Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., "The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature. For a property R that changes by dR when the temperature changes by dT, the temperature coefficient α is defined by the following equation: d R R = α d T {\displaystyle {\frac {dR}{R}}=\alpha \,dT} Here α has the dimension of an inverse temperature and can be expressed e.g. in 1/K or K−1. If the temperature coefficient itself does not vary too much with temperature, a linear approximation will be useful in estimating the value R of a property at a temperature T, given its value R0 at a reference temperature T0: R ( T ) = R ( T 0 ) ( 1 + α Δ T ) , {\displaystyle R(T)=R(T_{0})(1+\alpha \Delta T),} where ΔT is the difference between T and T0. For strongly temperature-dependent α, this approximation is only useful for small temperature differences ΔT. Temperature coefficients are specified for various applications, including electric and magnetic properties ...
Introduction. How Temperature Affects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes Aim: To use beetroot to examine the effect of temperature on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure. Hypothesis: An increase in temperature will damage and denature the membrane and cause the substances contained within it to leak out. Overview: The experiment below displays the effects of temperature on the pigment in uncooked beetroot cells. The pigment in beetroot cells lies within the cell vacuole and is called betalain, each vacuole is surrounded by a tonoplast membrane and outside it, the cytoplasm is surrounded by the plasma membrane, therefore the foundation of this experiment lies with the temperature at which the membranes will rupture and therefore leak the pigment. To do this a series of uncooked beetroot cylinders will be exposed to different temperatures and then to distilled water at room temperature (20�C). The colour of the distilled water is the variable here. ...
Disclosed herein is a temperature control system for multi-zone temperature control with setback control. The system includes a thermostat associated with each zone of a building, and a central control unit which communicates with each thermostat to send temperature setpoint values to each thermostat for the purpose of conserving energy and reducing energy consumption during certain times of the day. Each thermostat is associated with either a heating or cooling device, where setup temperature values are sent from the central control unit to the thermostats where cooling devices are used in place of heating devices. The thermostats are designed to operate as stand-alone units which control the temperature within a zone based upon a temperature setpoint stored at the unit. The temperature setpoint values are replaced by the higher or lower temperature setpoint values transmitted to the thermostats by the control units during setback or setup time periods. To avoid the requirement of installing
Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earths atmosphere. It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature, the annual atmospheric temperature range at any geographical location depends largely upon the type of biome, as measured by the Köppen climate classification. In the Earths atmosphere, temperature varies greatly at different heights relative to the Earths surface. The coldest temperatures lie near the mesopause, an area approximately 80 km above the surface. In contrast, some of the warmest temperatures can be found in the thermosphere, which receives strong ionizing radiation at the level of the Van Allen radiation belt. Temperature varies as one moves vertically upwards from the Earths surface. It also depends on the change of latitude. The variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights is called diurnal temperature variation. ...
Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature changes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under different temperature regimes and glucose availability conditions. These included glucose-excess batch cultures at different temperatures and glucose-limited chemostat cultures, subjected to fast linear temperature shifts and circadian sinoidal temperature cycles. An observed temperature-independent relation between intracellular levels of glycolytic metabolites and residual glucose concentration for all experimental conditions revealed that it is the substrate availability rather than temperature that determines intracellular metabolite profiles. This observation corresponded with predictions generated in silico with a kinetic
Introduction. How Temperature Affects Catalase Activity. Aim: In this experiment I aim to investigate how altering the temperature exposed to the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide, will affect the reaction and the gas product produced. Scientific background knowledge lets us know that there are 6 variables that usually affect the rate of a reaction, and they are as follows: * Concentration of enzymes * Concentration of hydrogen peroxide * Temperature condition of reaction * Pressure condition of reaction * Physical state of solid substrate (e.g. surface area of particles) [Some material reproduced from Biology 1 endorsed by OCR] In order to ensure fairness and accuracy, I will see to it that all the necessary and vital measurements are taken precise to the mark, and Ill aim to maintain all other latent variables constant. Hypothesis: Via my observation, I intend to prove that as the temperature of both the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide id equally increased, the rate of which ...
Solar is a renewable energy that can be used to provide process heat to industrial sites but require thermal storage. HRLs (heat recovery loops) are an indirect method for transferring heat from one process to another using an intermediate fluid. With HRLs thermal storage is also necessary to effectively meet the stop/start time dependent nature of the multiple source and sink streams. Combining solar heating with HRLs is a cost effective way to share common storage and piping infrastructure. The conventional HRL design method based on a CTS (constant temperature storage) and a new HRL design method using VTS (variable temperature storage) are applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of inter-plant heat integration and installing solar heating. The dairy case study had available 12 source streams including four spray dryer exhausts and six sink streams. The addition of the dryer exhausts as heat sources was a critical factor in gaining a heat recovery of 10.8 MW for the variable ...
This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha-a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and
View Notes - Chapter10blackrw2 from CHEM 102 at UNC. 10 Gases Visualizing Concepts 10.2 At constant temperature and volume, pressure depends on total number of particles (Charles Law). In order to
Rodriguez, Eduardo Matinelli, "1\ Effects of Population Density and Temperature on Growth and Development of Rana sylvatica" (2005). Introductory Biology: Independent Project Research Papers. Paper 143 ...
At certain upper and lower threshold temperatures (critical temperatures (Tc) crustaceans switch to anaerobic metabolism despite sufficient oxygen availability in the environment. I tested the hypothesis that failure of the heart at critical temperatures leads to insufficient oxygen delivery and subsequent anaerobiosis in peripheral tissues. I exposed rock crabs, Cancer irroratus, as whole animals, and their buffer-perfused semi-isolated hearts to a progressive temperature increase, while monitoring heart rate and lactate accumulation. The whole animals heart rate increased with temperature following a Q10 of 2.8. An abrupt decline in heart rate occurred at 25°C and lactate accumulation occurred between 25°C and 30°C. The semi-isolated hearts followed a Q10 of only 1.2 during temperature increase. A second set of semi-isolated hearts were perfused and paced at a heart rate comparable to the whole animals at each temperature. The lactate concentration in the paced semi-isolated hearts did not
Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines ...
Article Temperature Effect on Preconsolidation Pressure. A change in temperature is known to affect the deformation properties of a clay specimen. In order to study the effect quantitative y and its dependence on clay type a number of oedometer tests...
A system for inducing desirable temperature effects on body tissue, the body tissue being disposed about a lumen. The system includes an elongate catheter having a proximal end and a distal end with an axis therebetween with an energy delivery portion for transmission of energy. A tissue analyzer configured to characterize the body tissue in the lumen proximate the energy delivery portion and an energy source coupled to the energy delivery portion transmitting tissue treatment energy, wherein the energy is non-RF energy. A processor coupled to the tissue analyzer and energy source, the processor configured to determine an appropriate treatment energy for the characterized body tissue so as to mildly heat the body tissue with the energy delivery portion without ablating.
Temperature effects on the dynamics of gonad and oocyte development in captive wild-caught blacklip (|i|Haliotis rubra|/i|) and greenlip (|i|H. laevigata|/i|) abalone
Research Question How does surface temperature affect the clarity of a fingerprint on a glass? Hypothesis If I change the surface temperature of each glass and put a fingerprint on them then the coldest glass would have the most clarity because the fingerprint cant evaporate as fast with colder surface temperature. Purpose The purpose of my experiment was the fact that I love forensics or criminal sciences. I have been interested in forensics since I was little and want to learn more about the subject. Materials 6 glass ...
An absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence is executed and, subsequently, a relative temperature measuring pulse sequence is repeatedly executed. Since while a relative temperature can be measured from phase information, an absolute temperature requires frequency information, a time required in the relative temperature measuring pulse can be made shorter than that required in the absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence. Since the relative temperature reveals a temperature variation, if an absolute temperature at a given time is known, an absolute temperature at a subsequent time can be calculated from the relative temperature. Thus, a local internal temperature of the subject can be measured, with a shorter temporal resolution, with the use of the absolute temperature and relative temperature.
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We demonstrated that on sunny days, even when the ambient temperature is mild or relatively cool, there is rapid and significant heating of the interior of vehicles. On days when the ambient temperature was 72°F, we showed that the internal vehicle temperature can reach 117°F within 60 minutes, with 80% of the temperature rise occurring in the first 30 minutes. In general, after 60 minutes, one can expect an ∼40°F increase in internal temperatures for ambient temperatures spanning 72 to 96°F, putting children and pets at significant risk. We also determined that cracking open windows is not effective in decreasing either the rate of heat rise or the maximum temperature attained.. The exact affect of such temperatures on infants is unknown, but from case reports, we know that they can be devastating. We do know that heat illness is a continuum that is divided into 3 phases. The mildest form is heat stress, the physical discomfort and physiologic strain as a result of a hot environment. Next ...
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Question - What causes fluctuating temperatures and lack of appetite?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Lack of appetite, Ask a General & Family Physician
Press Release issued Mar 23, 2015: This is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.
Temperature affects how much the phospholipids in the bilayer can move, which in turn affect the membrane structure.. 1. Temperatures below 0 degrees. The phospholipids do not have very much energy, meaning that they dont move around a lot. They are packed closely together and the membrane is more rigid. The channel proteins and carrier proteins in the membrane denature and this increases the permeability of the membrane - ice may also…. ...
This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T j). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T 0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (T j). The choice of the L 2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T j) is then ...
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Sea-surface temperature estimation by Anderson, Eric; 1 edition; First published in 1967; Subjects: Ocean temperature, Time-series analysis, Accessible book
Applications. While most Gammaflux temperature controllers are used on hot runner injection molding applications, they are also increasingly being used for controlling thermoset, liquid injection molding (LIM), reaction injection molding (RIM), blow molding, thermoforming, and extrusion (profile and sheet) applications.. "Each of these processes requires reliable temperature control," said Mike Brostedt, Gammaflux Director of Market Development. "If the temperature controller fails, the process either stops or is crippled. When selecting a temperature control supplier, processors are selecting a partner who is critical to their product quality and profitability.". The new G24 is the most flexible temperature controller Gammaflux has ever produced, and is designed for ease of use across all of these platforms.. About Gammaflux. Based in Sterling, Va. U.S.A., Gammaflux L.P. is a leading supplier of temperature and sequential valve gate control systems to the plastics industry. Long known for ...
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Schneider, E; Muller, B; and Schindler, R, "Effects of temperature changes on thymidine kinase in heat-and cold-sensitive cell-cycle mutanta and wild-type murine p-815 cells." (1983). Subject Strain Bibliography 1983. 1696 ...
First, we focused on the effects of temperature shifts on the dynamics of a synthetic genetic clock, the above mentioned Elowitz-Leibler low-copy repressilator (LCR). By studying its fluorescence over time, we observed a loss of functionality (fraction of cells exhibiting oscillations) and robustness (fraction of expected oscillations that do occur) for higher-than-optimal temperatures. We hypothesized that this is due to a loss of functionality of the CI repressor, which is one of the proteins composing the structure of this circuit. To test this, we made use of a genetic switch (CICro, where CI is also a component of the circuits structure), which we subjected to the same temperature shifts. We found a behavioral change at the same temperature. Namely, as temperature is increased, at a given value, the kinetics of RNA production of the PRM promoter changes from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian, consistent with the emergence of tangible repression by the opposing protein, Cro. These ...
PROGRAM: BIOSIM FILENAME: GB.channel.description PURPOSE: description of all parameters used in the GB.channel file 133 parameter ************************************************************************************************************************/ GB_CA_INITIAL - initial calcium concentration GB_K_ICA - cell volume dependend, formula: (1/(2*Faraday-constant*cell_volume)) GB_K_CA - speed of calcium restitution GB_C0_CA - constant background concentration of calcium GB_CA_CA - extracellular calcium concentration GB_TEMP - absolute temperature GB_M_POWER - power of gate variable m GB_M_INITIAL - initial value of gate variable m GB_H_POWER - power of gate variable h GB_H_INITIAL - initial value of gate variable h GB_NA_G - conductance of sodium channel GB_NA_E - equilibrium potential of sodium channel GB_Form_Alpha_M - form parameter for gate variable m, alpha term GB_AalphaM - rate constant GB_V0alphaM - half maximum potential GB_BalphaM - step width GB_Form_Beta_M - form parameter for gate ...
An animation showing changes in global sea-surface temperature between 1991 and 2010, developed through ESAs Climate Change Initiative. The animation is based on data from ESAs ERS and Envisat Along Track Scanning Radiometers, and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers carried on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites and Eumetsats MetOp satellites.. ...
The temperature treatment on casting of Polysulfon (PSF) modified membranes have investigated to study physicochemical and water permeability membrane properties. The PSF modified membranes was prepared by UV-photografting technique with different temperature treatment (25 - 100 oC). The physical and chemical characterization of membranes include functional group analysis, degree of grafting, whereas water permeabily was carried by water flux test. As the result, the functional group analysis showed that there were the new functional group in modified membranes. Increase temperature treatment, increasing degree of grafting, whereas the water flux decrease with increase temperature treatment ...
The research also revealed the extent of the negative effects varied depending on where the insect population is based. Insects which evolve in countries at low latitudes - such as Spain - cope better with above average temperature rises compared to those living at high latitudes, such as Sweden.. This means insects in high latitude countries are more vulnerable to climate change, which could lead to a decline in population.. Dr Rhonda Snook, lead investigator of the study from the University of Sheffields Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, said: "We already knew that insects are feeling the effect of climate change but we now know they are felt at much lower temperatures.. "Our study is unique as we only exposed the insects to mild heat but tested the long-term impact this had on them as both juveniles and when they reached adulthood. The results show that even small increases in temperature may still cause populations to decline because - while these insects dont die because of the ...
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The invention provides a rapid temperature rise heater element comprising an exothermic section (1) and a lead section (2), the exothermic section (1) comprising an exothermic section conductor of cer
Single crystalline specimens of Ni{sub 3}Ge were compressed along [0 0 1] at different temperatures. Temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress (τ{sub 0}(T)) has been obtained. Detailed measurements at cryogen temperatures (4.2-77 K temperature interval) showed that the increase of the yield stress with temperature starts at liquid helium temperature. The values of the apparent activation volume (V*) have been obtained as a result of stress relaxation tests repeated along the stress-strain curve at different stress levels at seven temperatures (77, 293, 373, 473, 573, 673, 773 K). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods were used to analyze the evolution of dislocation structure with temperature and strain. The measurements of the straight dislocations fraction determined as δ = ρ{sub sd} / ρ, (ρ{sub sd} is the straight dislocation density, ρ is a total dislocation density) have been performed. The experimental data obtained in different tests in Ni{sub 3}Ge ...
NOAA Fisheries Ecology Division and UC Santa Cruz researchers found the thermal tolerance of Chinook salmon embryos in the Sacramento River is much lower than expected from laboratory studies. Exploring the cause of this discrepancy led to new insights into how egg size and water flow affect the survival of fish eggs.
Aug. 16, 1960 E. J. DAVIDSON 2,949,513 EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT Filed Sept. 3, 1957 i eeixmfive wm/m g 71 ff/eefil/elimperarure 2 Q: 11 5 x [00 40 7 I g r INVENTOR. 3 51 44 t]; 404100.570, 727 7.9 D y 841/6 (Deyrees) Patented Aug. 16, 1960 iice EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT Evan J. Davidson, North Hollywood, Calif., assignor to General Controls Co., Glendale, Califl, a corporation of California Filed Sept. 3, 1957, Ser. No. 681,700 Claims. (Cl. 20061.06) This invention relates to a thermostat structure to be used for air heating or cooling systems. It is well recognized that for a given air velocity, the sense of warmth or coolness depends not only upon the dry bulb temperature of the surrounding air, but also upon its relative humidity or moisture content. Thus, air at 72 dry bulb temperature and at 70% relative humidity is physiologically as comfortable as air at 77 dry bulb temperature and at 30% relative humidity. Eifective temperature is the term given to the degree of ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Exergetic evaluation of heat pump booster configurations in a low temperature district heating network. AU - Ommen,Torben Schmidt. AU - Elmegaard,Brian. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - In order to minimise losses in a district heating network, one approach is to lower the temperature difference between working media and soil. Considering only direct heat exchange, the minimum forward temperature level is determined by the demand side, as energy services are required at a certain temperature. As domestic hot water is required at a temperature range where legionella is no longer a threat, forward temperatures in a traditional low temperature district heating network cannot be lowered beyond approximately 55 ºC. One solution is to boost the temperature of the forward tap water stream with a heat pump, as the remaining heat demands are often not required at temperature levels as high as the tap water. The scope of this work is to evaluate the power consumption and second law efficiency of ...
We investigated the temperature dependence of foamability, foam stability and foam structure between 5 and 60°C for four types of milk: ultra-high temperature processed milk
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An embodiment of the present invention is a temperature forcing system and method for precision temperature control of a device-under-test. The system comprises a thermal test head suspended by a support arm that receives a temperature controlled air flow through an output hose from an air supply system. A pair of temperature sensors, one attached to the device-under-test and the other in the output hose, are used differentially by a closed-loop temperature controller when the temperature of the device-under-test comes within a temperature window surrounding a target temperature setpoint point. Outside the temperature window control is linear and within the temperature window control is compensated by a correction factor obtained during a single calibration test that amalgamates the effects of the mass of the device-under-test, the ambient conditions and other factors.
the solubility of argon in water at 25 degrees celcius is 0.0150M. what is the henrys law constant of Ar if the partial pressure of argon is 0.00934 atm. A)0.000140 M/atm B)0.623 M/ atm C)1.61 M/atm D) 4.10 M/atm K=Pgas/Cgas Post ...
Explain, why? (i) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2, if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily settle to the mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2 (ii) The coolant in a chemical of a nuclear plant (i. e., the…
How much can the resistance of a typical voice coil change over its operating temperature range assuming frequency remains constant? From the calculat
On-line diagnostics of power system components is an important area since it allows the diagnostics to be performed at regular intervals during the normal operation of the components. This combined with reliability centered maintenance could lead to reduced customer outages. In this thesis the on-line diagnostic methods for medium voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables are investigated based on Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR).. Degradation of XLPE insulated power cables by water-trees (WT) is a primary cause of failure of these cables. The detection of WT and information about the severity of the degradation can be obtained with off-line measurements using dielectric spectroscopy. In many situations only a limited part of the cable may be degraded by the WT. In such a situation a method for localization of this WT section would be desirable.. The developed high frequency measurements superimposed on HV system is presented. It was used to measure the propagation constant of the WT aged ...
This article reports the temperature dependence of the structural and photoelectrical properties of C60 thin films with varying crystal structure and oxygen content near the orientational disorder/order phase transition at about 260 K. X-ray diffraction data demonstrate that highly crystalline oxygen-free C60 films undergo the first-order phase transition at 252 K with a lattice parameter discontinuity Δa/a of 0.22%; no discontinuity was observed in C60 films with coexisting amorphous and nanocrystalline phases. A strong effect of the phase transition on the dark- and photoconductivity in those films is presented: In highly crystalline C60 films both dark- and photoconductivity increase as the temperature is lowered through the transition region. However, opposite temperature changes of the conductivity are observed in nanocrystalline/amorphous C60 films. In situ exposure of samples to oxygen gas suppresses any critical behavior. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of ...
Electronics subjected to shock and vibration may experience strain rates of 1-100 sec-1. High strain rate data is scarce for leadfree solders at strain rates in the range of 1-100 sec-1, typical of dropimpact, shock and vibration. A new experimental method has been developed to achieve constant strain rate in the neighborhood of 1 to 100 sec-1 during the entire deformation history. SAC105 and SAC305, which are two of the widely used leadfree alloys, have been tested at strain rates of 10, 35, 50 and 75 per sec. Effect of aging on the high strain rate properties has also been quantified by subjecting the test specimen to thermal aging for varied periods of time at various temperatures. The leadfree solders have been exposed to constant temperatures of 25°C, 50°C, 75°C, 100°C and 125°C for 1 day, 30 days and 60 days prior to high strain-rate test. Full-field strain in the specimen has been measured using high speed imaging at frame rates up to 75,000 fps
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Notes: Production, means the output of Negative Temperature Coefficient(NTC) Thermistors Revenue, me - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Benjamin J Povinelli, Kathleen M Kokolus, Jason W-L Eng, Christopher W Dougher, Leslie Curtin, Maegan L Capitano, Christi T Sailsbury-Ruf, Elizabeth A Repasky, Michael J Nemeth].
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The column oven should operate over a fairly wide temperature range (e.g. from 5˚C to 400˚C). In practice, however, the maximum oven temperature needed is usually less than 250˚C, particularly when synthetic stationary phases are being used, as many of them tend to be unstable and either decompose or volatilize at higher temperatures. Similarly, initial temperatures below 50˚C are also rarely needed. The oven usually has air circulation driven by a powerful fan to ensure an even temperature throughout the oven. The temperature in any part of the oven should be stable to 0.5 ˚C and when operating isothermally the column temperature should be constant to 0.2 ˚C. The oven should have a capacity of 1-2 cu. ft. and is supplied with fittings to accept more than one column and some switching valves if so desired. Such equipment is needed for multidimensional chromatography.. The temperature programmer (hardware and software) usually has a range of linear gradients from 0.5˚C/min. to about ...
Temperature can affect the bounce of a squash ball because it can change the pressure inside the ball and the resilience or flexibility of the rubber, according to the Department of Physics at the University of Illinois.
Resonant senosrs and microsensors are one of the most common used sensors in industry. The applications ranges from fuid, pressure to chemical sensing. Temperature effect on the performance of such devices is of importance to the accuracy of measurement Some work was carried out with respect to beam sensors to study this phenomenon, but nothing with respect to diaphragm sensors to the author knowldge. In this paper, we are interested in the modeling of such diaphragm under thermal effect. We chose the dynamic analogue of Saint-Venant plate model under uniform temperature to analyse a circular diaphragm. The resulting equation turns out to be similar to the classic problem of plate stability under uniform in-plane loading. The modeling methodology can be applied to any type of thermal loading and the complications would be only the possibility of solving the resulting stability problem. It is found that under the assumption of isotropic materials with temperature-insensitive material properties,
A temperature control system for maintaining a cryogenic load at a predetermined temperature by circulating a wet mixture of a coolant through tubing that is in heat-transfer relationship with the load while maintaining the coolant in a saturated condition throughout the tubing at a constant temperature that is slightly cooler than the predetermined load temperature. The system includes a preconditioning chamber from which liquid coolant is supplied to the tubing. The chamber is partially filled with liquid coolant, with the remainder of the chamber filled with vaporous coolant. Inlet and outlet metering valves for the tubing are mounted in the chamber and controls are provided for maintaining the entire interior environment of the chamber including the valves, interconnecting tubing and both the liquid and vaporous coolant in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium at a temperature that is a few tenths of a degree lower than the predetermined temperature of the load. Sensors are provided at the load and
Sterling, VA (November 30, 2005) . . . Gammaflux L.P., the worlds leading supplier of hot runner temperature control systems, has expanded its LEC line of temperature controllers with the introduction of a new LEC 2-zone model. The 2-zone LEC is the ideal solution for providing precision control to small hot runners such as single-cavity molds and hot sprue bushing applications. The 2-zone LEC is the latest addition to the family of LEC controllers, which are available for applications for up to 24 zones of control. The LEC provides molders with full-featured hot runner temperature control at an extremely competitive price. Designed for smaller hot runner system applications, the LEC is offered with 2, 6 and 12 zone enclosures. The LEC features a modular design for simple control card removal, addition or replacement. Flexibility has been built-in to the LEC line for global use. It is designed to work with most hot runner molds operating in the world today. All LEC controllers are backed by a ...
Note:. Temperature ranges stated are affected by the actual emissivity (e) of your target, and ambient temperature surrounding the sensor. Best results are at 77F (25 C) ambient.. For best accuracy on the standard pc models (i.e. J50, K50, etc.), choose model closest to targets range, and ambient temperature ,200F.. For instance, target temperature range = 0-100°F, choose the J or K50F. Target temperature range = 400-700°F, choose the J or K440F.. For HiE models; when e,0.9, the min and max temperature can increase, when e,0.9 the min and max temperature can decrease slightly.. For LoE models; when e,0.2, the min and max temperature can increase greatly, when e,0.2 the min and max temperature can decrease greatly.. These models are recommended to utilize the performance capabilities of the Eurotherm 2000 Series Controllers and other programmable controllers, for full temperature range linearization, emissivity/reflectivity adjustment and quick OEM configuration.. email: ...
The other major category, and the one that we shall concentrate on in this section, are referred to as switching PTC thermistors. These devices are polycrystalline ceramic materials that are normally highly resistive but are made semiconductive by the addition of dopants. They are most often manufactured using compositions of barium, lead and strontium titanates with additives such as yttrium, manganese, tantalum and silica. These devices have a resistance-temperature characteristic that exhibits a very small negative temperature coefficient until the device reaches a critical temperature, that is referred to as its Curie , switch or transition temperature. As this critical temperature is approached, the devices begin to exhibit a rising, positive temperature coefficient of resistance as well as a large increase in resistance. The resistance change can be as much as several orders of magnitude within a temperature span of a few degrees ...
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Study on temperature distribution simulation during cementing of hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal well is rare. It has important guiding significance to simulate the construction process of temperature distribution of hot dry rock on site construction. Based on numerical simulation of HDR considering heat-fluid-solid coupling, the influence of temperature distribution on well cementing is analyzed when the drilling fluid cycles and reaches stable state, respectively, and when the cement slurry is injected during the cementing process. It is found that the seepage at the well bottom accelerates the flow velocity of wellbore; the stable temperature change is less than the cyclic temperature change; and the upper and lower temperature variation of the stratum is greater when the cement slurry is injected. Therefore, as to cement retarder involved, the influence of temperature variation on concretion should be considered during cementing of the hot dry rock geothermal well.
In the present study, elevated temperature and CO2 levels were found to increase the DM, EE and NDF contents and reduce the ash and CP contents. Rosenzweig et al. [23] reported that increasing the CO2 concentration and temperature might lead to the increase of photosynthesis, carbohydrate fixation, respiration and transpiration in the plants. Increased photosynthesis and carbohydrate fixation might result in the increase of growth rate and plant biomass [24], which would lead to the increase of dry matter in the plants. Meanwhile, the increased respiration and transpiration would lead to the increase of total leaf area, which could increase the evaporation of water, decrease the water content, and thus relatively increase the dry matter content in plants [25]. Carten et al. [26] reported that a combined increase in temperature and CO2 concentration could increase the biomass of three genotypes of Lotus corniculatus. Hocking et al. [27] also showed that shoot to root dry matter rations of both ...
The CX Series of control and measurement stations monitor furnace temperature in tunnel kiln furnaces and the like using Faceplate and Trend screens that come as standard features. There is no need to create new monitoring screens, and it is possible to introduce the CX more easily than conducting instrumentation on a PC or the like. The CX implements temperature control with a single unit, using a maximum of six embedded loops. (Maximum six-zone temperature control.). ...
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1 How do your parents keep your house warm or cool? At home, theres probably a thermostat on the wall. Your parents set the temperature they want the house to be. The thermostat tells the heater or air conditioner when to come on and turn off again. The thermostats job is to keep your house an even temperature. Did you know your body has a kind of thermostat, too ...
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Instrumental data describing large-scale surface temperature changes are only available for roughly the past 150 years. Estimates of surface temperature changes further back in time must therefore make use of the few long available instrumental records or historical documents and natural archives or climate proxy indicators, such as tree rings, corals, ice cores and lake sediments, and historical documents to reconstruct patterns of past surface temperature change. Due to the paucity of data in the Southern Hemisphere, recent studies have emphasized the reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean, rather than global mean temperatures over roughly the past 1000 years.. The term "Hockey Stick" was coined by the former head of NOAAs Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Jerry Mahlman, to describe the pattern common to numerous proxy and model-based estimates of Northern Hemisphere mean temperature changes over the past millennium. This pattern includes a long-term cooling trend from the ...
Higher temperatures make higher levels of humidity possible. This is because warm air is capable of holding more moisture than cold air. Warm air has a stronger bond to water molecules, making the...
A dual current conveyor based rectifier circuit with low temperature sensitivity is presented. The use of a DC current source to bias the rectifying diodes
Showers and thunderstorms will approach from the west overnight and arrive by dawn on Thursday and the streak of 90s will end tomorrow as a cold front brings cooler temperatures.
With 2016 set to be the warmest year on record, scientists have discovered insects are already feeling the effects of climate change, as a rise in temperature is shown to damage their ability to reproduce.
A vortex sensor senses the generated vortices and provides a vortex signal. A filtering circuit is coupling to the vortex sensor to receive the vortex signal and provide an output indicative of fluid flow. A temperature sensor senses a temperature of the fluid and provides a temperature value, while a pressure sensor senses a pressure of the fluid and provides a pressure value. A processor is operably coupled to the filtering circuit, the temperature sensor, and the pressure sensor for receiving the output, the temperature value, and the pressure value, respectively. The processor calculates a calibration factor as a function of the output, the temperature value, and the pressure value for use in calculating the output value indicative of the flow rate of the fluid.
by Judith Curry Two new papers have focused on the quality, uncertainties and interpretation of global sea surface temperature data. A call for new approaches to quantifying biases in observations of sea-surface temperature Elizabeth Kent, John Kennedy, Thomas Smith, Shoji Hirahara et al. (long author list) Abstract: Global surface-temperature is a fundamental measure of climate change.…
by Judith Curry Two new papers have focused on the quality, uncertainties and interpretation of global sea surface temperature data. A call for new approaches to quantifying biases in observations of sea-surface temperature Elizabeth Kent, John Kennedy, Thomas Smith, Shoji Hirahara et al. (long author list) Abstract: Global surface-temperature is a fundamental measure of climate change.…
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A calorimeter capable of measuring the heat capacity of 1 mg size samples from 4.2 to greater than 100 K has been designed, constructed, and tested. The sample is bonded to the end of a 0.002 inch diameter, 0.5 cm long chromel-constantan thermocouple (type E) and heated optically with a laser and fiber optic. An advantage of this calorimeter is the low addenda heat capacity of the thermocouple. The thermocouple, which serves not only as the temperature sensor of the sample but also as the thermal link between the sample and a constant temperature reservoir, is anchored to a copper block, which acts as the constant temperature reservoir. Heat capacity is determined from the temperature rate of decay of the sample using a sweep method. The sample is heated to an initial temperature above the block temperature by the laser. The laser is then turned off and the sample temperature is allowed to decay to the block temperature. By measuring the temperature of the sample as a function of time and ...
I have recently started working on some cell sites. The temperature control I have come across, is nice, but the company that made it is not returning calls about parts and support. So I have to start replacing them. I was wondering what people are using for these cell tower computer rooms for automatic changeover temperature control?
Temperature control is the process of keeping the body at a constant core temperature close to 37°C.Our body can only stay at a constant temperature if the heat we generate is balanced and equal to the heat we lose.Although our core temperature must be close to 37ºC , our fingers and toes can be colder. This is because energy is transferred from the blood as it travels to our fingers and toes.. How our body maintains a constant temperature. Temperature receptors in the skin detect changes in the external temperature. Sensoryand relay neurones transmit this information as impulses to the thermoregulatory centre of the brain - the area of the brain responsible for monitoring and controlling temperature. The thermoregulatory centre also has temperature receptors which detect changes in the temperature of the blood flowing through the brain. In the event of a change in temperature away from 37oC, the thermoregulatory centre sends electrical impulses to effectors (predominantly in the skin) which ...
A temperature compensating circuit for a Hall generator with a positive temperature coefficient of the resistance of the drive circuit path utilizes summation of a voltage representing the drive current as detected across a substantially temperature-independent compensating resistance in the drive current path, with a constant voltage component to provide one output to an operational amplifier whose other output is connected to this operational amplifier which produces the output signal of the circuit.
To better treat pain, we require an understanding of the molecular principles that govern the perception of both noxious and subnoxious stimuli. Decades of investigation into thermosensation across phyla have highlighted a conserved family of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels (first discovered by Craig Montell through studies of the fruit fly visual system) that respond to a spectrum of noxious or subnoxious temperatures. Interestingly, many classic experiments show that animals also exhibit nociceptive escape behavior in response to a rapid change in temperature, even within a subnoxious range.. In this recent study, Montell and his team investigate, using the power of fruit fly genetics, how an animal can detect rapid temperature change. The team first develops a novel experimental paradigm to study fruit fly larvae behavioral responses to changing temperature and then uses automated tracking software to confirm that a rapid rate of temperature increase was sufficient to trigger ...
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Rigid chains have higher melting temperatures. 16.5 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers Thermoplastic polymers (thermoplasts) soften reversibly when heated (harden when cooled back) Thermosetting polymers (thermosets) harden permanently when heated, as cross-linking hinder bending and rotations. Thermosets are harder, more dimensionally stable, and more brittle than thermoplasts. 16.6 Viscoelasticity At low temperatures, amorphous polymers deform elastically, like glass, at small elongation. At high temperatures the behavior is viscous, like liquids. At intermediate temperatures, the behavior, like a rubbery solid, is termed viscoelastic. Viscoelasticity is characterized by the viscoelastic relaxation modulus Er = s(t)/e0. If the material is strained to a value e0.it is found that the stress needs to be reduced with time to maintain this constant value of strain (see figs. 16.11 and 16.12). In viscoelastic creep, the stress is kept constant at s0 and the change of deformation with time e(t) ...
An automatic device actuated by temperature changes designed to control the gas supply to the burner(s) in order to maintain temperature between predetermined limits, and in which the thermal actuating element is an integral part of the device: 1. Electric Switch Type: A device which senses changes in temperature and control electrically, by means of separate components, the flow of gas to the burner(s) to maintain selected temperature. 2. Graduating Thermostat: A thermostat in which the motion of the thermostat valve is in direct proportion to the effective motion of the thermal element induced by temperature change. 3. Quick-Acting Graduating Thermostat: A thermostat which changes from the completely closed position, or vice versa, but not with a snap. 4. Snap-Acting Thermostat: A thermostat in which the thermostatic valve travels instantly from the closed to the open position, or vice versa ...
Cardinal Temperatures The temperatures ranging from minimum to maximum that allow for bacterial growth. Minimum temperature: the lowest temperature at which an organism can grow-lower temperatures do not support bacterial growth Maximum temperature: the highest temperature at which an organism can grow-higher temperatures do not support bacterial growth Optimum temperature: the temperature at which growth is most rapid The optimum temperature is always closer to the maximum temperature than to the minimum temperature
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Julia Jaroslawska, Agnieszka Chabowska-Kita, Monika M Kaczmarek, Leslie P Kozak].
Standard thermostat temperatures for residential buildings have been set by the SJU administration. If you would like your room to be below the standard temperature in the heating season (winter) or above the standard temperature in the cooling season (summer), talk with your roommates to see if you can agree on a different temperature.. Important: Before submitting this form, you must read the section specific to your building in the Heating and Cooling in Residential Buildings page. Also keep in mind that the normal range of temperatures is ±2°F from the set temperature, and that the temperature is measured where the thermostat is-your own thermometer may give a different reading.. Once you have all agreed on a new temperature, please follow these steps:. ...
Small changes in temperatures during flash-cooling have significant effects on the diffraction quality of nucleosome crystals and in some cases cause substantial changes in unit-cell parameters that are a result of the reorganization of molecules in the lattice. Thus, in cases where flash-cooling around liquid-nitrogen temperatures leads to a deterioration in diffraction, flash-cooling at intermediate temperatures using alternative cryogens may be a useful approach ...
The hypothesis for this experiment is that if the temperature of the water decreases, then the respiration rate of the goldfish that are in it will also decrease. To test this, the group had a control and an experimental group of goldfish. After we lowered the temperature of the water that the experimental was put into, an observation was made that respiration rate of the fish does indeed decrease. In conclusion our hypothesis was supported and the experiment proved to be true according to our results ...
I recently installed a new CPU cooler that actually resulted in higher temps, and my SIM score in Supreme Commander 2 seems to have suffered relative to...
The present research addressed the size-controlled synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals at different temperatures. In order to study systematically the dependence of crystal size with synthesis conditions in ethanol, stable suspensions of these nanocrystals were produced at various temperatures, ranging from 0 0C to 60 0C. XRD characterization of produced materials verified the fast and direct formation of ZnO nanocrystals. In XRD pattern the absence of peaks other than those corresponding to ZnO, suggests well and fast formation of the oxide structure even without aging. Moreover, the XRD patterns show a significant shift in the peaks position, which is evidence of a progressive increment in their lattice parameters. The FT-IR spectra of ZnO crystals synthesized at 00C and aged for different times, show bands at 525cm,1 which is attributed to stretching vibrations of the Zn-O bonds. The bands at 1339, 1404, and 1575 cm-1, are due to the stretching vibration of C=O, C=C and C-H bonds, respectively. The high
Abstract: We investigate theoretically a one-dimensional ideal Bose gas that is driven into a steady state far from equilibrium via the coupling to two heat baths: a global bath of temperature $T$ and a "hot needle", a bath of temperature $T_h\gg T$ with localized coupling to the system. Remarkably, this system features a crossover to finite-size Bose condensation at temperatures $T$ that are orders of magnitude larger than the equilibrium condensation temperature. This counterintuitive effect is explained by a suppression of long-wavelength excitations resulting from the competition between both baths. Moreover, for sufficiently large needle temperatures ground-state condensation is superseded by condensation into an excited state, which is favored by its weaker coupling to the hot needle. Our results suggest a general strategy for the preparation of quantum degenerate nonequilibrium steady states with unconventional properties and at large temperatures ...
Phase transition is a spontaneous process of conversion from one phase to another which occurs at specific temperature and pressure conditions. Transition temperature (Ttrs) between phases, for example, between solid and liquid phase, or between protein conformations, is a temperature at specific pressure when molar Gibbs energy is equal for both phases, or whenthose two phases are in equlibrium, respectively. Phase transition is a transition from one phase to another. Matter changes its state when exposed to change in external conditions like temperature, pressure or magnetic field. Melting, evaporation and conversion of a graphite into diamond are examples of phase conversions without changing the composition of matter. In nature, everything has a tendency of transition into lower molar Gibbs energy state at constant temperature and pressure ...
Researchers published in Open Diabetes Research & Care claim that the diabetes incidence rate in the USA and prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide increase with higher outdoor temperature.. Prof. Ashley Grossman, Professor of Endocrinology at the University of Oxford and member of the Society for Endocrinology, said:. "Obesity with its bedfellow type 2 diabetes is a worldwide scourge, and traditionally we could only advise people to eat less and exercise more. However, the discovery of brown fat and the browning of white fat means that there may be other ways to decrease its incidence.. "There is some rather encouraging evidence that cooling the body, even by a few degrees, may improve or reduce diabetes. Now, Blauw and colleagues from Holland have speculated that if this is true, then there should be a correlation between environmental temperature and the prevalence of diabetes, and they claim that examining environmental temperature data from US states, and some countries, there is ...
Multiple systems connected to a smart thermostat can help with indoor temperature control Adding temperature sensors and a humidifier can help reduce dryness.
In most current designs of D-T fusion reactor blankets employing ceramic breeder materials, the use of a helium sweep gas containing 0.1 % of hydrogen is contemplated to extract tritium efficiently via isotopic exchange reactions. However, the isotope exchange reaction proceeds fast only at the more elevated temperatures, so that the rate of isotope exchange reactions is considerably low at lower temperatures. Taking into consideration that there is a broad temperature distribution within a blanket module, it is anticipated that the tritium bred in regions of lower temperatures will be poorly recovered. For this reason, there is still a need to develop techniques that contribute to the acceleration of the recovery of bred tritium at lower temperatures. In our previous works, the effect of catalytic active metal additives, such as Pt and Pd, on the heterogeneous isotope exchange reactions at the breeder-sweep gas interface was examined. The results indicate that the exchange reactions were ...