed in tendon progenitors, developing tendons and adult tendons (Schweitzer et al., 2001; Pryce et al., 2007; Mendias et al., 2012). Scx is not the unique master gene driving tendon development, as tendons are formed in Scx−/− mice, albeit displaying differentiation defects (Murchison et al., 2007). Moreover, Col1a1 expression is downregulated in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tendon progenitor cells in injured tendons have strong chondrogenic potential. T2 - The cd105-negative subpopulation induces chondrogenic degeneration. AU - Asai, Shuji. AU - Otsuru, Satoru. AU - Candela, Maria Elena. AU - Cantley, Leslie. AU - Uchibe, Kenta. AU - Hofmann, Ted J.. AU - Zhang, Kairui. AU - Wapner, Keith L.. AU - Soslowsky, Louis J.. AU - Horwitz, Edwin M.. AU - Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - To study the cellular mechanism of the tendon repair process, we used a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to focus on the cells recruited to the injured site. The cells isolated from injured tendon 1 week after the surgery and uninjured tendons contained the connective tissue progenitor populations as determined by colony-forming capacity, cell surface markers, and multipotency. When the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) were transplanted into injured Achilles tendons, they were not only integrated in the regenerating area ...
What is an extensor tendon?. Extensor tendons, located on the back of the hand and fingers, allow you to straighten your fingers and thumb (see Figure 1). These tendons are attached to muscles in the forearm. As the tendons continue into the fingers, they become flat and thin. In the fingers, these tendons are joined by smaller tendons from the muscles in the hand. It is these small-muscle tendons that allow delicate finger motions and coordination.. How are extensor tendons injured?. Extensor tendons are just under the skin, directly on the bone, on the back of the hands and fingers. Because of their location, they can be easily injured even by a minor cut. Jamming a finger may cause these thin tendons to rip apart from their attachment to bone. After this type of injury, you may have a hard time straightening one or more joints. Treatment is necessary to return use to the tendon.. How are extensor tendon injuries treated?. Cuts that split the tendon may need stitches, but tears caused by ...
What is an extensor tendon?. Extensor tendons, located on the back of the hand and fingers, allow you to straighten your fingers and thumb (see Figure 1). These tendons are attached to muscles in the forearm. As the tendons continue into the fingers, they become flat and thin. In the fingers, these tendons are joined by smaller tendons from the muscles in the hand. It is these small-muscle tendons that allow delicate finger motions and coordination.. How are extensor tendons injured?. Extensor tendons are just under the skin, directly on the bone, on the back of the hands and fingers. Because of their location, they can be easily injured even by a minor cut. Jamming a finger may cause these thin tendons to rip apart from their attachment to bone. After this type of injury, you may have a hard time straightening one or more joints. Treatment is necessary to return use to the tendon.. How are extensor tendon injuries treated?. Cuts that split the tendon may need stitches, but tears caused by ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Gliding characteristics of tendon repair in canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The development of complex musculoskeletal system requires essential interaction between muscles, bone, cartilage, soft connective tissue which includes tendons and ligaments and innervation of muscle by motor neurons. Tendon is a fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to muscle and bone to bone. Axial tendon progenitors arise from the syndetome in somites while limb tendons arise from lateral plate mesoderm. Scleraxis, a bHLH transcription factor is expressed in tendon cells. Meox2 has been shown to express in the limb mesoderm. In this study, we found that Meox2 is also necessary for the normal development of tendons and soft connective tissue. Meox2-/- neonatal mice had brittle, pale and thin tendons. Histological analysis showed mispatterned tendon tissue and reduced tendon mass. Using the Scleraxis-GFP reporter transgene, we found decreased expression of GFP in Meox2-/- in postnatal limb and tail tendons. In situ analysis of Scx RNA expression in Meox2-/- embryos confirmed the ...
There are few assessment tools available to objectively measure in-vivo flexor tendon healing in the hand. Ultrasound properties of echogenicity and tendon thickness, which indicate structural properties of the healing tendon, have previously been used to evaluate healing of the surgically repaired Achilles tendon in humans, and various animal tendons. In the past, tendon excursion has been measured invasively by radiographic measurement of implanted metal markers, however a non-invasive alternative is to measure the distance moved by tendon-suture material, which is rendered visible by ultrasound imaging. Gapping of the tendon ends has also been previously measured ultrasonographically, as has margination (definition of tissue borders), which indicates tendon adhesions. In addition, power Doppler ultrasound is a sensitive measure of tendon vascularity and is able to detect change in tendinopathy lesions and inflammatory conditions. However, it is not known if the ultrasound properties (of ...
PubMedID: 23301865 | Foot posture is associated with morphometry of the peroneus longus muscle, tibialis anterior tendon, and Achilles tendon. | Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports | 1/10/2013
Tendon healing is generally a time-consuming process and often leads to a functionally altered reparative tissue. Using degradable scaffolds for tendon reconstruction still remains a compromise in view of the required high mechanical strength of tendons. Regenerative approaches based on natural decellularized allo- or xenogenic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently started to attract interest. This ECM combines the advantages of its intrinsic mechanical competence with that of providing tenogenic stimuli for immigrating cells mediated, for example, by the growth factors and other mediators entrapped within the natural ECM. A major restriction for their therapeutic application is the mainly cell-associated immunogenicity of xenogenic or allogenic tissues and, in the case of allogenic tissues, also the risk of disease transmission. A survey of approaches for tendon reconstruction using cell-free tendon ECM is presented here, whereby the problems associated with the decellularization procedures,
Tendon cells, or tenocytes, are elongated fibroblast type cells. The cytoplasm is stretched between the collagen fibres of the tendon. They have a central cell nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. Tendon cells have a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and they are responsible for synthesis and turnover of tendon fibres and ground substance. Tendon cells form a connecting epithelial layer between the muscle and shell in molluscs. In gastropods, for example, the retractor muscles connect to the shell via tendon cells. Muscle cells are attached to the collagenous myo-tendon space via hemidesmosomes. The myo-tendon space is then attached to the base of the tendon cells via basal hemidesmosomes, while apical hemidesmosomes, which sit atop microvilli, attach the tendon cells to a thin layer of collagen. This is in turn attached to the shell via organic fibres which insert into the shell. Molluscan tendon cells appear columnar and contain a large basal cell nucleus. The cytoplasm is filled with ...
In response to injury, tendon fibroblasts are activated, migrate to the wound, and contribute to tissue repair by producing and organizing the extracellular matrix. Collagen VI is a microfibrillar collagen enriched in the pericellular matrix of tendon fibroblasts with a potential regulatory role in tendon repair mechanism. We investigated the molecular basis of the interaction between collagen VI and the cell membrane both in tissue sections and fibroblast cultures of human tendon, and analyzed the deposition of collagen VI during migration and myofibroblast trans-differentiation, two crucial events for tendon repair. Tendon fibroblast displayed a collagen VI microfibrillar network closely associated with the cell surface. Binding of collagen VI with the cell membrane was mediated by NG2 proteoglycan, as demonstrated by in vitro perturbation of collagen VI-NG2 interaction with a NG2-blocking antibody. Cultures subjected to wound healing scratch assay displayed collagen VI-NG2 complexes at the ...
It is known that extracellular glutamate concentrations are increased in tendinopathy but the effects of glutamate upon human tendon derived cells are unknown. The primary purpose was to investigate the effect of glutamate exposure on human tendon-derived cells in terms of viability, protein, and gene expression. The second purpose was to assess whether NMDAR antagonism would affect the response of tendon-derived cells to glutamate exposure. Human tendon-derived cells were obtained from supraspinatus tendon tissue obtained during rotator cuff repair (tendon tear derived cells) and from healthy hamstring tendon tissue (control cells). The in vitro impact of glutamate exposure and NMDAR antagonism (MK-801) was measured using the Alamar blue cell viability assay, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Glutamate reduced cell viability at 24 h in tendon tear derived cells but not in control cells at concentrations of 7.5 mM and above. Cell viability was significantly reduced after 72 h of 1.875
© 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. It is known that extracellular glutamate concentrations are increased in tendinopathy but the effects of glutamate upon human tendon derived cells are unknown. The primary purpose was to investigate the effect of glutamate exposure on human tendon-derived cells in terms of viability, protein, and gene expression. The second purpose was to assess whether NMDAR antagonism would affect the response of tendon-derived cells to glutamate exposure. Human tendon-derived cells were obtained from supraspinatus tendon tissue obtained during rotator cuff repair (tendon tear derived cells) and from healthy hamstring tendon tissue (control cells). The in vitro impact of glutamate exposure and NMDAR antagonism (MK-801) was measured using the Alamar blue cell viability assay, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Glutamate reduced cell viability at 24 h in tendon tear derived cells but not in control cells at concentrations of 7.5
TY - JOUR. T1 - Digital flexor tendon lacerations in horses. T2 - 50 cases (1975-1990).. AU - Taylor, D. S.. AU - Pascoe, John. AU - Meagher, Dennis. AU - Honnas, C. M.. PY - 1995/2/1. Y1 - 1995/2/1. N2 - The medical records of 50 horses examined because of lacerations of the tendon of the superficial or deep digital flexor muscle were reviewed to determine whether any injury or treatment factors could be associated with outcome. Median age of horses treated was 4.5 years (range, 1.5 years to 15 years), and the median follow-up time was 5 years (range, 1.5 to 16 years) after injury. Horses were considered to have survived if they were alive more than 1 year after injury. Twelve of 16 horses that had 1 or the other tendon transected survived; 13 of 16 horses that had both tendons transected survived; and 14 of 18 horses that had partial tendon disruptions of 1 or both tendons survived. Of the 39 surviving horses, 27 horses returned to their original use, and 32 horses were sound for riding. Nine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rupture of flexor tendons to the little finger due to bony irregularities in the carpal tunnel. AU - Stevenson, Thomas R. AU - Louis, D. S.. AU - Zucker, S. E.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Rupture of a finger flexor tendon occurs most commonly in the patient with rheumatoid arthritis. We have treated two patients who suffered rupture of the flexor tendons to the little finger due to bony irregularities in the carpal tunnel unrelated to rheumatoid disease. Each irregularity was removed and the rough surface covered with a portion of the flexor retinaculum. This resurfacing affords protection against recurrent abrasion and rupture. Tendon function was restored by suturing the ruptured profundus tendon to the adjacent intact profundus tendon of the ring finger. Satisfactory function of the little finger was achieved in both patients. Neither patient has experienced recurrent rupture.. AB - Rupture of a finger flexor tendon occurs most commonly in the patient with rheumatoid ...
Hand Nerves And Tendons - See more about Hand Nerves And Tendons, hand anatomy bones tendons, hand anatomy flexor tendons, hand anatomy muscles and tendons, hand anatomy muscles tendons, hand anatomy tendon sheath, hand anatomy tendons extensor, hand anatomy tendons pulleys, hand anatomy with tendons, hand nerves and tendons, nerves and tendons of the hand
Hand Tendons Anatomy - See more about Hand Tendons Anatomy, anatomy tendons of hand, extensor tendons anatomy of the hand, hand anatomy bones and tendons, hand anatomy tendon sheath, hand anatomy tendons injuries, hand anatomy tendons ligaments, hand anatomy tendons pulleys, hand tendon anatomy flexor, hand tendon anatomy mri, hand tendon anatomy ppt
Tendon Healing Tendons are made of living cells. If the cut ends of the tendon can be brought back together, healing begins through the cells that are inside of the tendon as well as the tissue outside of the tendon. Because the cut ends of a tendon usually separate after an injury, a cut tendon can not heal without surgery. Your doctor will advise you on how soon surgery is needed after a flexor tendon is cut. There are many ways to repair a cut tendon, and certain types of cuts need a specific type of repair. In the finger, it is important to preserve certain pulleys, and there is very little space between the tendon and pulley in which to perform a repair. Nearby nerves and blood vessels may need to be repaired as well. After surgery, and depending on the type of cut, the injured area can either be protected from movement or started on a very specific limited-movement program for several weeks (see Figure 3). Your doctor may prescribe hand therapy for you after surgery. If unprotected finger ...
What is It?. The flexor tendons of the fingers allow the fingers to bend and grip. When the tendon is no longer attached to the bone at the end of the finger (rupture), it is impossible to bend the fingertip.. What is it caused by?. The most common cause of a flexor tendon injury is a deep cut to the finger. When cut, the tendon acts like a rubber band, and the ends pull away from one another. When this happens, it becomes impossible to bend the tip of the finger. Sometimes, the flexor tendon may tear or pull away from the bone. In sports such as rugby or rugby league, a player may grab another players jersey, and get their finger may get caught in the fabric of the jersey causing the flexor tendon to tear. This injury is called a jersey finger.. How is it treated?. The torn FDP tendon may retract slightly, remaining within the finger, or it can retract more fully into the palm of the hand. This injury requires surgical repair as soon as possible! After surgery, when the tendon is re-attached ...
The healing process of ruptured tendons is suboptimal, taking months to achieve tissue with inferior properties to healthy tendon. Mechanical loading has been shown to positively influence tendon healing. However, high frequency low magnitude (HFLM) loads, which have shown promise in maintaining healthy tendon properties, have not been studied with in vitro injury models. Here, we present and validate an in vitro scratch tendon tissue injury model to investigate effects of HFLM loading on the properties of injured rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTFs). A longitudinal tendon tear was simulated using a needle aseptically to scratch a defined length along individual RTTFs. Tissue viability, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters were investigated before and 7 days after culture . The effects of static, HFLM (20 Hz), and low frequency (1 Hz) cyclic loading or no load were also investigated. Tendon viability was confirmed in damaged RTTFs after 7 days of culture, and the effects of a 0.77 ± 0.06 cm scratch
Tendons are strong, flexible bands of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones. They play an extremely important role in the function of the hand and injury to the tendons can cause loss of hand function. The degree and severity of impairment depends on which specific tendon or tendons are injured. Common classes of tendons that suffer injury are the flexor tendons, which are responsible for bending the fingers inward as in a fist. The most serious of tendon injuries is a ruptured tendon, where there is a complete separation of a tendon into two parts. This type of injury is usually the result of trauma. ...
Tendons are traditionally thought to consist of tenocytes only, the resident cells of tendons; however, a recent study has demonstrated that human and mouse tendons also contain stem cells, referred to as tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs). However, the differential properties of TSCs and tenocytes remain largely undefined. This study aims to characterize the properties of these tendon cells derived from rabbits. TSCs and tenocytes were isolated from patellar and Achilles tendons of rabbits. The differentiation potential and cell marker expression of the two types of cells were examined using histochemical, immunohistochemical, and qRT-PCR analysis as well as in vivo implantation. In addition, morphology, colony formation, and proliferation of TSCs and tenocytes were also compared. It was found that TSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes in vitro, and form tendon-like, cartilage-like, and bone-like tissues in vivo. In contrast, tenocytes had little such
The current work aimed to examine the long-term (1.5 years) mechanosensitivity of AT biomechanical and morphological properties and their association with the muscle force production capacity within a group of older individuals. Our hypotheses, that the tendon stiffness in older adults increases after medium-term exercise mainly due to changes in tendon material properties and that after long-term exercise, hypertrophy of the tendon might also induce changes in tendon mechanical properties, were partly confirmed, as tendon hypertrophy was identified after 14 weeks of an exercise intervention.. The cross-sectional study revealed a 33% higher tendon stiffness, 17% higher Youngs modulus and a 12% higher mean free AT CSA along the entire tendon length for GroupStrong in comparison to GroupWeak (∼42% difference in the TS muscle strength). These findings show that the higher tendon stiffness for the stronger subjects is caused by a larger tendon CSA in combination with an intrinsic tendon material ...
A nonlinear elastic microstructural model is used to investigate the relationship between structure and function in energy-storing and positional tendons. The model is used to fit mechanical tension test data from the equine common digital extensor tendon (CDET) and superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), which are used as archetypes of positional and energy-storing tendons, respectively. The fibril crimp and fascicle helix angles of the two tendon types are used as fitting parameters in the mathematical model to predict their values. The outer fibril crimp angles were predicted to be 15.1° ± 2.3° in the CDET and 15.8° ± 4.1° in the SDFT, and the average crimp angles were predicted to be 10.0° ± 1.5° in the CDET and 10.5° ± 2.7° in the SDFT. The crimp angles were not found to be statistically significantly different between the two tendon types (p = 0.572). By contrast, the fascicle helix angles were predicted to be 7.9° ± 9.3° in the CDET and ...
The biceps tendon is a long cord-like structure that represents the uppermost extension of the long head of the biceps muscle. It rests in a groove at the top of the arm bone (humerus) and is situated between the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendons of the rotator cuff and ultimately attaches to a structure inside the shoulder called the labrum.. Biceps tendon disorders in the shoulder are primarily a function of aging as the tendon quality deteriorates and the tendon can begin to fail and eventually rupture. Biceps tendon ruptures typically are heralded by an audible or palpable pop and significant bruising in the upper arm. In most cases the biceps muscle belly will contract and appear prominent after the tendon has ruptured, referred to as a Popeye muscle sign. Although rupture of the biceps tendon can occur in a dramatic fashion with noise followed by deformity in the arm leading most patients to fear the worst, in almost all cases this is an injury that is very well tolerated and ...
New research into how tendons age has found that the material between tendon fibre bundles stiffens as it gets older and that this is responsible for older horses being more susceptible to tendon injuries.. Researchers from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), University of East Anglia, University College London and University of Liverpool, repeatedly stretched samples of horse tendons, which are very similar to human ones, to test their elasticity and ability to recover.. Experiments in the past have shown that stiffening in aging tendons contributes to increased injuries in older tendons and this new research shows that it is specifically the stiffening and decreased resistance to repetitive loading of the tissue which holds tendon fibre bundles in place that is responsible.. Tendon fibre bundles are surrounded by the interfascicular matrix (IFM), made up of tissue which enables the fibre bundles to slide past each other and stretch independently. In horses, the superficial digital flexor ...
Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.. ...
Every breed and riding discipline has its own set of tendon and ligament injuries, but across the board there are four major structures in the forelimbs that are most commonly injured. Tendons and ligaments are made from the same basic tissue and have the same basic structure. The tissue is a very strong fibrous material that groups together in bundles, forming long cords. Tendons join muscle to bone and as a result, when the muscle contracts, the bone moves. Most tendons are designated as either flexor or extensor. Flexor tendons allow a joint to bend inward, towards the body (joint closes), and extensor tendons allow a joint to extend (joint opens). Ligaments join bone to bone. They are stabilising structures that essentially hold bones together and stop them from overextending, over flexing or over rotating. There are four main tendons and ligaments at the back of the horses leg that do the majority of the work: suspensory ligament, inferior check ligament, deep digital flexor tendon and the ...
The present invention provides a tendon anchor for attaching a tendon to at least one bone without sutures within a bore drilled into at least one bone. The tendon anchor includes a first tendon anchor adapted for insertion into a bore of a first bone. The first tendon anchor has a channel provided therein for receiving and holding a central portion of a tendon during insertion and when in final position in the bore of the first bone. Opposite ends of the tendon extend out of the singular bore. A first securing mechanism (preferably a screw) which is associated with the first tendon anchor moves at least a part of the first tendon anchor radially outward to securely engage the first tendon anchor and the central portion of the tendon to the first bone by urging at least a part of the first tendon anchor against a cylindrical wall portion of said bore in said first bone. Thus, an anchor is provided without the need for sutures and the anchor may be inserted through a singular bore in the bone. In many
A synovial sheath is a modified bursa that wraps around a tendon to protect it from friction on all sides. In the tight confines of the wrist, ankle, and digits, tendons often pass beneath fibrous bands called retinacula. The retinaculum is a connective tissue band that crosses over the tendons to keep them from being displaced upward when the muscle shortens and bends the joints. Because the retinaculum and bone create a fibro-osseous tunnel around the tendon, considerable friction can occur on all surfaces of the tendon at these locations. The fibrous membranes of tendon sheaths attach to the tendon on one side and the retinaculum and bone on the other. As the tendon moves through the tunnel the juxtaposed synovial membranes smoothly glide over each other with minimal friction ...
The incidences of tendon injuries in certain sections of human or animal populations such as athletes are high, but every human or animal, regardless of age or level of activity experiences some degree of tendon injury. In spite of the various investigations of injuries and treatment, comprehensive studies dealing with the histological, ultrastructural and biomechanical aspects of healing of load-bearing tendons are rare. This study was designed to compare the outcome of healing of the transverse sectioned superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) after 28 and 84 days post injury (DPI) in rabbits. Forty white New Zealand mature female rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups of 28 and 84 DPI After tenotomy and surgical repair of the left SDFT, the injured legs were casted for 14 days. The weight of the animals, tendon diameter, and clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were conducted at weekly intervals. The animals were euthanized on 28 and 84 DPI and the tendons were
Poor clinical outcomes of tendon repair, together with limited regenerative capacity of the tissue, have triggered the search for alternative regenerative medicine strategies. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are being investigated as a promising cell source in contributing for tendon repopulation and reconstruction. However, the mechanisms involved in a potential beneficial effect in tendon regeneration are still to be uncovered. To gain further insights on the bi-directional crosstalk occurring between stem cells and the native tendon niche, it was used an indirect (trans-well) system for co-culturing human tendon explants and hASCs. The maintenance of tissue architecture was studied up to 14 days by histological techniques. The secretion of MMPs was evaluated at day 3. The behavior of hASCs was assessed regarding cell elongation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. The paracrine communication enhanced collagenolytic activity of MMPs in co-cultures at day 3, in comparison to ...
Shoulder Tendons Diagram - See more about Shoulder Tendons Diagram, diagram human shoulder tendons, diagram of shoulder tendons, shoulder anatomy tendons ligaments, shoulder diagram of muscles and tendons, shoulder muscles and tendons diagram, shoulder muscles tendons diagram, shoulder tendon anatomy diagram, shoulder tendons diagram
Tendons are the link between the muscles and the bones. They transmit the force created by the muscle and guarantee full function of the joints. Tendons are more often affected by overuse and micro-injuries but other tendons also can rupture due to an injury. On the outside of the ankle joint are the two peroneal tendons that help to stabilise the ankle joint. Those tendons may show some wear and tear but often do not cause a lot of pain. When the tendons split, dislocate or develop a lot of inflammation in the surrounding tissue pain becomes more intense and patients need further treatment. On the inside of the ankle joint, the tibialis posterior tendon is the most commonly affected tendon that can result in pain, weakness and eventually may lead to a flat foot deformity. Tendon problems may cause pain when starting to be active or after finishing activities and the intensity of pain may vary on a daily basis. It is important to detect tendon problems early enough to prevent further ...
This study investigates the use of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons on precast segmental beams (PSBs) to tackle the corrosion problems which are likely to occur at joint locations of PSBs prestressed with steel tendons. Up to date, the use of CFRP tendons was extensively documented for monolithic beams while their application on PSBs has not been reported yet. Three precast segmental T-section beams including two beams with unbonded CFRP and one with steel tendons were built and tested under four-point loads in this study. The test results showed that CFRP tendons can be well used to replace the steel tendons on PSBs. The beams with CFRP tendons demonstrated both high strength and high ductility as compared to the beam with steel tendons. However, the stresses in the unbonded CFRP tendons at ultimate loading conditions of the tested beams were low, ranging from only about 66% to 72% of the nominal breaking tensile strength. The type of joints i.e. dry and epoxied, greatly affects ...
A synovial sheath is a modified bursa that wraps around a tendon to protect it from friction on all sides. In the tight confines of the wrist, ankle, and digits, tendons often pass beneath fibrous bands called retinacula. The retinaculum is a connective tissue band that crosses over the tendons to keep them from being displaced upward when the muscle shortens and bends the joints. Because the retinaculum and bone create a fibro-osseous tunnel around the tendon, considerable friction can occur on all surfaces of the tendon at these locations. The fibrous membranes of tendon sheaths attach to the tendon on one side and the retinaculum and bone on the other. As the tendon moves through the tunnel the juxtaposed synovial membranes smoothly glide over each other with minimal friction ...
REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Highly prevalent superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury results in compromised tendon function through fibrosis and high frequency of re-injury due to altered biomechanical function. This study investigated the consequences of SDF tendinopathy on limb mechanics in relation to the mechanical properties of injured tendon. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a noninvasive in vivo assessment of tendon mechanics to investigate the effect of recent SDFT injury on limb stiffness index, providing an objective method to assess quality of healing. HYPOTHESES: Limb stiffness index would reduce as a consequence of SDFT injury and progressively increase during tendon healing and correlate with in vitro mechanical properties of the respective SDFTs. METHODS: Kinematic analysis was performed at walk in 10 horses that had sustained career-ending SDFT injury. Stiffness index was derived from limb force recorded via a series of force plates and measurement of change in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Present state of tendon regeneration. Light and electron microscopic studies of the regenerating tendon of the rat.. AU - Salamon, A.. AU - Hámori, J.. PY - 1966. Y1 - 1966. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0013866971&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0013866971&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 5930287. AN - SCOPUS:0013866971. VL - 14. SP - 7. EP - 23. JO - Acta Morphologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. JF - Acta Morphologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. SN - 0001-6217. IS - 1. ER - ...
Tendon resident cells (TCs) are a mixed population made of terminally differentiated tenocytes and tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). Since the enrichment of progenitors proportion could enhance the effectiveness of treatments based on these cell populations, the interest on the effect of culture conditions on the TSPCs is growing. In this study the clonal selection and the culture in presence or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were used to assess their influences on the stemness properties and phenotype specific features of tendon cells. Cells cultured with the different methods were analyzed in terms of clonogenic and differentiation abilities, stem and tendon specific genes expression and immunophenotype at passage 2 and passage 4. The clonal selection allowed to isolate cells with a higher multi-differentiation potential, but at the same time a lower proliferation rate in comparison to the whole population. Moreover, the clones express a higher amounts of stemness marker OCT4 and
Tendon injuries may result in variations of its mechanical properties. Published data on the tendon stiffness of small animals, such as mouse and rat, are exclusively obtained by measuring grip-to-grip (g-t-g) displacement. Local strain concentration and relative sliding of the specimens in the clamps might affect the measured tendon deformation significantly. PURPOSE: To measure the mechanical pr
Tendon injuries may result in variations of its mechanical properties. The published data of the tendon stiffness of small animals, such as mouse and rat, are exclusively obtained by measuring grip-to-grip (g-t-g) displacement. Local strain concentration and relative sliding of the specimens in the clamps might significantly affect the measured tendon deformation. In the present study, the mechani
Axial speed of sound (SOS) measurements have been successfully applied to noninvasively evaluate tendon load, while preliminary studies showed that this technique also has a potential clinical interest in the follow up of tendon injuries. The ultrasound propagation theory predicts that the SOS is determined by the effective stiffness, mass density and Poissons ratio of the propagating medium. Tendon stiffness characterizes the tissues mechanical quality, but it is often measured in quasi-static condition and for entire tendon segments, so it might not be the same as the effective stiffness which determines the SOS. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the relationship between axial SOS and tendons nonlinear elasticity, measured in standard laboratory conditions, and to evaluate if tendons mass density and cross-sectional area (CSA) affect the SOS level. Axial SOS was measured during in vitro cycling of 9 equine superficial digital tendons. Each tendons stiffness was characterized
My german riding pony did have this injury. Her tendon was split in a vertical not transverse fashion. So far we are 3 months after the injury. She walks runs and plays normally and has begun light work. Initially she was a bit stiff on that leg but now seems fine. We have lunged her lightly and just done walk trot in the indoor arena. Her original ultrasounds looked awful. We plan a repeat. We did not do any PRP or other special treatment. She was in Cornell animal hospital after the original injury and had amikacin isolated leg infusions and ultrasound. For two months she was on stall rest and hand walking and so far the vet bills are about $3000. for this injury. She is only 5 so that is probably the reason she is doing so well ...
Giant- cell tumor of the tendon sheath, also known as giant- cell synovioma and localized nodular tenosynovitis, is a firm lesion, measuring 1 to 3 cm in diameter, and is most commonly attached to the tendons of the fingers, hands, and wrists, with a predilection for the flexor surfaces. Tendinopathy, also known as tendinitis or tendinosis, is a type of tendon disorder that results in pain, swelling, and impaired function. The visceral and parietal layers of most tendons coalesce at the proximal and distal ends to produce a closed tendon sheath compartment. The suffix pathy means suffering or disease, therefore tendinopathy is a general term that can describe any condition of a tendon. When this happens, the flexor tendon catches and the. Feb 15, · Tenosynovitis means inflammation of a tendon and the surrounding sheath. If the tendonitis is in the feet or legs, elevate them. By Casey Kanen; Updated September 30,. Share pin it Newsletters ...
Looking for online definition of flexor digitorum longus in the Medical Dictionary? flexor digitorum longus explanation free. What is flexor digitorum longus? Meaning of flexor digitorum longus medical term. What does flexor digitorum longus mean?
OBJECTIVES--To analyse the collagen composition of normal adult human supraspinatus tendon and to compare with: (1) a flexor tendon (the common biceps tendon) which is rarely involved in any degenerative pathology; (2) degenerate tendons from patients with chronic rotator cuff tendinitis. METHODS--Total collagen content, collagen solubility and collagen type were investigated by hydroxyproline analysis, acetic acid and pepsin digestion, cyanogen bromide peptide analysis, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. RESULTS--The collagen content of the normal cadaver supraspinatus tendons (n = 60) was 96.3 micrograms HYPRO/mg dry weight (range 79.3-113.3) and there was no significant change across the age range 11 to 95 years. There was no significant difference from the common biceps tendon [93.3 (13.5) micrograms HYPRO/mg dry weight, n = 24]. Although extremely insoluble in both acetic acid and pepsin, much of the collagen was soluble after cyanogen bromide digestion [mean 47.9% (29.8)]. Seventeen per cent ...
Rupture of the Achilles tendon often leads to long-term morbidity, particularly calf weakness associated with tendon elongation. Operative repair of Achilles tendon ruptures leads to reduced tendon elongation. Tendon lengthening is a key problem in the restoration of function following Achilles tendon rupture. A study was performed to determine differences in initial separation, strength and failure characteristics of differing sutures and numbers of core strands in a percutaneous Achilles tendon repair model in response to initial loading. Nineteen bovine Achilles tendons were repaired using a percutaneous/minimally invasive technique with a combination of a modified Bunnell suture proximally and a Kessler suture distally, using non-absorbable 4-strand 6-strand repairs and absorbable 8-strand sutures. Specimens were then cyclically loaded using phases of 10 cycles of 100 N, 100 cycles of 100 N, 100 cycles of 190 N consistent with early range of motion training and weight-bearing, before being loaded to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loading rate and contraction duration effects on invivo human Achilles tendon mechanical properties. AU - McCrum, Christopher. AU - Oberlaender, Kai D.. AU - Epro, Gaspar. AU - Krauss, Peter. AU - James, Darren C.. AU - Reeves, Neil D.. AU - Karamanidis, Kiros. PY - 2018/5. Y1 - 2018/5. KW - gastrocnemius muscle. KW - M. KW - triceps surae. KW - muscle strength. KW - tendon stiffness. KW - tendon strain. KW - ultrasonography. KW - HUMAN GASTROCNEMIUS TENDON. KW - PATELLAR TENDON. KW - MAXIMAL PLANTARFLEXION. KW - TENSILE PROPERTIES. KW - ELASTIC PROPERTIES. KW - MUSCLE. KW - STRAIN. KW - ULTRASONOGRAPHY. KW - APONEUROSIS. KW - LOCOMOTION. U2 - 10.1111/cpf.12472. DO - 10.1111/cpf.12472. M3 - Article. VL - 38. SP - 517. EP - 523. JO - Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. JF - Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. SN - 1475-0961. IS - 3. ER - ...
Muscle with Plaster, External wrist, .stl, 3d, model, printable, upper, limb, forearm, ct, scan, without, contrast, Subcutaneous vein, Extensor retinaculum, Extensor digitorum muscle, Extensor digiti minimi muscle (tendon), Extensor indicis muscle (tendon), Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (tendon), Extensor pollicis longus muscle (tendon), Joint capsule, Accessory cephalic vein, Ulna, Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Basilic vein, Palmar ulnocarpal ligament, Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle, Radius, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle , Cephalic vein, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle , Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, Abductor pollicis longus muscle, Ulnar artery and veins, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Antebrachial fascia, Radial artery and veins, Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, Flexor carpi radialis muscle (tendon), Palmaris longus muscle ...
BACKGROUND: Diseased tendons are characterised by fibrotic scar tissue, which adversely affects tendon structure and function and increases the likelihood of re-injury. The mechanisms and expression profiles of fibrosis in diseased tendon is understudied compared to pulmonary and renal tissues, where transforming growth factor (TGF)β and its associated superfamily are known to be key drivers of fibrosis and modulate extracellular matrix homeostasis. We hypothesised that differential expression of TGFβ superfamily members would exist between samples of human rotator cuff tendons with established disease compared to healthy control tendons. METHODS: Healthy and diseased rotator cuff tendons were collected from patients presenting to an orthopaedic referral centre. Diseased tendinopathic (intact) and healthy rotator cuff tendons were collected via ultrasound-guided biopsy and torn tendons were collected during routine surgical debridement. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain
What is the central question of this study? Do tendon and/or muscle-tendon unit stiffness influence rate of torque development? What is the main finding and its importance? In our experimental conditions, some measures of relative (to maximal voluntary torque and tissue length) muscle-tendon unit stiffness had small correlations with voluntary/evoked rate of torque development over matching torque increments. However, absolute and relative tendon stiffness were unrelated to voluntary and evoked rate of torque development. Therefore, the muscle aponeurosis but not free tendon influences the relative rate of torque development. Factors other than tissue stiffness more strongly determine the absolute rate of torque development. The influence of musculotendinous tissue stiffness on contractile rate of torque development (RTD) remains opaque. In this study, we examined the relationships between both patellar tendon (PT) and vastus lateralis muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness and the voluntary and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The epidemiology of reoperation after flexor tendon repair. AU - Dy, Christopher J.. AU - Daluiski, Aaron. AU - Do, Huong T.. AU - Hernandez-Soria, Alexia. AU - Marx, Robert. AU - Lyman, Stephen. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Purpose: To describe the incidence of reoperation and the demographic factors that may be associated with reoperation after flexor tendon repair. Methods: Using a New York statewide hospital administrative database covering an 8-year period, we examined unique patient discharges with an index procedure of flexor tendon repair for reoperation (re-repair or tenolysis). We compared the age, sex, race, and insurance type by reoperation status using standard univariate statistics and multivariate regression analysis. We performed trend analysis using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Results: From 1998 to 2005, there were 5,229 flexor tendon repairs with a frequency of reoperation of 6%; of these, 91% were in the first year after the primary procedure. Those who ...
Posterior tibial tendonitis represents an inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon. Initially, in degenerative injuries, the tendon starts out with an area of inflammation, which then begins to degenerate. As it deteriorates, the tendon may begin to have microscopic tearing. This results in a structural weakening of the tendon. As the tendon weakens, it begins to stretch out, causing further tearing. During this process, the area around the tendon becomes painful and swollen. As the tendon stretches and weakens, it becomes unable to support the arch of the foot. As the arch decreases, the normal relationship between the bones of the foot changes. This allows the arch to collapse, which further stretches the tendon causing more damage and tearing. At this point, the medical description of the injury is called: posterior tibial tendonitis, dysfunctional posterior tibial tendon, partial tear of the PTT, or a tear in continuity of the PTT. Without proper treatment, or sometimes, even with proper ...
Damage to the origin of the gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor muscles has been previously reported as an acute injury in both foals and adult horses. This case report describes, for the first time, the clinical onset of caudal reciprocal apparatus failure in a 2-year-old Thoroughbred. These signs were due to injury of the gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor muscle origins sustained prior to the onset of lameness. This condition should be considered in cases demonstrating similar clinical signs, even in the absence of known trauma or acute injury to the region. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An adjustable superior oblique tendon spacer with the use of nonabsorbable suture. AU - Suh, Donny W.. AU - Guyton, David Lee. AU - Hunter, David G.. PY - 2001/6. Y1 - 2001/6. N2 - Purpose: Philip Knapp described a method, sometimes referred to as the chicken suture,of securing a loose nonabsorbable suture to the cut ends of the superior oblique tendon to facilitate future reversal. The purpose of this study is to describe a modification of Knapps technique to achieve partial, reversible, and intraoperatively adjustable superior oblique weakening. Methods: The superior oblique tendon was exposed, 2 polyester nonabsorbable sutures were placed 4 mm apart, and the tendon was cut. With the use of a slip knot, the cut ends of the tendon were separated by 2 to 8 mm. Tendon separation was adjusted intraoperatively according to the exaggerated traction test and, in some cases, fundus torsion. Medical records of all patients who underwent surgery with this technique were reviewed and ...
Introduction Tendon disorders compromise pain-free activity and often progress to chronic pain with a major impact on quality of life. Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is particularly common with many proposed therapies. However, apart from eccentric loading exercises, none have been shown to be more effective than placebo.1 Even the recent popular use of platelet-rich plasma has shown poor efficacy.2 ,3 There is therefore a clear need for new effective non-surgical treatments. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer the potential for tendon regeneration and improved functional outcome via either direct or paracrine effects. We have therefore investigated the efficacy of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) implanted into naturally-occurring over-strain injury of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), a commonly-injured weight-bearing tendon with many similarities to human AT. We hypothesised that autologous implanted MSCs would survive in the tendon and induce normalisation of the tendon ...
Tendon tears can be incomplete or complete. An incomplete tear does not go through all of the fibers of the tendon. A complete tear of a tendon is also referred to as a rupture. When a tendon is ruptured, your orthopedic doctor will need to see you promptly for evaluation and treatment. Even an incomplete tear may cause you to experience considerable pain, which is why it is important to arrange for an orthopedic evaluation as soon as possible.. Symptoms of a Torn Tendon. When a tendon suddenly ruptures, you may experience instantaneous intense pain. You may even hear a popping sound or snapping sound when the tendon ruptures. The area will be weak and it may look deformed. You will be unable to bear weight on the tendon, such as the case when the Achilles tendon ruptures. The area may begin to swell, bruise, and turn red within 30 minutes of the rupture.. Causes of a Torn Tendon. Direct trauma is the most common cause of tendon tears. Some examples of direct trauma include getting hit with a ...
The Achilles tendon is a strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that attaches the calf muscle to the heel bone. When the muscle contracts, the tendon transmits the power of this contraction to the heel bone, producing movement. The Achilles tendon ruptures because the load applied to it is greater than the tendons ability to withstand that load. This usually occurs as a result of a sudden, quick movement where there is a forceful stretch of the tendon or a contraction of the muscles eg: jumping, sprinting, or pushing off to serve in tennis. This occurs most often in sports that require a lot of stopping and starting (acceleration-deceleration sports) such as tennis, basketball, netball and squash. The Achilles tendon is on average 15cm in length. Most ruptures occur 2-6cm above where the tendon inserts into the heel bone. This is the narrowest portion of the Achilles tendon and is also the area with the poorest blood supply. achilles tendon rupture is most common when the muscles and tendon ...
Tendinosis is a condition of chronic pain that afflicts several human tendons, not least the patellar tendon, in which case it is often clinically referred to as jumpers knee. The exact mechanisms behind tendinosis are yet not fully understood. One draw-back in the case of patellar tendinosis has been the lack of knowledge of the innervation patterns of the human patellar tendon. It cannot be excluded that the processes of tendinosis are influenced by nerve mediators, released from nerve endings or from stimulated cells inside the tendon.. Thus, the studies of the present thesis aimed to 1) map the general, sensory, cholinergic and sympathetic innervation patterns of the human patellar tendon, in both the tendon tissue proper and the loose paratendinous connective tissue surrounding the tendon, and 2) investigate the possible existence of a production of signal substances, traditionally associated with neurons, in non-neuronal tendon cells, and to see if there are signs of local cholinergic ...
Integra LifeSciences Holdings Corp. has received FDA clearance to market TenoGlide Tendon Protector Sheet in the US. The product is indicated for the management and protection of tendon injuries in which there has been no substantial loss of tendon tissue. It is an advanced tendon protection device, composed of a porous matrix of cross-linked collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The collagen-GAG resorbable matrix provides a protective, biocompatible interface, which creates a favorable environment and gliding surface for tendon healing. Based on available procedural data, Integra estimates that the worldwide market for the protection of tendon injuries is over $100 million.. Since tendon and peripheral nerve injuries often occur together, TenoGlide Tendon Protector Sheet can be used in conjunction with two previously cleared Integra products: NeuraGen Nerve Guide for completely transected nerves, and NeuraWrap Nerve Protector for nerve injuries, which include compressed or scarred nerves ...
At the Advanced Center for Orthopedics and Plastic Surgery, several of our specialty-trained orthopedic surgeons specialize in performing an array of tendon repair procedures, including Dr. Blotter, Dr. Doppelt, Dr. Leonard, and Dr. Taylor. The Advanced Center for Orthopedics and Plastic Surgery has been performing tendon repair surgery for more than three decades. That means your surgery will be performed by a team whose experience and skill-set is virtually unmatched in Marquette, the surrounding Upper Peninsula, and throughout Northern Michigan. Tendon repair entails surgically reattaching damaged tendons in the foot, ankle, knee, elbow, and shoulder joints. Depending on the injury, an orthopedic surgeon typically performs tendon repair via open surgery or minimally invasive techniques. The surgeon creates an incision near the location on the body with the tendon laceration, and gently unites the torn tendon with fine sutures, which help advance the healing process.. Our orthopedic surgeons ...
OBJECTIVE: In this study, structure, blood flow and thickness in the Achilles tendon related to tendon-loading activity were investigated. DESIGN: Examination by ultrasound (US) and colour Doppler (CD) immediately before and after 1 h of floor-ball matchplay. SETTING: Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 36 Achilles tendons in 18 middle-aged (mean 39 years) recreational male floor-ball players. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Structure and high blood flow (HBF)/neovessels (NV) in the tendons were registered. Tendon thickness was measured 3 and 4.5 cm above the upper calcaneus and at the thickest part of the tendon. RESULTS: The US examination showed that 11/36 tendons (30.5%) in nine individuals had structural changes before and after the floor-ball match. In 7/36 tendons (five with structural changes), there were HBF/NV before, and after, the match. In six of these seven tendons, the blood flow was higher after than before the match. In three more tendons (two with ...
Continued long term aggravation can eventually lead to complete failure, with a resulting acute tear of the tendon.. Symptoms of Achilles injury are usually described as diffuse pain in or around the back of the ankle (from the calf to the heel). The pain is aggravated by activity, especially uphill running or stair climbing, and relieved somewhat by wearing higher-heeled shoes. Often, a recent increase in activity levels (such as running longer distances) or a change in footwear is reported by the sufferer.. Surgeons have noted that overused Achilles tendon tissue is dull, slightly brown and soft, in comparison to normal tendon tissue, which is white, glistening and firm. This is due to damage of the tendon collagen, not inflammation. This explains why anti-inflammatory strategies (such as drugs and corticosteroid injections) are not indicated for these conditions, and actually may interfere with tendon repair.. Achilles tendon injury is not due to inflammation, but an underlying degeneration ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Strength enhancement of the interlocking mechanism in cross-stitch peripheral sutures for flexor tendon repair. T2 - Biomechanical comparisons by cyclic loading. AU - Takeuchi, N.. AU - Mitsuyasu, H.. AU - Hotokezaka, S.. AU - Miura, H.. AU - Higaki, H.. AU - Iwamoto, Y.. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - The fatigue strength of three peripheral suture techniques for flexor tendon repair was compared by cyclic loading of repairs in a cotton dental roll tendon model. Thirty pairs of dental roll were sutured using only peripheral sutures with 6-0 polypropylene. An initial cyclic load of 5 N for 500 cycles was applied and increased by 5 N for an additional 500 cycles at each new load until rupture. The fatigue strength of an interlocking cross-stitch suture was 113% greater than a running suture and 36% greater than a standard cross-stitch suture. Interlocking the cross-stitch prevented shortening of the transverse portions under load and appears to be a useful technique for increasing ...
Tendon adhesions are one of the most concerning complications after surgical repair of flexor tendon injury. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 plays crucial roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression which contributes to the formation of tendon adhesions after flexor tendon surgery. Using a chicken model, we have examined the effects of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ERK2 delivered by a lentiviral system on tendon adhesion formation with an adhesion scoring system, histological assessment, and biomechanical evaluation. It was found that ERK2 siRNA effectively suppressed the increase of fibroblasts and the formation of tendon adhesions (p < 0.05 compared with the control group). Moreover, no statistically significant reduction in breaking force was detected between the ERK2 siRNA group and the control group. These results show that the lentiviral-mediated siRNA system is effective in preventing tendon adhesion formation but not to tendon healing, and may be used
Ultrasound speckle tracking was used to compare tendon deformation patterns between uninjured and surgically repaired Achilles tendons at 14-27-month follow-up. The hypothesis was that the non-homogenous displacement pattern previously described in uninjured tendons, where displacement within deep layers of the tendons exceeds that of superficial layers, is altered following tendon rupture and subsequent surgical repair. In the first part of this study, an in-house-developed block-matching speckle tracking algorithm was evaluated for assessment of displacement on porcine flexor digitorum tendons. Displacement data from speckle tracking were compared to displacement data from manual tracking. In the second part of the study, eleven patients with previous unilateral surgically treated Achilles tendon rupture were investigated using ultrasound speckle tracking. The difference in superficial and deep tendon displacement was assessed. Displacement patterns in the surgically repaired and uninjured ...
Increased tendon pain and tendon damage is a significant complication related to hyperlipidemia. Unlike the well-established pathogenesis associated with increased serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, the role of hyperlipidemia in promoting tendon damage remains controversial and requires mechanistic clarity. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of hypercholesterolemia on the integrity of the collagen-based architecture of the Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendons from rabbits fed with normal-cholesterol (nCH) and high-cholesterol (hCH) diets were analyzed. We studied the morphology of tendons, distribution of lipids within their collagen-rich milieu, the relative amounts of fibrillar collagen I and collagen III, and selected biomechanical parameters of the tendons at the macroscale and the nanoscale. Histological assays of hCH tendons and tenosynovium demonstrated hypercellular areas with increased
A tendon rupture occurs when a tendon, the fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bone in the human body, snaps or tears. Although fairly uncommon, a tendon rupture may result in excruciating pain and permanent disability if left untreated. Tendons subjected to heavy stress, such as the Achilles tendon, shoulder rotator cuff, and tendons supporting the knee and attached to the quadriceps, are most at risk for tendon ruptures. Symptoms of a tendon rupture may include:. ...
EQultrasound red hand probes (continuous emission) can be used to treat limitations in tendon extensibility, which often are the consequence of prolonged joint immobilization or injury.. Tendons are fibrous structures attaching muscles to bones and can contract or shorten when muscle or joint injuries occur. Collagen fibers become very stiff in a contracted tendon and this creates a problem also in normal weight bearing.. Continuous ultrasound emission increases collagen elasticity and it is very easily absorbed by structures rich in collagen, like tendons.. When associated with exercising EQultrasound can significantly increase tendon elastic properties. In fact by rising the temperature of deep muscle and tendon structures before or while performing stretching exercises, EQultrasound can promote tissue elongation and reduce the risk of fiber damage and tissue injuries.. To achieve normal elongation once again, it is necessary to heat the tendon structure to approximately 37°-40° Celsius (or ...
We studied biopsies from the Achilles tendons of patients undergoing open repair for a subcutaneous rupture of their Achilles tendons (27 men, 11 women; mean age, 45.3 +/- 13.8 years) and specimens of Achilles tendons from persons with no known tendon ailments (43 men, 3 women; mean age, 64.2 +/- 9.7 years). Histologic examination was performed using stained slides that were interpreted using a semiquantitative grading scale assessing fiber structure and arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, hyalinization, and glycosaminoglycan. We gave up to three marks for each of these variables, with 0 being normal and 3 being maximally abnormal. All the histology slides were assessed twice in a blinded manner; the agreement between two readings ranged from 0.56 to 0.87 (kappa statistics). The score of ruptured tendons was significantly greater than the average score of control tendons (20.5 +/- 3.6 versus 6.5 +/- ...
Dr Duncan Wells at Atlas Orthopaedics in Woodstock, GA performs flexor tendon repair surgery to treat flexor tendon tears and injuries.
Achilles tendons are a common source of pain and injury, and their pathology may originate from aberrant structure function relationships. Small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) influence mechanical and structural properties in a tendon-specific manner. However, their roles in the Achilles tendon have not been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and structural differences observed in mouse Achilles tendons lacking class I SLRPs; either decorin or biglycan. In addition, empirical modeling techniques based on mechanical and image-based measures were employed. Achilles tendons from decorin-null (Dcn(-/-)) and biglycan-null (Bgn(-/-)) C57BL/6 female mice (N=102) were used. Each tendon underwent a dynamic mechanical testing protocol including simultaneous polarized light image capture to evaluate both structural and mechanical properties of each Achilles tendon. An empirical damage model was adapted for application to genetic variation and for use with image based structural
Ruptured tendons heal faster if they are exposed to mechanical loading. Loading creates deformation of the extracellular matrix and cells, which give rise to intracellular signalling, increased gene expression and protein synthesis. The effects of loading have been extensively studied in vitro, and in intact tendons in vivo. However, the response to loading in healing tendons is less known.. The general aim of this thesis was to understand more about the response to mechanical loading during tendon healing. The specific aims were to find out how short daily loading episodes could influence tendon healing, and to understand more about genes involved in tendon healing.. The studies were performed using rat models. Unloading of healing tendons resulted in a weaker callus tissue. This could be reversed to some extent by short daily loading episodes. Loading induced more matrix production, making the tendons thicker and stronger, but there was no improvement in the material properties of the matrix. ...
BACKGROUND: The iliopsoas tendon has been implicated as a generator of hip pain and a cause of labral injury due to impingement. Arthroscopic release of the iliopsoas tendon has become a preferred treatment for internal snapping hips. Traditionally, the iliopsoas tendon has been considered the conjoint tendon of the psoas major and iliacus muscles, although anatomic variance has been reported. HYPOTHESIS: The iliopsoas tendon consists of 2 discrete tendons in the majority of cases, arising from both the psoas major and iliacus muscles. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Fifty-three nonmatched, fresh-frozen, cadaveric hemipelvis specimens (average age, 62 years; range, 47-70 years; 29 male and 24 female) were used in this study. The iliopsoas muscle was exposed via a Smith-Petersen approach. A transverse incision across the entire iliopsoas musculotendinous unit was made at the level of the hip joint. Each distinctly identifiable tendon was recorded, and the distance from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphological and mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon in adolescent boys. AU - Mogi, Yasuyoshi. AU - Torii, Suguru. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. AU - Yanai, Toshimasa. PY - 2013/9/9. Y1 - 2013/9/9. N2 - The present study aimed to investigate how the morphological and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon change in adolescent boys. Twenty-nine adolescent boys and 12 male adults participated. Ultrasonography was used to measure Achilles tendon elongation. The transition point, that is, the intersection point of the Toeδ and Linearδ regions was determined from tendon elongation-tendon force relationship, and the stiffness and Youngs modulus of the Achilles tendon were calculated from linear region. The hysteresis was calculated as the ratio of the area within the tendon elongation-tendon force loop to the area beneath the load portion of the curve. The stiffness, Youngs modulus and stress at transition point were greater in adults (544 ± 231 N/mm, 1.6 ± 0.7 GPa, 23 ± 6 ...
Peroneal tendons are also known as stirrup tendons because they run parallel along the outer ankle bone, attaching to the inside and outside of the foot near the arch. Their function is to stabilize the ankle and foot.. Injury to the peroneal tendons can occur suddenly during sports such as football, basketball, and soccer, or they can develop over time. The tendons can tear, become inflamed (tendonitis), or suffer from subluxation (moving from normal position). Signs to look for are swelling, pain, instability of the ankle, and feeling as if the tendon has snapped. The area may also be warm when touched. The pain may be constant or intermittent, and it can be greater at the back of the ankle bone where the tendons run.. Immediate and proper treatment is necessary to avoid tearing or further damage. The injured area must be immobilized, and crutches may be used to keep weight off of the affected ankle. Anti-inflammatory medications and ice can decrease swelling (consult your doctor before taking ...
Peroneal tendons are also known as stirrup tendons because they run parallel along the outer ankle bone, attaching to the inside and outside of the foot near the arch. Their function is to stabilize the ankle and foot.. Injury to the peroneal tendons can occur suddenly during sports such as football, basketball, and soccer, or they can develop over time. The tendons can tear, become inflamed (tendonitis), or suffer from subluxation (moving from normal position). Signs to look for are swelling, pain, instability of the ankle, and feeling as if the tendon has snapped. The area may also be warm when touched. The pain may be constant or intermittent, and it can be greater at the back of the ankle bone where the tendons run.. Immediate and proper treatment is necessary to avoid tearing or further damage. The injured area must be immobilized, and crutches may be used to keep weight off of the affected ankle. Anti-inflammatory medications and ice can decrease swelling (consult your doctor before taking ...
Tendon repair surgery is an outpatient procedure used to repair a ruptured or severed tendon. The hand surgeon makes an incision in the hand or wrist and locates the ends of the tendon. The ends of the tendon are carefully brought back together, trimmed, and prepared for reconnection. To reconnect the tendons, the surgeon uses sutures to stitch the ends of the tendon back together. At the end of the surgery, the incision is closed with sutures, bandaged, and the hand is placed in a splint to protect the newly connected tendons while they heal.. Our orthopedic hand surgeons at Emory strongly recommend the patient participate in hand therapy to restore strength, range of motion, and function to the hand and wrist.. If you have questions, or to make an appointment, call: 404-778-3350.. ...
Tendons are highly prone to injury and the intrinsic hypocellularity and hypovascularity make their natural healing extremely slow and inefficient when severed damaged. Surgical repair with grafts is common but unsuccessful in a long term basis. The development of tissue engineering strategies based on stem cells explores a natural endogenous system of regeneration with potential for tendon application. We propose to establish biochemical culturing conditions to assess the tenogenic potential of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), known for their proliferative and differentiation capacities. Since several growth factors (GFs) participate in tendon formation and ECM synthesis, these GFs were added to the culture medium to stimulate tenogenic differentiation of these cells. This study also envisions the application of hASCs and/or hAFSCs in cell-based strategies for tendon repair ...
BACKGROUND The global time and effort attributed to improving outcomes in the management of flexor tendon injury are large, but the degree of advancement made over the past 50 years is relatively small. This review examines the current perceived wisdom in this field and aims to explore the limitations to the authors understanding of the tendon healing process, examining how this may be a factor that has contributed to the authors modest progress in the field. METHODS The authors critically evaluate the sum of laboratory and clinical literature on the topic of zone II flexor tendon management that has guided their practice and provide evidence to support their methods. RESULTS The review highlights some of the key developments over the years and assesses their influence on changing current practice. It also highlights recent innovations, which have the potential to influence flexor tendon outcomes by altering the surgical approach, techniques, and rehabilitation regimens. Future innovations in the
As overuse disorders, Achilles tendonitis and tendonosis are usually caused by a sudden increase of a repetitive activity involving the Achilles tendon. Such activity puts too much stress on the tendon too quickly, leading to micro-injury of the tendon fibers. Due to this ongoing stress on the tendon, the body is unable to repair the injured tissue. The structure of the tendon is then altered, resulting in continued pain.. Athletes are at high risk for developing disorders of the Achilles tendon. Achilles tendonitis and tendonosis are also common in individuals whose work puts stress on their ankles and feet, such as laborers, as well as in weekend warriors-those who are less conditioned and participate in athletics only on weekends or infrequently.. In addition, people with excessive pronation (flattening of the arch) have a tendency to develop Achilles tendonitis and tendonosis due to the greater demands placed on the tendon when walking. If these individuals wear shoes without adequate ...
Your Achilles tendon is tough fibrous tissue that connects the heel to the muscles in your calf or back lower part of your leg. The Achilles is the thickest and strongest tendon in the body. When your calf muscles contract and pull on the Achilles tendon you push the foot downward. This motion allows you to stand on your toes, walk, run, and jump. Injuries to this tendon can be the result of overuse, misalignment when walking or running, improper footwear, weak or tight calf muscles and accidents. In severe cases the Achilles tendon can become torn. Learning to recognize the symptoms of a torn Achilles tendon will help you to get treatment as soon as possible to minimize complications.. ...
Chronic low inflammation prompted by high cholesterol levels has been linked to tendon abnormalities and pain. Tendons connect muscles and bones within the body. Obesity, fat distribution, and overuse, either through exercise or work, put extra stress on the tendons. Research suggests, however, that these factors do not attribute to the rising number of cases of tendon injury and pain.. The researchers found that those with familial hypercholesterolemia - genetically determined high cholesterol - were more likely to suffer from tendon injury and pain, compared to those who did not.. The researchers went through six medical research databases to collect their information and came up with 1,607 articles. Seventeen of them involved 2,612 participants.. They found that those with abnormal tendon structures were more likely to have high blood fat. These individuals also had higher LDL (bad) cholesterol. Continue reading…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Variants of latissimus dorsi with a perspective on tendon transfer surgery. T2 - An anatomic study. AU - Ranade, Anu V.. AU - Rai, Rajalakshmi. AU - Rai, Ashwin R.. AU - Dass, Prameela M.. AU - Pai, Mangala M.. AU - Vadgaonkar, Rajanigandha. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Background: The latissimus dorsi (LD) is often used for tendon transfers to treat massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears. The operation requires the LD tendon to be mobilized to reduce tension on the tendon. In that respect, any connection between the LD tendon and contiguous muscles may hamper tendon mobility and affect the surgical outcome. The goal of this study was to document the occurrence of connections between the LD and adjacent muscles and nerves. Methods: We studied the scapular region on 48 embalmed cadavers. The skin and superficial fascia were removed according to Cunninghams manual of dissection, and the muscle was exposed. Results: It was found that the LD and teres major (TM) ...
Extensor tendon repair surgery is performed by Dr Wells at Atlas Orthopaedics in Woodstock, GA to treat extensor tendon injuries.
Transferring one peroneal tendon to another is often indicated when degenerative changes render one of the two tendons non-salvageable, or in order to optimize their line of pull. The most common scenario is one in which the peroneus brevis tendon is transferred to the peroneus longus tendon when tears or degenerative changes to the peroneus brevis tendon are severe enough that the tendon is no longer salvageable.
Extensor tendons are just under the top surface of the skin, directly on the bone, on the back of the hands and fingers. Because of their location, they can be easily injured even by a minor cut. Jamming a finger may cause these thin tendons to rip apart from their attachment to the bone.. After this type of injury, you can have a hard time straightening one or more joints. Treatment is necessary to get back use of the tendon.. Location: Fingers, Hand, Wrist. AAHS Fact Page: Extensor Tendon Injuries (pdf). ...
The calcaneal tendon, also known as the tendon of Achilles, is a posterior leg tendon - a fibrous connective tissue that joins muscles in the back of the leg. It is formed when the soleus muscle tendon joins with the gastrocnemius tendon.
Click on the image. It is an extension of the calf muscles gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris. Achilles tendon attaches gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel). The blood supply of the tendon is from the peroneal and posterior tibial arteries. Achilles tendon disorders include tendinosis, paratenonitis, insertional tendinitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and frank rupture. Rupture of Achilles Tendon:. Patients present with pain and swelling in the posterior aspect of the ankle. This injury is most common in middle-aged men and though it can occur during games and severe exertion, it often happens as a result of trivial stumble. The sensation of rupture is mistaken for a blow on the back of the leg. Such ruptures occur because the tendon is ischaemic and weaker than normal. The rupture occurs 3 cm above the insertion of the tendon to the calcaneus.. Early suture of Achilles tendon followed by immobilization of the ankle in a plaster cast for 6 weeks gives excellent ...