The functional contribution of medial temporal lobe has been studied in the human brain for over half a century. Insight into the nature of this extraordinary structure was discovered when epileptic patient H.M. had an experimental operation to surgically resect his bilateral medial temporal lobes. The procedure resulted in profound anterograde amnesia, demonstrating the critical role of medial temporal lobe in forming new long-term memories; yet a variety of other capacities remained intact (e.g., intelligence, personality, and skills). The notion that medial temporal lobe function was isolated to the formation of new long-term memories persisted for several decades until the development of new methodologies. It has been the endeavor of cognitive neuroscience to further our understanding of the structural organization of complex cognition and behavior. The focus of this dissertation is to provide evidence supporting the functional contribution of medial temporal lobe sub-regions, namely ...
Medial temporal lobe damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of medial temporal lobe amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items
While it is commonly accepted that structures in the medial temporal lobe play a critical role in memory, current theories disagree on three fundamental issues: (a) the extent to which different regions within the medial temporal lobe can be functionally dissociated; (b) whether structures within the medial temporal lobe are specialised for memory processing or play an additional role in perception; and (c) whether there is support for functional homology across species. To address these controversial questions, this Special Issue brings together researchers working on memory and perception in the medial temporal lobe and asks whether there is evidence for similar functional dissociations across species. The papers reported here include lesion and early gene imaging in rats, electrophysiological and lesion studies in nonhuman primates, lesion and functional neuroimaging in human participants, as well as touching on computational modelling approaches. Pulling together these methodological diverse
The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.[3] The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics (meaning) in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. An area in the Sylvian fissure is the first place where auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Other areas of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to ...
Where do you know who you know? There are faces that are instantly recognizable and nameable. Conversely, there are names that automatically bring up an associated face. Some neurons are likely to respond to both the name and the face of these familiar individuals - in fact, such neurons with an invariant, explicit and selective response to both famous and familiar individuals, e.g. Jennifer Aniston, are routinely found with the aid of implanted microelectrodes in the medial temporal lobes of human patients (Quian Quiroga, Reddy, Kreiman, Koch, & Fried, 2005). We set out to investigate such modality-independent, conceptual representations with fMRI. We conducted an event-related fMRI study in which subjects were asked to recognize and name three famous actors (Brad Pitt, Matt Damon and Tom Cruise) from various pictures or to read their written name, on separate trials within each run. We used high resolution fMRI (2x2x2mm voxels) with 30 axial slices covering the occipital and temporal lobes. ...
RADIOLOGY: HEAD: Case# 33666: HYPOMETABOLIC SEIZURE FOCUS LEFT ANTERIOR TEMPORAL LOBE. Patient is a 17 y.o. young man with a history of complex partial seizures. Selected axial and coronal images from an interictal18-FDG PET study reveal hypometabolism of the left anterior temporal lobe. MRI T2 weighted image through the temporal lobes reveals an area of increased signal intensity in the left hippocampus. 18-FDG is a glucose analoge that competes with glucose for uptake. Once it is actively transported, it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. Consequently its accumulation within a cell is a function of the cells metabolic rate. Preoperative planning for epilepsy surgery often includes an interictal PET study to localize the epilepsy site. Focal hypometabolism relative to the contralateral structures suggests a seizure focus. PET will demonstrate interictal temporal lobe hypometabolism in 70% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (1). Proper interpretation requires knowledge of any
There have been few quantitative characterizations of the morphological, biophysical, and cable properties of neurons in the human neocortex. We employed feature-based statistical methods on a rare data set of 60 3D reconstructed pyramidal neurons from L2 and L3 in the human temporal cortex (HL2/L3 PCs) removed after brain surgery. Of these cells, 25 neurons were also characterized physiologically. Thirty-two morphological features were analyzed (e.g., dendritic surface area, 36 333 +/- 18 157 mu m(2); number of basal trees, 5.55 +/- 1.47; dendritic diameter, 0.76 +/- 0.28 mu m). Eighteen features showed a significant gradual increase with depth from the pia (e.g., dendritic length and soma radius). The other features showed weak or no correlation with depth (e.g., dendritic diameter). The basal dendritic terminals in HL2/L3 PCs are particularly elongated, enabling multiple nonlinear processing units in these dendrites. Unlike the morphological features, the active biophysical features (e.g., spike
Studies of primates and of patients with brain lesions have shown that the visual system represents the external world in regions and pathways specialized to compute visual features and attributes. For example, object recognition is performed by a ventral pathway located in the inferior portion of the temporal lobe. We studied visual processing of words and word-like stimuli (letter-strings) by recording field potentials directly from the human inferior temporal lobe. Our results showed that two discrete portions of the fusiform gyrus responded preferentially to letter-strings. A region of the posterior fusiform gyrus responded equally to words and non-words, and was unaffected by the semantic context in which words were presented. In contrast, a region of the anterior fusiform gyrus was sensitive to these stimulus dimensions. These regions were distinct from areas that responded to other types of complex visual stimuli, including faces and coloured patterns, and thus form a functionally specialized
TY - JOUR. T1 - Material-specific lateralization in the medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex during memory encoding. AU - Golby, Alexandra J.. AU - Poldrack, Russell A.. AU - Brewer, James B.. AU - Spencer, David. AU - Desmond, John E.. AU - Aron, Arthur P.. AU - Gabrieli, John D.E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Numerous observations in patients with unilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex indicate that memory processes are lateralized according to content. Left-sided lesions interfere with verbal memory processes, whereas right-sided lesions interfere with visuospatial (non-verbal) memory processes. However, functional imaging studies have resulted in contradictory data, some studies showing lateralization in the prefrontal cortex determined by stage of processing (encoding versus retrieval) and others suggesting that lateralization is dependent on the type of material. Few studies have examined this issue in the MTL. In order to test the hypothesis ...
The distribution of beta-amyloid protein (beta A4) was examined in the medial temporal lobes from cases of Alzheimers disease (AD) (n = 13), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) (n = 12) and age matched controls (n = 9). Using a previously described image analysis technique the extent of beta A4 pathology was determined in ten distinct anatomical sites within the medial temporal lobe. AD and SDLT cases contained very similar amounts of beta A4 in the areas sampled and both contained significantly more beta A4 than the age matched controls, particularly in the dentate and parahippocampal gyri. The similarity of the beta A4 load in the two conditions is in contrast to reported differences in the number of neurofibrillary tangles which can be observed. It is suggested that AD and SDLT represent a spectrum of pathology which centres around the aberrant processing of the beta A4 precursor protein.. ...
Recent research has demonstrated (a) that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) encodes complex object-level configurations of features, and (b) these representations participate in discriminating familiar versus novel configurations. The ventral visual stream is able to identify familiar object parts as such even in the face of PRC damage, although it cannot identify their configuration as correct or incorrect Barense et al. (2011). Here, we use fMRI to investigate whether extrastriate cortex in the intact brain a). is sensitive to the configuration of parts of familiar objects and b). covaries with activation in the PRC. Participants viewed peripherally presented silhouettes (nearest edge 4°) that portrayed familiar or novel objects. There were 3 types of silhouettes: familiar configurations (objects that exist in the real world); part-rearranged novel configurations (rearranged parts of the familiar configurations); and novel configurations created by (inverted part-rearranged novel configurations) ...
If we can access a non-local reality, then "paranormal" abilities could be analyzed as being based on normal right temporal lobe function. For example, remote viewing is well documented in the laboratory and is shown to be independent of time and distance(Dunne 1987,Utts 1996) . If we are able to access non-local reality, remote viewing would not only be possible, but expected to be independent of time and space. Sheldrake has already proposed a model of "morphic forms". These are patterns of energy in nature which correspond to the physical bodies, memories, and behaviors of living organisms. I am adding to this model the speculation that our right temporal lobe is the mediator of morphic resonance, the postulated interaction between our brains and morphic forms. Becker(1985,1990) presents evidence that biological resonance and absorption and even transfer of energy occurs at the specific frequency range at which the hydrogen atom proton is effected by nuclear magnetic resonance. He ...
Optimal perceptual decisions require sensory signals to be combined with prior information about stimulus probability. Although several theories propose that probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence is encoded in sensory cortex, evidence from neuronal recordings has not yet fully supported this view. We recorded activity from single neurons in inferior temporal cortex (IT) while monkeys performed a task that involved discriminating degraded images of faces and fruit. The relative probability of the cue being a face versus a fruit was manipulated by a latent variable that was not revealed to the monkeys and that changed unpredictably over the course of each recording session. In addition to responding to stimulus identity (face or fruit), population responses in IT encoded the long-term stimulus probability of whether a face or a fruit stimulus was more likely to occur. Face-responsive neurons showed reduced firing rates to expected faces, an effect consistent with expectation suppression,
High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old), recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23) and controls (n=15). Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd.), i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test). Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA), were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA
3H-Spiroperidol labels multiple high affinity states with serotonergic selectivity in human prefrontal cortex and with dopaminergic selectivity in human caudate and putamen. The characteristics of...
Autor: Qin, Shaozheng et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: Episodic memory|br/|Hippocampus|br/|Parahippocampal cortex|br/|Perirhinal cortex|br/|Prefrontal cortex; Titel: Dissecting medial temporal lobe contributions to item and associative|br/|memory formation
I got an CT scan yesterday and the nurse gave me the results to day. They want to do an MRI of my head. My symptoms have been blurred vision for the past 6 or 7 months and some medium to severe pain ...
This safe, noninvasive technique can be used to manipulate the competition between the left and right hemispheres of the brain by inhibiting and/or activating certain networks, they explained. According to Chi and Snyder, the right anterior temporal lobe is associated with insight or finding new meaning, and the inhibition of activity in the left anterior temporal lobe can lead to thinking that is less likely to be influenced by preconceptions. However, the authors noted that more research is needed ...
The middle temporal gyrus is one of three gyri on the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. Gross anatomy The middle temporal gyrus is bounded dorsally by the superior temporal sulcus and superior temporal gyrus and ventrally by the inferior te...
We studied the responses of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe while subjects viewed familiar faces, animals, and landmarks. By progressively shortening the duration of stimulus presentation, coupled with backward masking, we show two striking properties of these neurons. (i) Their responses are not statistically different for the 33-ms, 66-ms, and 132-ms stimulus durations, and only for the 264-ms presentations there is a significantly higher firing. (ii) These responses follow conscious perception, as indicated by the subjects recognition report. Remarkably, when recognized, a single snapshot as brief as 33 ms was sufficient to trigger strong single-unit responses far outlasting stimulus presentation. These results suggest that neurons in the medial temporal lobe can reflect conscious recognition by all-or-none responses ...
Axmacher:2008dk. Ripples in the medial temporal lobe are relevant for human memory consolidation. N. Axmacher and C. E. Elger and J. Fell. Brain 131 1806-17 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awn103. High-frequency oscillations (ripples) have been described in the hippocampus and rhinal cortex of both animals and human subjects and have been linked to replay and consolidation of previously acquired information. More specifically, studies in rodents suggested that ripples are generated in the hippocampus and are then transferred into the rhinal cortex, and that they occur predominantly during negative half waves of neocortical slow oscillations. Recordings in human epilepsy patients used either microelectrodes or foramen ovale electrodes; it is thus unclear whether macroelectrodes, which are routinely used for pre-surgical investigations, allow the recording of ripples as well. Furthermore, no direct link between ripples and behavioural performance has yet been established. Here, we recorded ...
In a RT-PCR approach using human postmortem cerebral tissue from different brain regions several EPB41 (erythrocyte protein band 4.1) spliceforms could be generated. The amplificates were cloned and two of the highmolecular EPB41 spliceforms Klon 9 and Klon 13 were characterized. Klon 9 is a new spliceform, Klon13 is identical with EPB41 (accesion number AF156225). In an in situ hybridization study the EPB41 spliceforms were detected in almost all neurons of the temporal cortex and the hippocampus. Immunhistochemical localization of the p4.1R immunreactive proteins in human temporal cortex using p4.1R specific peptide antibodies, confirmed these results. The stning pattern of soma and dendrites of the neurones was punctuated. In Western Blot experiments a 110 kDa and 120 kDa p4.1R immunreactive proteinband was detected. A regulation of the protein 4.1R immunreactive proteins as well as the mRNA of protein 4.1 was found in experiments in which the functional pool of Rho GTPases in hippocampal ...
Occipital lobe -- The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernickes area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). One of the things it must do is interpret the upside-down images of the world that are projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye.. Temporal lobe -- The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernickes area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe.. ...
To me, one of the most interesting results of this exciting study is the clear initial appearance of tau in the medial temporal lobe without notable neocortical tau. Although the medial temporal lobe has long been recognized as the initial site of tau pathology in sporadic AD (Braak and Braak, 1991), this does not necessarily have to translate to genetically determined forms of the disease. While there is accumulating evidence that genetically determined and sporadic forms of AD follow similar pathogenetic trajectories when observed on global biomarker levels (i.e., amyloid then tau then neurodegeneration), there may be important regional differences in the onset and evolution of the different types of pathology. For example, studies analyzing amyloid-PET data on a regional level have reported a very early striatal amyloid deposition in autosomal-dominant AD that appears before the occurrence of neocortical amyloid (Klunk et al., 2007). This is in striking contrast to the late-stage striatal ...
MUTATIONS PSEN1 73637540 GRCh37 (105) A T Exon 4 Point, Missense Coding Unknown. Unknown, but in one patient, MRI showed moderate frontal cortex atrophy, PiB-PET no amyloid deposition, FDG-PET mild hypometabolism in the lateral temporal lobe. CSF Aβ and tau were .... ...
My wife had a seizure Thursday afternoon. It appeared she was having a stroke and after many hours, many tests and two hospitals we found out she has a malignant brain tumor. While bad, there is a lot of optimistic news with it. It is operable and the location of the tumor means there wont be any lasting issues from the surgery. The tumor is very near the surface in the right temporal lobe. They think its a primary tumor meaning it didnt come from some place else. The surgeon said it would
New research shows that people who behave more altruistically have more gray matter at the junction between the parietal and temporal lobes. This shows, for the
The main underlying idea I keep coming back to is hierarchy (both in terms of sensation and action). It makes so much sense. Low-level sensory inputs are combined into higher-level representations. In the cerebral cortex this occurs within modalities at first. Higher up in the hierarchy it occurs across modalities. So the highest levels of the sensory hierarchy represent very abstract states, combining all sensory input. Most of this seems to occur in the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes ...
Mesial versus lateral. Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common seizure disorder in adults. While mesial temporal lobe epilepsy can be associated with olfactory hallucinations, deja vu and epigastric auras, temporal lobe seizures arising from the lateral cortex rather than the hippocampus may present with auditory hallucinations as the initial seizure symptoms. While the genetics of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy remains poorly understood, the genetics of the far less common lateral temporal lobe epilepsies had major breakthrough when mutations in LGI1 were discovered in familial cases. LGI1, a secreted presynaptic protein, has mystified the field for over a decade, given that we have problems understanding how a highly localized form of epilepsy can be caused by a global genetic defect. In their recent study in AJHG, Dazzo and collaborators add another confusing piece to the puzzle. They identify RELN (reelin) mutations in families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy ...
Introduction: Weight loss has been described in 20% to 45% of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and has been associated with adverse outcomes. Various mechanisms for weight loss in AD patients have been proposed, though none has been proven. This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: Patients from the Frisian Alzheimers disease cohort study (a retrospective, longitudinal study of 576 community-dwelling AD patients) were included when a brain MRI was performed on which MTA could be assessed. To investigate the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with MTA, we investigated whether the trajectory of body weight change depends on the severity of MTA at the time of diagnosis (that is baseline). We hypothesized that patients with more severe MTA at baseline would have a lower body weight at baseline and a faster decrease in body weight during the course of ...
temporal lobe - MedHelps temporal lobe Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for temporal lobe. Find temporal lobe information, treatments for temporal lobe and temporal lobe symptoms.
Methods Serum and CSF levels of anti-Aβ autoantibodies and CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 68 patients with cognitive impairment, comprising 44 patients with AD, 19 patients with amnestic MCI and five patients with non-Alzheimers dementia. The degree of brain atrophy was assessed using the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for AD, which targets the volume of interest (VOI) in medial temporal structures, including the whole hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. ...
Find the best temporal lobe epilepsy doctors in Delhi NCR. Get guidance from medical experts to select temporal lobe epilepsy specialist in Delhi NCR from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
BRÁZDIL, Milan, Pavel CHLEBUS, Michal MIKL, Marta PAŽOURKOVÁ, Petr KRUPA a Ivan REKTOR. \textit{Reorganization of language-related neuronal networks in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy - an fMRI study.}. \textit{European Journal of Neurology}, 2005, roč.~12, č.~12, s.~268-275. ISSN~1351-5101 ...
Because there is no clear, identifiable stimulus that elicits a déjà vu experience (it is a retrospective report from an individual), it is very difficult to study déjà vu in a laboratory," said Michelle Hook, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Episodes of déjà vu may be closely related to how memory is stored in the brain. Retention of long-term memories, events and facts are stored in the temporal lobes, and, specific parts of the temporal lobe are also integral for the detection of familiarity, and the recognition of certain events. The takeaway: The temporal lobe is where you make and store your memories.. While déjà vus connection to the temporal lobe and memory retention is still relatively unknown, clues about the condition were derived from people who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy (a condition in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed-causing ...
Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.
Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications (DAAM1 and THBS3), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases (ZIC4 and FGFRL1). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased fronto-temporal interaction during fixation after memory retrieval. AU - Katsura, Masaki. AU - Hirose, Satoshi. AU - Sasaki, Hiroki. AU - Mori, Harushi. AU - Kunimatsu, Akira. AU - Ohtomo, Kuni. AU - Jimura, Koji. AU - Konishi, Seiki. PY - 2014/10/23. Y1 - 2014/10/23. N2 - Previous studies have revealed top-down control during memory retrieval from the prefrontal cortex to the temporal cortex. In the present functional MRI study, we investigated whether the fronto-temporal functional interaction occurs even during fixation periods after memory retrieval trials. During recency judgments, subjects judged the temporal order of two items in a study list. The task used in the present study consisted of memory trials of recency judgments and non-memory trials of counting dots, and post-trial fixation periods. By comparing the brain activity during the fixation periods after the memory trials with that during the fixation periods after the non-memory trials, we detected ...
One of the most common types of epilepsy - mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) - is characterized by spontaneous and recurrent partial seizures. Furthermore, m...
Reduced D2-D3 Receptor Binding of Extrastriatal and Striatal Regions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
We describe corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous encephalitis as a manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 disease in the brain: something easily missed and easily treated. Two adult cases presented with cognitive symptoms progressing over weeks, despite aciclovir treatment. Brain imaging showed temporal lobe abnormalities, with gadolinium enhancement but no abnormal diffusion restriction. HSV-1 PCR analysis was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but positive in brain biopsies, which showed vasocentric granulomatous inflammation. Paired blood and CSF samples showed intrathecal synthesis of HSV-1 type-specific IgG. The patients improved clinically only after immunosuppression. Despite profound cognitive impairment at their clinical nadir, both patients recovered fully. We suggest that, at least in a subset of patients with HSV-1 encephalitis, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is critical to improve the outcome of the disease. ...
Our study indicates that non-demented patients at the early stage of PD already have atrophy in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Our study also suggests that left hippocampal atrophy is related to impaired memory and prefrontal cortex atrophy is associated with the prolonged reaction time in tests measuring vigilance.. Our study is in agreement with previous studies that showed patients with PD to have atrophy in the hippocampus6,7 and medial temporal lobe structures,12 when compared with controls. However, we found similar results in the prefrontal cortex also, although the difference was smaller than in the hippocampus. In addition, we found these differences in patients with an average disease duration of 1.7 years, whereas in the previous studies the patients had had PD for a considerably longer time.6,7,12. Previous studies have indicated that brain atrophy in PD is related to cognitive impairment. This has been shown in medicated patients with PD using volumetric MRI between ...
File:PET Alzheimer.jpg,thumbnail,250px,right,A PET scan of the brain of an individual with Alzheimers disease reveals a loss of function in the [[Temporal lobes,temporal lobe]].]] [[Alzheimers disease]] is "characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the [[cerebral cortex]] and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the [[temporal lobes,temporal lobe]] and [[parietal lobe]], and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.,ref>[http://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurodegeneration-in-Alzheimers-and-Parkinsons.aspx Neurodegeneration in Alzheimers and Parkinsons],/ref> Some of the primary symptoms of Alzheimers disease are: memory problems, mood swings, emotional outbursts, brain stem damage which impairs function in the heart, lungs plus causes disruption of various other bodily processes.,ref>[http://www.dementiacarecentral.com/node/559 Alzheimers disease],/ref> The current global [[Atheist ...
Phillips and her team are the first to use high-resolution, whole-brain MRI data and sophisticated analysis techniques to measure cortical thickness and tissue density within specific brain areas. Namely, they investigated language and cognition control areas in the frontal regions of the brain, and medial temporal lobe structures that are important for memory, and are brain areas known to atrophy in MCI and AD patients.. "Previous studies used CT scans, which are a much less sensitive measure," says Phillips, founding director of Concordias Cognition, Aging and Psychophysiology (CAP) Lab.. The study looked at MRIs from participating patients from the Jewish General Hospital Memory Clinic in Montreal.. Their sample included 34 monolingual MCI patients, 34 multilingual MCI patients, 13 monolingual AD patients and 13 multilingual AD patients.. Phillips believes their study is the first to assess the structure of MCI and AD patients language and cognition control regions. It is also the first to ...
So he decided to take a MRI Scan of my brain, And it reported that I have an infract on right temporal lobe, because of that I got an unusual mild stroke in youg age. I used Asprin for 3 months to improve blood circulation to brain as per doctors suggetion. I find a very little change after 9 months ...
Insulin sensitivity as indexed by the HOMA value in our community-based data shows strong links to deficits in speech production. We are the first to demonstrate this in a negative association between the HOMA value and VF scores in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women. Furthermore, we found that HOMA is negatively coupled with gray matter volume in the temporal lobe (specifically BAs 21 and 22) brain regions that support language ability (3,28,29). Corroborating previous findings (27), we show that the HOMA value is negatively correlated with total brain size as well. In contrast, separate analyses in the cognitively impaired and diabetic subgroups did not produce significant associations. These results provide evidence that fluctuations in insulin sensitivity in cognitively healthy, nondiabetic elderly men and women (independent of sex effects) are linked to changes in cognitive performance and brain volume.. Both impaired glucose tolerance and increased HOMA values have been ...
We found that almost all ACC neurons increased their activity just before hippocampal ripple activity during SWS. This observation is consistent with recent animal and human studies showing that cortical slow waves typically begin in the cortex and only later reach medial temporal lobe structures and the hippocampus (Isomura et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011). Moreover, we observed that ripple activity increased during ACC up states, and decreased during the down state. This is in line with a number of studies showing that hippocampal ripple activity occurs preferentially during the depolarized up states of cortical slow oscillation (Sirota et al., 2003; Isomura et al., 2006; Mölle et al., 2006; Nir et al., 2011; but see Battaglia et al., 2004; Hahn et al., 2007). These observations led to the hypothesis that the cortex initiates or modulates hippocampal activity to "supervise" the signal transduction and memory consolidation process (Sirota et al., 2003; Ji and Wilson, 2007). In other words, ...
The argument that temporal lobe epilepsy is the cause of hallucinations mistakenly viewed as paranormal, is not a new one having being announced and concluded a grea...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite a strong correlation to severity of AD pathology, the measurement of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is not being widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals-volumetric methods-or lack objectivity-visual rating scales. In this pilot study we aim to describe a new, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method ...
, Human Brain: Temporal Lobe (Parkinsons Disease) tissue lysate, GTX26291, Applications: ELISA, IP, WB; ELISA, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity: