The functional contribution of medial temporal lobe has been studied in the human brain for over half a century. Insight into the nature of this extraordinary structure was discovered when epileptic patient H.M. had an experimental operation to surgically resect his bilateral medial temporal lobes. The procedure resulted in profound anterograde amnesia, demonstrating the critical role of medial temporal lobe in forming new long-term memories; yet a variety of other capacities remained intact (e.g., intelligence, personality, and skills). The notion that medial temporal lobe function was isolated to the formation of new long-term memories persisted for several decades until the development of new methodologies. It has been the endeavor of cognitive neuroscience to further our understanding of the structural organization of complex cognition and behavior. The focus of this dissertation is to provide evidence supporting the functional contribution of medial temporal lobe sub-regions, namely ...
Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items
While it is commonly accepted that structures in the medial temporal lobe play a critical role in memory, current theories disagree on three fundamental issues: (a) the extent to which different regions within the medial temporal lobe can be functionally dissociated; (b) whether structures within the medial temporal lobe are specialised for memory processing or play an additional role in perception; and (c) whether there is support for functional homology across species. To address these controversial questions, this Special Issue brings together researchers working on memory and perception in the medial temporal lobe and asks whether there is evidence for similar functional dissociations across species. The papers reported here include lesion and early gene imaging in rats, electrophysiological and lesion studies in nonhuman primates, lesion and functional neuroimaging in human participants, as well as touching on computational modelling approaches. Pulling together these methodological diverse
The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.[3] The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics (meaning) in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. An area in the Sylvian fissure is the first place where auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Other areas of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to ...
The right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We present the case of a 77-year-old right-handed man who presented with altered behaviour and problems with interpersonal relationships. He had no decline in cognitive function but brain perfusion single-photon emission CT demonstrated distinct hypoperfusion in the right temporal pole. At 2-year follow-up, he could not recognise his wifes relatives; and at 3-year follow-up, he had semantic aphasia. Decreased brain perfusion extended from the right temporal lobe into the contralateral temporal and both frontal lobes. These findings suggest that the right temporal lobe variant of FTD should be considered in elderly patients with altered behaviour and problems with interpersonal relationships, even if dementia is not suspected. The right anterior temporal lobe may play a key role in the onset of the early symptoms of this disease. ...
The top (superior or dorsal) part of the temporal lobe includes an area (within the Sylvian fissure) where auditory signals from the cochlea (relayed via several subcortical nuclei) first reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior and lateral parts of the temporal lobe are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes plays a key role (in tandem with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe are not limited to low-level perception but extend to comprehension, naming, verbal memory and other language functions. The underside (ventral) part of the temporal cortex appears to be involved in high-level visual processing of complex stimuli such as faces (fusiform gyrus) and scenes ...
Where do you know who you know? There are faces that are instantly recognizable and nameable. Conversely, there are names that automatically bring up an associated face. Some neurons are likely to respond to both the name and the face of these familiar individuals - in fact, such neurons with an invariant, explicit and selective response to both famous and familiar individuals, e.g. Jennifer Aniston, are routinely found with the aid of implanted microelectrodes in the medial temporal lobes of human patients (Quian Quiroga, Reddy, Kreiman, Koch, & Fried, 2005). We set out to investigate such modality-independent, conceptual representations with fMRI. We conducted an event-related fMRI study in which subjects were asked to recognize and name three famous actors (Brad Pitt, Matt Damon and Tom Cruise) from various pictures or to read their written name, on separate trials within each run. We used high resolution fMRI (2x2x2mm voxels) with 30 axial slices covering the occipital and temporal lobes. ...
RADIOLOGY: HEAD: Case# 33666: HYPOMETABOLIC SEIZURE FOCUS LEFT ANTERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE. Patient is a 17 y.o. young man with a history of complex partial seizures. Selected axial and coronal images from an interictal18-FDG PET study reveal hypometabolism of the left anterior temporal lobe. MRI T2 weighted image through the temporal lobes reveals an area of increased signal intensity in the left hippocampus. 18-FDG is a glucose analoge that competes with glucose for uptake. Once it is actively transported, it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. Consequently its accumulation within a cell is a function of the cells metabolic rate. Preoperative planning for epilepsy surgery often includes an interictal PET study to localize the epilepsy site. Focal hypometabolism relative to the contralateral structures suggests a seizure focus. PET will demonstrate interictal temporal lobe hypometabolism in 70% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (1). Proper interpretation requires knowledge of any
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selectivity of pyramidal cells and interneurons in the human medial temporal lobe. AU - Ison, Matias J.. AU - Mormann, Florian. AU - Cerf, Moran. AU - Koch, Christof. AU - Fried, Itzhak. AU - Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to pictures of specific individuals, objects, and places. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to such degree of stimulus selectivity are largely unknown. A necessary step to move forward in this direction involves the identification and characterization of the different neuron types present in MTL circuitry. We show that putative principal cells recorded in vivo from the human MTL are more selective than putative interneurons. Furthermore, we report that putative hippocampal pyramidal cells exhibit the highest degree of selectivity within the MTL, reflecting the hierarchical processing of visual information. We interpret these differences in selectivity as a plausible ...
There have been few quantitative characterizations of the morphological, biophysical, and cable properties of neurons in the human neocortex. We employed feature-based statistical methods on a rare data set of 60 3D reconstructed pyramidal neurons from L2 and L3 in the human temporal cortex (HL2/L3 PCs) removed after brain surgery. Of these cells, 25 neurons were also characterized physiologically. Thirty-two morphological features were analyzed (e.g., dendritic surface area, 36 333 +/- 18 157 mu m(2); number of basal trees, 5.55 +/- 1.47; dendritic diameter, 0.76 +/- 0.28 mu m). Eighteen features showed a significant gradual increase with depth from the pia (e.g., dendritic length and soma radius). The other features showed weak or no correlation with depth (e.g., dendritic diameter). The basal dendritic terminals in HL2/L3 PCs are particularly elongated, enabling multiple nonlinear processing units in these dendrites. Unlike the morphological features, the active biophysical features (e.g., spike
Neurons in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) that are selective for the identity of specific people are classically thought to encode identity invariant to
Studies of primates and of patients with brain lesions have shown that the visual system represents the external world in regions and pathways specialized to compute visual features and attributes. For example, object recognition is performed by a ventral pathway located in the inferior portion of the temporal lobe. We studied visual processing of words and word-like stimuli (letter-strings) by recording field potentials directly from the human inferior temporal lobe. Our results showed that two discrete portions of the fusiform gyrus responded preferentially to letter-strings. A region of the posterior fusiform gyrus responded equally to words and non-words, and was unaffected by the semantic context in which words were presented. In contrast, a region of the anterior fusiform gyrus was sensitive to these stimulus dimensions. These regions were distinct from areas that responded to other types of complex visual stimuli, including faces and coloured patterns, and thus form a functionally specialized
TY - JOUR. T1 - Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. AU - Golby, Alexandra J.. AU - Poldrack, Russell A.. AU - Brewer, James B.. AU - Spencer, David. AU - Desmond, John E.. AU - Aron, Arthur P.. AU - Gabrieli, John D.E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Numerous observations in patients with unilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex indicate that memory processes are lateralized according to content. Left-sided lesions interfere with verbal memory processes, whereas right-sided lesions interfere with visuospatial (non-verbal) memory processes. However, functional imaging studies have resulted in contradictory data, some studies showing lateralization in the prefrontal cortex determined by stage of processing (encoding versus retrieval) and others suggesting that lateralization is dependent on the type of material. Few studies have examined this issue in the MTL. In order to test the hypothesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automatic temporal lobe atrophy assessment in prodromal AD: Data from the DESCRIPA study. AU - Chincarini, Andrea. AU - Bosco, Paolo. AU - Gemme, Gianluca. AU - Esposito, Mario. AU - Rei, Luca. AU - Squarcia, Sandro. AU - Bellotti, Roberto. AU - Minthon, Lennart. AU - Frisoni, Giovanni. AU - Scheltens, Philip. AU - Froelich, Lutz. AU - Soininen, Hilkka. AU - Visser, Pieter-Jelle. AU - Nobili, Flavio. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. KW - MRI. KW - Image analysis. KW - Memory clinics. KW - Naturalistic population. KW - Alzheimers disease. KW - Medial temporal lobe. KW - Hippocampus. U2 - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. DO - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. M3 - Article. C2 - 24035058. VL - 10. SP - 456. EP - 467. JO - Alzheimers & Dementia. JF - Alzheimers & Dementia. SN - 1552-5260. IS - 4. ER - ...
The distribution of beta-amyloid protein (beta A4) was examined in the medial temporal lobes from cases of Alzheimers disease (AD) (n = 13), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) (n = 12) and age matched controls (n = 9). Using a previously described image analysis technique the extent of beta A4 pathology was determined in ten distinct anatomical sites within the medial temporal lobe. AD and SDLT cases contained very similar amounts of beta A4 in the areas sampled and both contained significantly more beta A4 than the age matched controls, particularly in the dentate and parahippocampal gyri. The similarity of the beta A4 load in the two conditions is in contrast to reported differences in the number of neurofibrillary tangles which can be observed. It is suggested that AD and SDLT represent a spectrum of pathology which centres around the aberrant processing of the beta A4 precursor protein.. ...
Recent research has demonstrated (a) that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) encodes complex object-level configurations of features, and (b) these representations participate in discriminating familiar versus novel configurations. The ventral visual stream is able to identify familiar object parts as such even in the face of PRC damage, although it cannot identify their configuration as correct or incorrect Barense et al. (2011). Here, we use fMRI to investigate whether extrastriate cortex in the intact brain a). is sensitive to the configuration of parts of familiar objects and b). covaries with activation in the PRC. Participants viewed peripherally presented silhouettes (nearest edge 4°) that portrayed familiar or novel objects. There were 3 types of silhouettes: familiar configurations (objects that exist in the real world); part-rearranged novel configurations (rearranged parts of the familiar configurations); and novel configurations created by (inverted part-rearranged novel configurations) ...
If we can access a non-local reality, then paranormal abilities could be analyzed as being based on normal right temporal lobe function. For example, remote viewing is well documented in the laboratory and is shown to be independent of time and distance(Dunne 1987,Utts 1996) . If we are able to access non-local reality, remote viewing would not only be possible, but expected to be independent of time and space. Sheldrake has already proposed a model of morphic forms. These are patterns of energy in nature which correspond to the physical bodies, memories, and behaviors of living organisms. I am adding to this model the speculation that our right temporal lobe is the mediator of morphic resonance, the postulated interaction between our brains and morphic forms. Becker(1985,1990) presents evidence that biological resonance and absorption and even transfer of energy occurs at the specific frequency range at which the hydrogen atom proton is effected by nuclear magnetic resonance. He ...
Optimal perceptual decisions require sensory signals to be combined with prior information about stimulus probability. Although several theories propose that probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence is encoded in sensory cortex, evidence from neuronal recordings has not yet fully supported this view. We recorded activity from single neurons in inferior temporal cortex (IT) while monkeys performed a task that involved discriminating degraded images of faces and fruit. The relative probability of the cue being a face versus a fruit was manipulated by a latent variable that was not revealed to the monkeys and that changed unpredictably over the course of each recording session. In addition to responding to stimulus identity (face or fruit), population responses in IT encoded the long-term stimulus probability of whether a face or a fruit stimulus was more likely to occur. Face-responsive neurons showed reduced firing rates to expected faces, an effect consistent with expectation suppression,
High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old), recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23) and controls (n=15). Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd.), i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test). Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA), were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA
3H-Spiroperidol labels multiple high affinity states with serotonergic selectivity in human prefrontal cortex and with dopaminergic selectivity in human caudate and putamen. The characteristics of...
Autor: Qin, Shaozheng et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: Episodic memory|br/|Hippocampus|br/|Parahippocampal cortex|br/|Perirhinal cortex|br/|Prefrontal cortex; Titel: Dissecting medial temporal lobe contributions to item and associative|br/|memory formation
I got an CT scan yesterday and the nurse gave me the results to day. They want to do an MRI of my head. My symptoms have been blurred vision for the past 6 or 7 months and some medium to severe pain ...
Visual search is a fundamental human behavior, providing a gateway to understanding other sensory domains as well as the role of search in higher-order cognition. Search has been proposed to include two component processes: inefficient search (search) and efficient search (pop-out). According to extant research, these two processes map onto two separable neural systems located in the frontal and parietal association cortices. In this study, we use intracranial recordings from 23 participants to delineate the neural correlates of search and pop-out with an unprecedented combination of spatiotemporal resolution and coverage across cortical and subcortical structures. First, we demonstrate a role for the medial temporal lobe in visual search, on par with engagement in frontal and parietal association cortex. Second, we show a gradient of increasing engagement over anatomical space from dorsal to ventral lateral frontal cortex. Third, we confirm previous intracranial work demonstrating nearly ...
This safe, noninvasive technique can be used to manipulate the competition between the left and right hemispheres of the brain by inhibiting and/or activating certain networks, they explained. According to Chi and Snyder, the right anterior temporal lobe is associated with insight or finding new meaning, and the inhibition of activity in the left anterior temporal lobe can lead to thinking that is less likely to be influenced by preconceptions. However, the authors noted that more research is needed ...
It is widely assumed that incipient protein pathology in the medial temporal lobe instigates the loss of episodic memory in Alzheimers disease, one of the earliest cognitive deficits in this type of dementia. Within this region, the hippocampus is seen as the most vital for episodic memory. Consequ …
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in the rapid formation of episodic memories in human and nonhuman primates, while research performed in fre...
Field potentials were recorded from intracranial electrodes in humans to study language-related processing. Subjects viewed sentences in which each word was presented successively in the center of a video monitor. Half of the sentences ended normally, while the other half ended with a semantically anomalous word. The anomalous sentence-ending words elicited a large negative field potential with a peak latency near 400 msec, which was focally distributed bilaterally in the anterior medial temporal lobe (AMTL), anterior to the hippocampus and near the amygdala. Subdural electrodes positioned near the collateral sulcus just inferior and lateral to the amygdala recorded a positive field potential at the same latency. This spatial distribution of voltage suggested that this language-sensitive field potential was generated in the neocortex near the collateral sulcus and anterior fusiform gyrus. Additional task-related field potentials were recorded in the hippocampus. The AMTL field potential at 400 msec
Wilson MA, Joubert S, Ferré P, Belleville S, Ansaldo AI, Joanette Y, et al. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in exception word reading: reconciling patient and neuroimaging findings. Neuroimage. 2012;60(4):2000-7. ...
The middle temporal gyrus is one of three gyri on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. Gross anatomy The middle temporal gyrus is bounded dorsally by the superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus and ventrally by the inferior te...
There has been considerable debate as to whether the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex may subserve both memory and perception. We administered a series of oddity tasks, in which subjects selected the odd stimulus from a visual array, to amnesic patients with either selective hippocampal damage (HC group) or more extensive medial temporal damage, including the perirhinal cortex (MTL group). All patients performed normally when the stimuli could be discriminated using simple visual features, even if faces or complex virtual reality scenes were presented. Both patient groups were, however, severely impaired at scene discrimination when a significant demand was placed on processing spatial information across viewpoint independent representations, while only the MTL group showed a significant deficit in oddity judgments of faces and objects when object viewpoint independent perception was emphasized. These observations provide compelling evidence that the human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex are critical
Sasikumar, D., Emeric, E., Stuphorn, V., & Connor, C.E. (2018). First-pass processing of value cues in the ventral visual pathway. Current Biology 28: 538-548.. Connor, C.E., & Knierim, J.J. (2017). Integration of objects and space in perception and memory. Nature Neuroscience 20: 1493-1503.. Vaziri, S., & Connor, C. E. (2016). Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex. Current Biology 26: 766-774.. Connor, C. E., & Stuphorn, V. (2015). The Decision Path Not Taken. Neuron 87: 1128-1130.. Vaziri, S., Carlson, E.T., Wang, Z., & Connor, C.E. (2014). A channel for 3D environmental shape in anterior inferotemporal cortex. Neuron 84: 55-62. PMCID: PMC4247160.. Connor, C. E. (2014). Cortical geography is destiny. Nature Neuroscience 17: 1631-1632.. Yau, J.M., Connor, C.E., & Hsiao, S.S. (2013). Representation of tactile curvature in macaque somatosensory area 2. Journal of Neurophysiology 109: 2999--3012.. Hung, C.-C., Carlson, E.T., Connor, C.E. (2012) Medial ...
We studied the responses of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe while subjects viewed familiar faces, animals, and landmarks. By progressively shortening the duration of stimulus presentation, coupled with backward masking, we show two striking properties of these neurons. (i) Their responses are not statistically different for the 33-ms, 66-ms, and 132-ms stimulus durations, and only for the 264-ms presentations there is a significantly higher firing. (ii) These responses follow conscious perception, as indicated by the subjects recognition report. Remarkably, when recognized, a single snapshot as brief as 33 ms was sufficient to trigger strong single-unit responses far outlasting stimulus presentation. These results suggest that neurons in the medial temporal lobe can reflect conscious recognition by all-or-none responses ...
Axmacher:2008dk. Ripples in the medial temporal lobe are relevant for human memory consolidation. N. Axmacher and C. E. Elger and J. Fell. Brain 131 1806-17 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awn103. High-frequency oscillations (ripples) have been described in the hippocampus and rhinal cortex of both animals and human subjects and have been linked to replay and consolidation of previously acquired information. More specifically, studies in rodents suggested that ripples are generated in the hippocampus and are then transferred into the rhinal cortex, and that they occur predominantly during negative half waves of neocortical slow oscillations. Recordings in human epilepsy patients used either microelectrodes or foramen ovale electrodes; it is thus unclear whether macroelectrodes, which are routinely used for pre-surgical investigations, allow the recording of ripples as well. Furthermore, no direct link between ripples and behavioural performance has yet been established. Here, we recorded ...
Caveat: for researchers interested in differentiating the pathologies associated with the various forms of frontotemporal dementia, AD, and related diseases, the ATL pathology in SD may very well be considered to be focal in the sense that the bulk of the atrophy and hypometabolism, at least in early stages of the disease, is in the anterior half of the temporal lobes. So if claims about the ATL being a semantic hub (or some similar concept) are willing to include in their definition of ATL a number of different anatomical structures and cytoarchitectonic fields, including both neocortex and limbic structures (hippocampus, amygdala), with posterior involvement including roughly half of the temporal lobe ventro-laterally, then I think SD can provide reasonable support for this idea. My own interest in the link between SD and the ATL came out of claims that used SD to argue that the lateral anterior temporal lobe (i.e., those regions corresponding to sentence-specific activations, and ...
In a RT-PCR approach using human postmortem cerebral tissue from different brain regions several EPB41 (erythrocyte protein band 4.1) spliceforms could be generated. The amplificates were cloned and two of the highmolecular EPB41 spliceforms Klon 9 and Klon 13 were characterized. Klon 9 is a new spliceform, Klon13 is identical with EPB41 (accesion number AF156225). In an in situ hybridization study the EPB41 spliceforms were detected in almost all neurons of the temporal cortex and the hippocampus. Immunhistochemical localization of the p4.1R immunreactive proteins in human temporal cortex using p4.1R specific peptide antibodies, confirmed these results. The stning pattern of soma and dendrites of the neurones was punctuated. In Western Blot experiments a 110 kDa and 120 kDa p4.1R immunreactive proteinband was detected. A regulation of the protein 4.1R immunreactive proteins as well as the mRNA of protein 4.1 was found in experiments in which the functional pool of Rho GTPases in hippocampal ...
Occipital lobe -- The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernickes area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). One of the things it must do is interpret the upside-down images of the world that are projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye.. Temporal lobe -- The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernickes area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe.. ...
The ability to recognize a previously experienced stimulus is supported by two processes: recollection of the stimulus in the context of other information associated with the experience, and a sense of familiarity with the features of the stimulus. Although familiarity and recollection are functiona …
To me, one of the most interesting results of this exciting study is the clear initial appearance of tau in the medial temporal lobe without notable neocortical tau. Although the medial temporal lobe has long been recognized as the initial site of tau pathology in sporadic AD (Braak and Braak, 1991), this does not necessarily have to translate to genetically determined forms of the disease. While there is accumulating evidence that genetically determined and sporadic forms of AD follow similar pathogenetic trajectories when observed on global biomarker levels (i.e., amyloid then tau then neurodegeneration), there may be important regional differences in the onset and evolution of the different types of pathology. For example, studies analyzing amyloid-PET data on a regional level have reported a very early striatal amyloid deposition in autosomal-dominant AD that appears before the occurrence of neocortical amyloid (Klunk et al., 2007). This is in striking contrast to the late-stage striatal ...
Dataset associated with the following publication: van Kemenade, B.M., Arikan, B. E., Podranski, K., Steinsträter, O., Kircher, T., & Straube, B. (2018). Distinct roles for the cerebellum, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in action-feedback monitoring. Cerebral Cortex
MUTATIONS PSEN1 73637540 GRCh37 (105) A T Exon 4 Point, Missense Coding Unknown. Unknown, but in one patient, MRI showed moderate frontal cortex atrophy, PiB-PET no amyloid deposition, FDG-PET mild hypometabolism in the lateral temporal lobe. CSF Aβ and tau were .... ...
My wife had a seizure Thursday afternoon. It appeared she was having a stroke and after many hours, many tests and two hospitals we found out she has a malignant brain tumor. While bad, there is a lot of optimistic news with it. It is operable and the location of the tumor means there wont be any lasting issues from the surgery. The tumor is very near the surface in the right temporal lobe. They think its a primary tumor meaning it didnt come from some place else. The surgeon said it would
New research shows that people who behave more altruistically have more gray matter at the junction between the parietal and temporal lobes. This shows, for the
The main underlying idea I keep coming back to is hierarchy (both in terms of sensation and action). It makes so much sense. Low-level sensory inputs are combined into higher-level representations. In the cerebral cortex this occurs within modalities at first. Higher up in the hierarchy it occurs across modalities. So the highest levels of the sensory hierarchy represent very abstract states, combining all sensory input. Most of this seems to occur in the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes ...
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അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ കേന്ദ്രബിന്ദുക്കളിൽനിന്നും പുറപ്പെടുന്ന നാഡികൾ നാരുകളായി മാറുക, അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിലെ രക്തക്കുഴലിൽ രക്തം കട്ടപിടിക്കുക, രക്തക്കുഴൽ പൊട്ടി രക്തം ചിതറുക എന്നീ ക്രമക്കേടുകൾകൊണ്ട് അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിന്റെ പ്രവർത്തനത്തിൽ മാറ്റം സംഭവിക്കുന്നു. പലതരം രോഗങ്ങൾ അനുമസ്തിഷ്കത്തെ ബാധിക്കാറുണ്ട്.പ്രമസ്തിഷ്കപർവകപാളി(floculo-nodular lobe)യെ ബാധിക്കുന്ന ഒരു പ്രധാന രോഗമാണ് ...
Mesial versus lateral. Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common seizure disorder in adults. While mesial temporal lobe epilepsy can be associated with olfactory hallucinations, deja vu and epigastric auras, temporal lobe seizures arising from the lateral cortex rather than the hippocampus may present with auditory hallucinations as the initial seizure symptoms. While the genetics of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy remains poorly understood, the genetics of the far less common lateral temporal lobe epilepsies had major breakthrough when mutations in LGI1 were discovered in familial cases. LGI1, a secreted presynaptic protein, has mystified the field for over a decade, given that we have problems understanding how a highly localized form of epilepsy can be caused by a global genetic defect. In their recent study in AJHG, Dazzo and collaborators add another confusing piece to the puzzle. They identify RELN (reelin) mutations in families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy ...
Define temporal lobe epilepsy. temporal lobe epilepsy synonyms, temporal lobe epilepsy pronunciation, temporal lobe epilepsy translation, English dictionary definition of temporal lobe epilepsy. Noun 1. temporal lobe epilepsy - epilepsy characterized clinically by impairment of consciousness and amnesia for the episode; often involves purposeful...
Medial temporal lobe structures are essential for memory formation which is associated with coherent network oscillations. channel) confirmed expression of this protein in the immature entorhinal cortex. Neuronal activity was monitored by field potential (fp) and whole-cell recordings from layer III (LIII) of the mEC in horizontal brain slices obtained at postnatal day (P) 6C13. Spontaneous fp-bursts were suppressed by the KATP channel opener diazoxide and prolonged after blockade of KATP channels by glibenclamide. Immature mEC LIII principal neurons displayed two dominant intrinsic firing patterns, prolonged bursts or regular firing activity, respectively. Burst discharges were suppressed by the KATP channel openers diazoxide and NN414, and enhanced by the KATP channel blockers tolbutamide and glibenclamide. Activity of regularly firing neurons was modulated in a frequency-dependent manner: the diazoxide-mediated reduction of firing correlated negatively with basal frequency, while the ...
Introduction: Weight loss has been described in 20% to 45% of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and has been associated with adverse outcomes. Various mechanisms for weight loss in AD patients have been proposed, though none has been proven. This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: Patients from the Frisian Alzheimers disease cohort study (a retrospective, longitudinal study of 576 community-dwelling AD patients) were included when a brain MRI was performed on which MTA could be assessed. To investigate the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with MTA, we investigated whether the trajectory of body weight change depends on the severity of MTA at the time of diagnosis (that is baseline). We hypothesized that patients with more severe MTA at baseline would have a lower body weight at baseline and a faster decrease in body weight during the course of ...
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Methods Serum and CSF levels of anti-Aβ autoantibodies and CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 68 patients with cognitive impairment, comprising 44 patients with AD, 19 patients with amnestic MCI and five patients with non-Alzheimers dementia. The degree of brain atrophy was assessed using the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for AD, which targets the volume of interest (VOI) in medial temporal structures, including the whole hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. ...
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Medial temporal lobe structures such as the hippocampus have been shown to play a critical role in mnemonic processes, with additional recruitment of the amygdala when memories contain emotional content. Thus far, studies that have examined the relationship between amygdala activity and memory have typically relied on emotional content of the kind that is rarely encountered in day-to-day interactions. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates whether amygdala activity supports emotional memory during the more subtle social interactions that punctuate everyday life. Across four training sessions, subjects learned common first names for unfamiliar faces in the presence or absence of additional contextual information that was positive, negative, and neutral in valence (e.g., Emily helps the homeless, Bob is a deadbeat dad, Eric likes carrots). During scanning, subjects performed a yes/no recognition memory test on studied and novel faces. Results ...
BRÁZDIL, Milan, Pavel CHLEBUS, Michal MIKL, Marta PAŽOURKOVÁ, Petr KRUPA a Ivan REKTOR. \textit{Reorganization of language-related neuronal networks in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy - an fMRI study.}. \textit{European Journal of Neurology}, 2005, roč.~12, č.~12, s.~268-275. ISSN~1351-5101 ...
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Because there is no clear, identifiable stimulus that elicits a déjà vu experience (it is a retrospective report from an individual), it is very difficult to study déjà vu in a laboratory, said Michelle Hook, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Episodes of déjà vu may be closely related to how memory is stored in the brain. Retention of long-term memories, events and facts are stored in the temporal lobes, and, specific parts of the temporal lobe are also integral for the detection of familiarity, and the recognition of certain events. The takeaway: The temporal lobe is where you make and store your memories.. While déjà vus connection to the temporal lobe and memory retention is still relatively unknown, clues about the condition were derived from people who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy (a condition in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed-causing ...
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be associated with an underlying brain developmental anomaly, specifically affecting normal brain asymmetries. The most pronounced asymmetries are present on the superior surface of the temporal lobes, the left plane, as measured along the sylvian fissure (planum temporale) being longer than the right in the majority of normal individuals. These asymmetries encompass Wernickes area, the anatomical substrate for language, and have been found to be less pronounced in individuals with developmental language problems, i.e. dyslexia. Since disordered language is one of the hallmarks of schizophrenia, the present study focuses on the planum temporale and related superior temporal gyrus. Eighty-five first-episode schizophrenic patients and 40 controls had measurements of the sylvian fissure taken from coronal slices. The pattern of asymmetry in controls was for the right length to be longer than the left in anterior slices, and for left to be longer than right in ...
Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications (DAAM1 and THBS3), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases (ZIC4 and FGFRL1). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased fronto-temporal interaction during fixation after memory retrieval. AU - Katsura, Masaki. AU - Hirose, Satoshi. AU - Sasaki, Hiroki. AU - Mori, Harushi. AU - Kunimatsu, Akira. AU - Ohtomo, Kuni. AU - Jimura, Koji. AU - Konishi, Seiki. PY - 2014/10/23. Y1 - 2014/10/23. N2 - Previous studies have revealed top-down control during memory retrieval from the prefrontal cortex to the temporal cortex. In the present functional MRI study, we investigated whether the fronto-temporal functional interaction occurs even during fixation periods after memory retrieval trials. During recency judgments, subjects judged the temporal order of two items in a study list. The task used in the present study consisted of memory trials of recency judgments and non-memory trials of counting dots, and post-trial fixation periods. By comparing the brain activity during the fixation periods after the memory trials with that during the fixation periods after the non-memory trials, we detected ...
tumors present considerable challenges from the point of view of diagnosis and therapeutic management. temporoparietal region 15 years previously was referred to our outpatient clinic. He presented with a tumor that had CP-673451 increased in size over the previous four years in that area (Fig. 1A). A biopsy of the tumor revealed a cutaneous meningioma. An imaging study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed encephalomalacia with discrete foci of reactive gliosis in the frontal medium and temporal left gyrus. A left temporoparietal fracture which may have been old was identified as well as a 24×38×39-mm mass of extracranial soft tissue reaching the skin CP-673451 (Fig. 1B). No infiltrations of the underlying bone or intracranial components were observed. Fig. 1 (A) Skin tumor in the temporoparietal region. (B) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor is hyperintense relative to the gray matter. A bloc resection was performed including a skin segment infiltrated by the tumor the ...
Brain lesions in the diencephalon produce an acquisition or learning deficit but do not affect the forgetting rate on recognition testing, once learning had been accomplished.1 On the other hand, it has been claimed that temporal lobe lesions do indeed produce accelerated forgetting between delays from 10 minutes to 1 week after presentation of test stimuli.2 3 This finding was based originally on findings in one patient, HM,2 in whom the results were not replicated when he was tested on different occasions.4 Moreover, when the original test procedure1 2 was used in various groups of patients with actual or presumed temporal lobe pathology-including patients with Alzheimers disease,5 6 patients with head injury (out of the period of post-traumatic amnesia),3 and patients with anoxic brain damage7-the findings failed to substantiate the original hypothesis. In general, patients with temporal lobe lesions do not forget faster than either healthy controls or other groups of amnesic patients, once ...
One of the most common types of epilepsy - mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) - is characterized by spontaneous and recurrent partial seizures. Furthermore, m...
Reduced D2-D3 Receptor Binding of Extrastriatal and Striatal Regions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Teams of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Medical University of Innsbruck have developed a new therapeutic concept for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Candi Wernz Im an 18-year-old starting my second year of college. I was given a scholarship for one full year instead of going...
We describe corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous encephalitis as a manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 disease in the brain: something easily missed and easily treated. Two adult cases presented with cognitive symptoms progressing over weeks, despite aciclovir treatment. Brain imaging showed temporal lobe abnormalities, with gadolinium enhancement but no abnormal diffusion restriction. HSV-1 PCR analysis was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but positive in brain biopsies, which showed vasocentric granulomatous inflammation. Paired blood and CSF samples showed intrathecal synthesis of HSV-1 type-specific IgG. The patients improved clinically only after immunosuppression. Despite profound cognitive impairment at their clinical nadir, both patients recovered fully. We suggest that, at least in a subset of patients with HSV-1 encephalitis, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is critical to improve the outcome of the disease. ...
File:PET Alzheimer.jpg,thumbnail,250px,right,A PET scan of the brain of an individual with Alzheimers disease reveals a loss of function in the [[Temporal lobes,temporal lobe]].]] [[Alzheimers disease]] is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the [[cerebral cortex]] and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the [[temporal lobes,temporal lobe]] and [[parietal lobe]], and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.,ref>[http://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurodegeneration-in-Alzheimers-and-Parkinsons.aspx Neurodegeneration in Alzheimers and Parkinsons],/ref> Some of the primary symptoms of Alzheimers disease are: memory problems, mood swings, emotional outbursts, brain stem damage which impairs function in the heart, lungs plus causes disruption of various other bodily processes.,ref>[http://www.dementiacarecentral.com/node/559 Alzheimers disease],/ref> The current global [[Atheist ...
Phillips and her team are the first to use high-resolution, whole-brain MRI data and sophisticated analysis techniques to measure cortical thickness and tissue density within specific brain areas. Namely, they investigated language and cognition control areas in the frontal regions of the brain, and medial temporal lobe structures that are important for memory, and are brain areas known to atrophy in MCI and AD patients.. Previous studies used CT scans, which are a much less sensitive measure, says Phillips, founding director of Concordias Cognition, Aging and Psychophysiology (CAP) Lab.. The study looked at MRIs from participating patients from the Jewish General Hospital Memory Clinic in Montreal.. Their sample included 34 monolingual MCI patients, 34 multilingual MCI patients, 13 monolingual AD patients and 13 multilingual AD patients.. Phillips believes their study is the first to assess the structure of MCI and AD patients language and cognition control regions. It is also the first to ...
So he decided to take a MRI Scan of my brain, And it reported that I have an infract on right temporal lobe, because of that I got an unusual mild stroke in youg age. I used Asprin for 3 months to improve blood circulation to brain as per doctors suggetion. I find a very little change after 9 months ...
First and most importantly, you should know why this happens. The part that is responsible for our speech and communication is the cerebrum. Since its the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum further divides into two parts, the hemispheres. A bundle of nerves known as corpus callosum connects the two halves. The left side of the cerebrum is primarily responsible for our speech.. The cerebrum is the center of processing, learning, and forming speech. The whole process of speaking, forming sentences, and understanding our thoughts before speaking out loud, is done with the help of other parts of the brain.. From cerebrum to Brocas area, Wernickes area, cerebellum, and motor cortex, all parts perform a different role. The cerebrum, which is most of the brain, comprises of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The frontal and temporal lobes are mainly in charge of understanding and speech formation.. Brocas and Wernickes areas work with converting the thought into articulated ...
Working with the #Imagenetics @SanfordHealth to provide real world evidence about genetic testing as an elective service in primary care. Proud of the first of many reports to come about the program and its impact! https://bit.ly/31CDzXM @PROMoTeR_DPM @CHeRP_DPM @ ...
Insulin sensitivity as indexed by the HOMA value in our community-based data shows strong links to deficits in speech production. We are the first to demonstrate this in a negative association between the HOMA value and VF scores in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women. Furthermore, we found that HOMA is negatively coupled with gray matter volume in the temporal lobe (specifically BAs 21 and 22) brain regions that support language ability (3,28,29). Corroborating previous findings (27), we show that the HOMA value is negatively correlated with total brain size as well. In contrast, separate analyses in the cognitively impaired and diabetic subgroups did not produce significant associations. These results provide evidence that fluctuations in insulin sensitivity in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women (independent of sex effects) are linked to changes in cognitive performance and brain volume.. Both impaired glucose tolerance and increased HOMA values have been ...
We found that almost all ACC neurons increased their activity just before hippocampal ripple activity during SWS. This observation is consistent with recent animal and human studies showing that cortical slow waves typically begin in the cortex and only later reach medial temporal lobe structures and the hippocampus (Isomura et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011). Moreover, we observed that ripple activity increased during ACC up states, and decreased during the down state. This is in line with a number of studies showing that hippocampal ripple activity occurs preferentially during the depolarized up states of cortical slow oscillation (Sirota et al., 2003; Isomura et al., 2006; Mölle et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011; but see Battaglia et al., 2004; Hahn et al., 2007). These observations led to the hypothesis that the cortex initiates or modulates hippocampal activity to supervise the signal transduction and memory consolidation process (Sirota et al., 2003; Ji and Wilson, 2007). In other words, ...
The argument that temporal lobe epilepsy is the cause of hallucinations mistakenly viewed as paranormal, is not a new one having being announced and concluded a grea...
1) Neocortex - the whole large sheet of brain cells on the brains outer surface, folded up into the skull giving it the appearance of a walnut.. 2) Frontal lobe - the region of the neocortex at the front of the brain, behind the forehead, which is much larger in humans than our monkey cousins and enables us to do all those complex functions that other primates cannot.. 3) Brainstem - the part of the brain that ninja assasins aim for with their deadly chop where neck meets skull, it is involved in coordinating all the vital bodily functions that keep us alive e.g. breathing and heart rates.. 4) Hippocampus - key brain area at the core of the temporal lobes (which run horizontally down the sides of the head from the temple to behind the ears) which is heavily involved in not just creating, but also retrieving memories. It also creates new brain cells in response to exercise!. 5) Neural node - erm, I think they just needed something sciency sounding to rhyme with the other lines. The image THE ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite a strong correlation to severity of AD pathology, the measurement of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is not being widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals-volumetric methods-or lack objectivity-visual rating scales. In this pilot study we aim to describe a new, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method ...
, Human Brain: Temporal Lobe (Parkinsons Disease) tissue lysate, GTX26291, Applications: ELISA, IP, WB; ELISA, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity:
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biochai \ cDNA _ Human Adult Normal Tissue Brain Temporal Lobe \ C1234078 for more molecular products just contact us
How young adults remember events may occur in a different part of the brain to older adults, meaning that perhaps a developmental change takes place in the brain in older adulthood, according to new research.. The research, by Gates Scholar Elect Brielle Stark, has been accepted for publication in the Yale Review for Undergraduate Research in Psychology next year. The Review is an annual publication that chooses only six articles a year to publish.. There has been a lot of research on how older adults recollect events (whether they remember events with detail or without), and it is thought that these processes occur in the frontal and medial temporal lobes of the brain. However, research on young adults is much more rare. Brielle, who will start a PhD in Clinical Neurosciences this autumn, wanted to see if the same general brain regions were associated with how events are recollected in young adults as in older adults.. Her research found that the medial temporal lobe, at least in young ...
Hyperplasia of Intermediate Lobe may be related to mutation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Protein Gene in a Context of Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA ...
Medical journal Epilepsy and Behavior has a curious case study of a female patient who had the experience of changing sex when she had a seizure. The patient in question had a small tumour near the right amygdala and showed abnormal right temporal lobe activity on an EEG. Interestingly, when she had the experience of…
Brain lobes and their functions pdf, Worksheet for grade 3 grammar pdf, The area or lobe of the brain in which they occur can determine how they will affect a persons body. Here are some of the ways that seizures in different lobes can.
Frontal lobe Brain: Frontal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Occipitallobe Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal
Gyrus or gyri in the temporal lobe on the inferior bank of lateral sulcus. It might said to be a part of the superior temporal gyrus and sometimes referred to as Herchls gyrus/gyri. ...
One of 4 well-defined portions (i.e. lobes) of each of the cerebral hemisphere that is located lateral and below the occipital and frontal lobes; controls the senses of hearing and smell and...
Question - Infant has not yet attained head holding, fixing gaze. MRI shows mild pre-frontal lobe atrophy. Will he have normal development? . Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask a Pediatrician
I would like to read newly released papers on the matter. are there any opposing views on this? some says yes ,others says no? I need it for my BA. I need to have 2 papers that contradict each other
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). Brain: Hippocampus The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at le
Extra-hippocampal medial temporal lobe (ehMTL) structures, which consists of entorhinal (ERC) and perirhinal (PRC) cortices, receives increasing attention because they are amongst the earliest sites affected by Alzheimer`s Disease (AD) pathology and due to their important and complex role in episodic … Continue reading →. ...