Dawson, J D. and Sauer, L A., The effect of different incubation temperatures on the adenine nucleotide content of ehrlich-lettre ascites tumor cells. (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 33 ...
A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature. For a property R that changes by dR when the temperature changes by dT, the temperature coefficient α is defined by the following equation: d R R = α d T {\displaystyle {\frac {dR}{R}}=\alpha \,dT} Here α has the dimension of an inverse temperature and can be expressed e.g. in 1/K or K−1. If the temperature coefficient itself does not vary too much with temperature, a linear approximation will be useful in estimating the value R of a property at a temperature T, given its value R0 at a reference temperature T0: R ( T ) = R ( T 0 ) ( 1 + α Δ T ) , {\displaystyle R(T)=R(T_{0})(1+\alpha \Delta T),} where ΔT is the difference between T and T0. For strongly temperature-dependent α, this approximation is only useful for small temperature differences ΔT. Temperature coefficients are specified for various applications, including electric and magnetic properties ...
Introduction. How Temperature Affects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes Aim: To use beetroot to examine the effect of temperature on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure. Hypothesis: An increase in temperature will damage and denature the membrane and cause the substances contained within it to leak out. Overview: The experiment below displays the effects of temperature on the pigment in uncooked beetroot cells. The pigment in beetroot cells lies within the cell vacuole and is called betalain, each vacuole is surrounded by a tonoplast membrane and outside it, the cytoplasm is surrounded by the plasma membrane, therefore the foundation of this experiment lies with the temperature at which the membranes will rupture and therefore leak the pigment. To do this a series of uncooked beetroot cylinders will be exposed to different temperatures and then to distilled water at room temperature (20�C). The colour of the distilled water is the variable here. ...
Disclosed herein is a temperature control system for multi-zone temperature control with setback control. The system includes a thermostat associated with each zone of a building, and a central control unit which communicates with each thermostat to send temperature setpoint values to each thermostat for the purpose of conserving energy and reducing energy consumption during certain times of the day. Each thermostat is associated with either a heating or cooling device, where setup temperature values are sent from the central control unit to the thermostats where cooling devices are used in place of heating devices. The thermostats are designed to operate as stand-alone units which control the temperature within a zone based upon a temperature setpoint stored at the unit. The temperature setpoint values are replaced by the higher or lower temperature setpoint values transmitted to the thermostats by the control units during setback or setup time periods. To avoid the requirement of installing
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:130:\A DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF GROWTH TEMPERATURE ON THE PHOSPHOLIPID AND NEUTRAL LIPID FATTY ACYL COMPOSITION OF MICROCOCCUS CRYOPHILUS\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1978\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:6:\RUSSEL\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\NJ\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:1:{i:0;s:9:\RUSSEL ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of growth temperature on the production of antibody Fab fragments in different microbes: A host comparative analysis. AU - Dragosits, Martin. AU - Frascotti, Gianni. AU - Bernard-Granger, Lise. AU - Vázquez, Felícitas. AU - Giuliani, Maria. AU - Baumann, Kristin. AU - Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata. AU - Tokkanen, Jaana. AU - Parrilli, Ermenegilda. AU - Wiebe, Marilyn G.. AU - Kunert, Renate. AU - Maurer, Michael. AU - Gasser, Brigitte. AU - Sauer, Michael. AU - Branduardi, Paola. AU - Pakula, Tiina. AU - Saloheimo, Markku. AU - Penttilä, Merja. AU - Ferrer, Pau. AU - Luisa Tutino, Maria. AU - Villaverde, Antonio. AU - Porro, Danilo. AU - Mattanovich, Diethard. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Microorganisms encounter diverse stress conditions in their native habitats but also during fermentation processes, which have an impact on industrial process performance. These environmental stresses and the physiological reactions they trigger, including changes in the ...
Atmospheric temperature is a measure of temperature at different levels of the Earths atmosphere. It is governed by many factors, including incoming solar radiation, humidity and altitude. When discussing surface temperature, the annual atmospheric temperature range at any geographical location depends largely upon the type of biome, as measured by the Köppen climate classification. In the Earths atmosphere, temperature varies greatly at different heights relative to the Earths surface. The coldest temperatures lie near the mesopause, an area approximately 80 km above the surface. In contrast, some of the warmest temperatures can be found in the thermosphere, which receives strong ionizing radiation at the level of the Van Allen radiation belt. Temperature varies as one moves vertically upwards from the Earths surface. It also depends on the change of latitude. The variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights is called diurnal temperature variation. ...
Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature changes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under different temperature regimes and glucose availability conditions. These included glucose-excess batch cultures at different temperatures and glucose-limited chemostat cultures, subjected to fast linear temperature shifts and circadian sinoidal temperature cycles. An observed temperature-independent relation between intracellular levels of glycolytic metabolites and residual glucose concentration for all experimental conditions revealed that it is the substrate availability rather than temperature that determines intracellular metabolite profiles. This observation corresponded with predictions generated in silico with a kinetic
Introduction. How Temperature Affects Catalase Activity. Aim: In this experiment I aim to investigate how altering the temperature exposed to the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide, will affect the reaction and the gas product produced. Scientific background knowledge lets us know that there are 6 variables that usually affect the rate of a reaction, and they are as follows: * Concentration of enzymes * Concentration of hydrogen peroxide * Temperature condition of reaction * Pressure condition of reaction * Physical state of solid substrate (e.g. surface area of particles) [Some material reproduced from Biology 1 endorsed by OCR] In order to ensure fairness and accuracy, I will see to it that all the necessary and vital measurements are taken precise to the mark, and Ill aim to maintain all other latent variables constant. Hypothesis: Via my observation, I intend to prove that as the temperature of both the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide id equally increased, the rate of which ...
Solar is a renewable energy that can be used to provide process heat to industrial sites but require thermal storage. HRLs (heat recovery loops) are an indirect method for transferring heat from one process to another using an intermediate fluid. With HRLs thermal storage is also necessary to effectively meet the stop/start time dependent nature of the multiple source and sink streams. Combining solar heating with HRLs is a cost effective way to share common storage and piping infrastructure. The conventional HRL design method based on a CTS (constant temperature storage) and a new HRL design method using VTS (variable temperature storage) are applied to demonstrate the potential benefits of inter-plant heat integration and installing solar heating. The dairy case study had available 12 source streams including four spray dryer exhausts and six sink streams. The addition of the dryer exhausts as heat sources was a critical factor in gaining a heat recovery of 10.8 MW for the variable ...
This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha-a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0-3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10-25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0-2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%-8.2%) for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%-7.9%) for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and
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View Notes - Chapter10blackrw2 from CHEM 102 at UNC. 10 Gases Visualizing Concepts 10.2 At constant temperature and volume, pressure depends on total number of particles (Charles Law). In order to
Rodriguez, Eduardo Matinelli, 1\ Effects of Population Density and Temperature on Growth and Development of Rana sylvatica (2005). Introductory Biology: Independent Project Research Papers. Paper 143 ...
At certain upper and lower threshold temperatures (critical temperatures (Tc) crustaceans switch to anaerobic metabolism despite sufficient oxygen availability in the environment. I tested the hypothesis that failure of the heart at critical temperatures leads to insufficient oxygen delivery and subsequent anaerobiosis in peripheral tissues. I exposed rock crabs, Cancer irroratus, as whole animals, and their buffer-perfused semi-isolated hearts to a progressive temperature increase, while monitoring heart rate and lactate accumulation. The whole animals heart rate increased with temperature following a Q10 of 2.8. An abrupt decline in heart rate occurred at 25°C and lactate accumulation occurred between 25°C and 30°C. The semi-isolated hearts followed a Q10 of only 1.2 during temperature increase. A second set of semi-isolated hearts were perfused and paced at a heart rate comparable to the whole animals at each temperature. The lactate concentration in the paced semi-isolated hearts did not
Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines ...
Article Temperature Effect on Preconsolidation Pressure. A change in temperature is known to affect the deformation properties of a clay specimen. In order to study the effect quantitative y and its dependence on clay type a number of oedometer tests...
A system for inducing desirable temperature effects on body tissue, the body tissue being disposed about a lumen. The system includes an elongate catheter having a proximal end and a distal end with an axis therebetween with an energy delivery portion for transmission of energy. A tissue analyzer configured to characterize the body tissue in the lumen proximate the energy delivery portion and an energy source coupled to the energy delivery portion transmitting tissue treatment energy, wherein the energy is non-RF energy. A processor coupled to the tissue analyzer and energy source, the processor configured to determine an appropriate treatment energy for the characterized body tissue so as to mildly heat the body tissue with the energy delivery portion without ablating.
Temperature effects on the dynamics of gonad and oocyte development in captive wild-caught blacklip (|i|Haliotis rubra|/i|) and greenlip (|i|H. laevigata|/i|) abalone
Some of these changes, like those taking place during fermentation, are desirable, while others, like those resulting in food spoilage and food poisoning, are undesirable. Some of these changes, like those taking place during fermentation, are desirable, while others, like those resulting in food spoilage and food poisoning, are undesirable. I tested three different objects, in three different trials, to find out how temperature affects the growth of bacteria. However, in any particular environment, the types and numbers of microorganisms will depend greatly on the temperature. The water activity of high-moisture foods, especially processed foods, can be manipulated to some extent by the addition of salts and sugars or other ingredients, which are known to reduce water activity. It will depend on the organism what temperature it prefers. They are found in permanently cold environments such as the deep waters of the oceans. When you pickle vegetables by fermentation, you help one type of microbe ...
Research Question How does surface temperature affect the clarity of a fingerprint on a glass? Hypothesis If I change the surface temperature of each glass and put a fingerprint on them then the coldest glass would have the most clarity because the fingerprint cant evaporate as fast with colder surface temperature. Purpose The purpose of my experiment was the fact that I love forensics or criminal sciences. I have been interested in forensics since I was little and want to learn more about the subject. Materials 6 glass ...
Ferroelectric materials exhibit the largest dielectric permittivities and piezoelectric responses in nature, making them invaluable in applications from supercapacitors or sensors to actuators or electromechanical transducers. The origin of this behavior is their proximity to phase transitions. However, the largest possible responses are most often not utilized due to the impracticality of using temperature as a control parameter and to operate at phase transitions. This has motivated the design of solid solutions with morphotropic phase boundaries between different polar phases that are tuned by composition and that are weakly dependent on temperature. Thus far, the best piezoelectrics have been achieved in materials with intermediate (bridging or adaptive) phases. But so far, complex chemistry or an intricate microstructure has been required to achieve temperature-independent phase-transition boundaries. Here, we report such a temperature-independent bridging state in thin films of chemically ...
An absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence is executed and, subsequently, a relative temperature measuring pulse sequence is repeatedly executed. Since while a relative temperature can be measured from phase information, an absolute temperature requires frequency information, a time required in the relative temperature measuring pulse can be made shorter than that required in the absolute temperature measuring pulse sequence. Since the relative temperature reveals a temperature variation, if an absolute temperature at a given time is known, an absolute temperature at a subsequent time can be calculated from the relative temperature. Thus, a local internal temperature of the subject can be measured, with a shorter temporal resolution, with the use of the absolute temperature and relative temperature.
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Copper and its alloys generally display a severe reduction in ductility between roughly 300 and 600 degrees C, a phenomenon variously called intermediate temperature embrittlement or ductility trough behaviour. This review of the phenomenon begins by placing it in the wider context of the high-temperature fracture of metals, showing how its occurrence can be rationalised in simple terms on the basis of what is known of intergranular creep fracture and dynamic recrystallisation. Data in the literature are reviewed to identify main causes and mechanisms for embrittlement, first for pure copper, and then for monophase and multiphase copper alloys. Coverage then turns to the grain boundary embrittlement phenomenon, caused by the intergranular segregation of even minute quantities of alloying additions or impurities, which appears to worsen dramatically the intermediate temperature embrittlement of copper alloys. Finally, metal-induced embrittlement, including in particular liquid metal embrittlement,
The response of dynamic and static modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn and MOEsta) of red pine small clear wood (25.4 × 25.4 × 407 mm3) within the temperature range -40 to 40°C has been investigated. The moisture content (MC) of the specimens ranged from 0 to 118%. The MOEdyn was calculated based on measured ultrasonic velocity (V) and wood density. The MOEsta was measured by static bending tests in a climate chamber between -40 and 40°C. The results indicate that both MOEdyn and MOEsta were affected by temperature and the MC. Above freezing point, MOE decreased linearly at a slow rate with increasing temperature. Below freezing point, MOE increased at a rapid rate with decreasing temperature. The MC-level had a significant effect on the MOE-temperature relationships. Temperature effect was much more significant in green wood than in dry wood. Analytical models were developed to predict the change of MOEdyn relative to that at 20°C in the case of acoustic measurements under different temperature ...
We demonstrated that on sunny days, even when the ambient temperature is mild or relatively cool, there is rapid and significant heating of the interior of vehicles. On days when the ambient temperature was 72°F, we showed that the internal vehicle temperature can reach 117°F within 60 minutes, with 80% of the temperature rise occurring in the first 30 minutes. In general, after 60 minutes, one can expect an ∼40°F increase in internal temperatures for ambient temperatures spanning 72 to 96°F, putting children and pets at significant risk. We also determined that cracking open windows is not effective in decreasing either the rate of heat rise or the maximum temperature attained.. The exact affect of such temperatures on infants is unknown, but from case reports, we know that they can be devastating. We do know that heat illness is a continuum that is divided into 3 phases. The mildest form is heat stress, the physical discomfort and physiologic strain as a result of a hot environment. Next ...
The focus of this dissertation is on the role of charge and temperature on the structure of hydrated cluster ions. This is investigated using a combination of infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra and geometry and frequency calculations. The particular cluster ions examined here include hydrated rubidium cluster ions and hydrated sodium- and potassium-containing tryptamine, 2-amino-1-phenylethanol and ephedrine. In every case, there are significant differences between spectra obtained at different temperatures as well as those containing different metal ions. The argon tagging method, which was used to facilitate the temperature comparisons, had an unintended consequence: the cluster formation process trapped high-energy isomers in the experiments performed at lower temperatures. In addition, thermodynamic calculations showed the important role of entropy in determining the structures formed at warm temperatures. Both of these observations make it clear that the identification of one or two ...
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Question - What causes fluctuating temperatures and lack of appetite?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Lack of appetite, Ask a General & Family Physician
Press Release issued Mar 23, 2015: This is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Polymer Positive Temperature Coefficient Thermistor (Polymer PTCs) manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.
When indoors, ambient temperature is sometimes called room temperature. In addition to measuring atmospheric composition, the Galileo probe carried instruments to measure both the temperature and pressure during its descent into the Jovian atmosphere. At the bottom of the exosphere is the thermopause located around 375 miles (600 km) above the earth. The thermometers should be positioned 1.25-2 m above the ground. Atmospheric pressure drops as altitude increases. Average maximum yearly temperature is 28.7 degrees Celsius and average minimum is 21.9. Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and land surface temperatures obtained from radiometric measurements by satellites. The temperature values measured by the HSRL agree with the temperatures measured with the radiosondes. Temperatures in the atmosphere decrease with height at an average rate of 6.5°C/km. Measurement of the energy of the molecules (movement). It ...
Temperature affects how much the phospholipids in the bilayer can move, which in turn affect the membrane structure.. 1. Temperatures below 0 degrees. The phospholipids do not have very much energy, meaning that they dont move around a lot. They are packed closely together and the membrane is more rigid. The channel proteins and carrier proteins in the membrane denature and this increases the permeability of the membrane - ice may also…. ...
This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T j). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T 0 to a higher temperature T - namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (T j). The choice of the L 2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T j) is then ...
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Ahmeds area of research focuses specifically on the membrane development of Intermediate temperature PEMFCs that operate at 100-120°C, compared to the conventional 80°C. An increase in operating temperature improves reaction kinetics, reduces poisoning, enhances heat rejection and simplifies the cooling system of the fuel cell. However, current membranes that are dependent on water content for proton conductivity cannot perform at IT temperatures due to increased water evaporation rate and enhanced degradation. Therefore, multi-layered or composite blend membranes are being developed and optimised for the operation at intermediate temperature conditions. Material characterisation, degradation, tensile tests, in situ and ex situ testing will be employed. ...
Sea-surface temperature estimation by Anderson, Eric; 1 edition; First published in 1967; Subjects: Ocean temperature, Time-series analysis, Accessible book
The effects of annealing temperature and time on sol-gel Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film spin coated on soda lime glass substrate were investigated in terms of crystallinity, morphology, composition, optical and electrical properties. The annealing process was achieved in a tube furnace under N-2 gas flow and S vapor. The importance of this work is the detailed investigation of annealing temperature and its effect on the Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films that were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating method. The threshold temperature where the film begins to crystallize has been determined to be 465 degrees C. A temperature increase of 15 degrees C from 450 to 465 degrees C boosted the crystallite size and main peak intensities and optimized energy gap from 1.38 to 1.46 eV. In summary, the effect of the annealing temperature on the crystallinity of the films was studied in detail and the threshold temperature value which improved the crystallinity was determined. ...
Abstract: Barium titanate (BaTiO$_3$) is a prototypical ferroelectric perovskite that undergoes the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal-cubic phase transitions as the temperature increases. In this work, we develop a classical interatomic potential for BaTiO$_3$ within the framework of the bond-valence theory. The force field is parameterized from first-principles results, enabling accurate large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at finite temperatures. Our model potential for BaTiO$_3$ reproduces the temperature-driven phase transitions in isobaric-isothermal ensemble (NPT) MD simulations. This potential allows the analysis of BaTiO$_3$ structures with atomic resolution. By analyzing the local displacements of Ti atoms, we demonstrate that the phase transitions of BaTiO$_3$ exhibit a mix of order-disorder and displacive characters. Besides, from detailed observation of structural dynamics during phase transition, we discover that the global phase transition is associated with changes ...
Temperature variation--through time and across climatic gradients--affects individuals, populations, and communities. Yet how the thermal response of biological systems is altered by environmental stressors is poorly understood. Here we quantify two key features--optimal temperature and temperature breadth--to investigate how temperature responses vary in the presence of antibiotics. We use high-throughput screening to measure growth of Escherichia coli under single and pairwise combinations of 12 antibiotics across seven temperatures that range from 22{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C. We find that antibiotic stress often results in considerable changes in the optimal temperature for growth and a narrower temperature breadth. The direction of the optimal temperature shifts can be explained by the similarities between antibiotic-induced and temperature-induced damage to the physiology of the bacterium. We also find that the effects of pairs of stressors in the temperature response can often be ...
Applications. While most Gammaflux temperature controllers are used on hot runner injection molding applications, they are also increasingly being used for controlling thermoset, liquid injection molding (LIM), reaction injection molding (RIM), blow molding, thermoforming, and extrusion (profile and sheet) applications.. Each of these processes requires reliable temperature control, said Mike Brostedt, Gammaflux Director of Market Development. If the temperature controller fails, the process either stops or is crippled. When selecting a temperature control supplier, processors are selecting a partner who is critical to their product quality and profitability.. The new G24 is the most flexible temperature controller Gammaflux has ever produced, and is designed for ease of use across all of these platforms.. About Gammaflux. Based in Sterling, Va. U.S.A., Gammaflux L.P. is a leading supplier of temperature and sequential valve gate control systems to the plastics industry. Long known for ...
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Electro-Optical Probing (EOP) has shown its efficiency in the world of failure analysis. The different external physical parameters effects, especially the temperature, on the EOP signals are not well known and not that much described in the literature. In addition to thermoreflectance, the temperature is a parameter that affects directly the free carriers distribution and carrier mobilities inside the semiconductor. Temperature also modifies the absorption coefficient and not only the refractive index as known in the thermo-reflectance domain. All the physical and environmental parameters contribute to the modulation of the reflected laser probing beam onto structures under test. In this paper we will expose the origins of the reflected laser beam and the impact of the temperature on the EOP signal. For the first time, all the parameters, including temperature, have been taken into account. It opens the door of laser probing techniques improvements in failure analysis of submicron devices.
The effect of growth temperature on the virulence of a strain of broth-grown serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila (Wadsworth F889) was examined by growing the bacterium at different temperatures and then infecting guinea pigs (by intratracheal injection) and guinea pig alveolar macrophages. The 50% lethal dose for guinea pigs infected with 25 degrees C-grown F889 was log10 5.0 CFU and that for 41 degrees C-grown F889 was log10 5.7 CFU, or a fivefold difference. Guinea pig alveolar macrophages were infected in quadruplicate with log10 3.8 CFU of F889 cells grown at either 25 or 41 degrees C. Counts of F889 in the alveolar macrophages infected with 25 degrees C-grown bacteria were 40% greater after 1 day of incubation (P = 2 X 10(-4)) than were counts in the alveolar macrophage suspensions inoculated with 41 degrees C-grown bacteria. However, the counts were not significantly different after 3 days of incubation. Examination of cover slip cultures of guinea pig alveolar macrophages infected with 25 ...
Abstract. Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6°C around a 26°C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6°C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV
Here we present the results of a study concerning the effect of temperature on cell mechanical properties. Two different optofluidic microchips with external temperature control are used to investigate the temperature-induced changes of highly metastatic human melanoma cells (A375MC2) in the range of ~0 - 35 °C. By means of an integrated optical stretcher, we observe that cells optical deformability is strongly enhanced by increasing cell and buffer-fluid temperature. This finding is supported by the results obtained from a second device, which probes the cells ability to be squeezed through a constriction. Measured data demonstrate a marked dependence of cell mechanical properties on temperature, thus highlighting the importance of including a proper temperature-control system in the experimental apparatus.. © 2015 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Currently, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is still the dominant electrolyte material in commercial SOFC applications. But it has severe drawbacks due to its high operating temperatures. In present work, two electrolyte materials: Hf0.69Y0.31O2-δ (YSH) used as oxygen ion conductor and BaZr0.5Ce0.3Ln0.2O3-δ (BZCLn532, Ln=Y, Sm, Gd, Dy) used as protonic conductors were studied at intermediate temperatures (IT, 500-700 ℃). The work is focused on the following parts:. 1) A pure and well-crystallized YSH powder was successfully synthesized by using a modified solid state reaction method. The obtained YSH is in a fluorite cubic structure with a lattice parameter 5.140674 Å from the Rietveld refinement analysis. A YSH ceramic material with a relative density of 97.5% is obtained by a conventional sintering at a temperature of 1650 ℃. The oxygen ion conductivity of the YSH ceramic is 3.65×10-5 S cm-1 at a temperature of 700 ℃, which is too low for oxygen ion conductor applications. In ...
BOD Progression in Soluble Substrates - VII Temperature Effects G. J. KEHRBERGER, Public Health Service Trainee J. D. NORMAN, American Oil Company Fellow E. D. SCHROEDER, Public Health Service Trainee A. W. BUSCH, Associate Professor of Environmental Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering Rice University, Houston, Texas INTRODUCTION Temperature affects the rate of substrate utilization in a biological system in two major ways. One is the effect of temperature changes on the rate of reaction of the organisms and the substrate. The other is the effect of temperature changes on the diffusion of substrate to the organisms. Previously the effect of temperature on the rate of substrate utilization was considered a function only of the enzymatic reactions within the bacterial cells. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the validity of this assumption, and to present a model of a biological system based on the principles of transport phenomena which offers an explanation of the effect of ...
The Lespedeza Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Lespedezae (golden & Cobb): Temperature Effects On Histopathology On Two Hosts And Infraspecific Physiological ...
Surmmary Clinical isolates of Aeromonas were grown at eight different temperatures from 10°C to 40°C. Whole cell lysates were examined by SDS-PAGE and major temperature-dependent changes to both protein and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles were identified. Cells grown at the higher temperatures (37°C and 40°C) produced abundantly a protein of c. 60 kDa which was not detected at the lower temperatures. Temperature-dependent expressions of other proteins were also noted but these were more variable among the isolates. An effect of temperature on expression of lipopolysaccharides was also noted in that some strains produced significantly less O-polysaccharides at the higher temperatures. After fractionation of cells, major differences in the expression of cell envelope and outer-membrane proteins between cells grown at low and high temperatures were noted although no unifying patterns could be discerned. Such growth temperature-induced changes in the cell envelope constituents have not been described
Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the Apparatus B facility at the CEA VALDUC research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40°C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature ...
The effect of Sr doping in CeO2 for its use as solid electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) has been explored here. Ce1-xSrxO2-delta (x = 0.05-0.2) are successfully synthesized by citrate-complexation method. XRD, Raman, FT-IR, FE-SEM/EDX and electrochemical impedance spectra are used for structural and electrical characterizations. The formation of well crystalline cubic fluorite structured solid solution is observed for x = 0.05 based on XRD and Raman spectra. For compositions i.e., x , 0.05, however, a secondary phase of SrCeO3 is confirmed by the peak at 342 cm(-1) in Raman spectra. Although the oxygen ion conductivity was found to decrease with increase in x, based on ac-impedance studies, conductivity of Ce0.95Sr0.05O2-delta was found to be higher than of Ce0.95Gd0.1O2-delta and Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-delta. The decrease in conductivity of Ce1-xSrxO2-delta with increasing dopant concentration is ascribed to formation of impurity phase SrCeO3 as well as the ...
Sudden Collapse of Vacuoles in Saintpaulia sp. Palisade Cells Induced by a Rapid Temperature Decrease. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Aerospace applications have an increasing demand for strong and reliable adhesives, able to withstand large temperature gradients. The variation of the adhesives mechanical properties with temperature is therefore one of the factors that must be well understood before safe and reliable adhesive joints can be designed for these applications. The stress-strain curve and the toughness properties of an adhesive show strong dependency with temperature for most adhesives, especially near the glass transition temperature (Tg). In this work, an experimental procedure is undertaken to evaluate the effect of low temperatures on the adhesive strength and mode I fracture toughness of a room temperature vulcanizing silicone (RTV) adhesive. Firstly, the temperature at which the glass transition of the RTV occurs was obtained by means of an in-house developed measurement apparatus. Bulk specimens were manufactured and tested at temperatures above and below the Tg in order to obtain a strength envelope of the ...
The invention relates to method for keeping constant temperature of a dental implant, comprising the steps of: when the dental implant is needed to be tested, operating a temperature sensor through a DSP (digital signal processor) control chip to collect temperature signals of a simulation gum induction zone, sending the signals to the DSP control chip to process, forming temperature values, displaying the temperature values on a display and triggering a heating device to heat if the temperature is below a preset value. The method is capable of realizing the automatic control of the constant temperature and good in simulation effect.
A previous study found temperature-independent effects of alcohol upon the auditory brain-stem response (ABR): another found only temperature-dependent effects. To understand these paradoxical results, we measured the ABR and brain temperature in unrestrained rats before and after 3 alcohol doses (0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg). In a separate experiment, blood ethanol concentration (BEC) curves were determined for the same 3 alcohol doses. Integration of dose- and time-related effects of alcohol upon the ABR, brain temperature, and BEC suggested that alcohol has both temperature-dependent and temperature-independent effects, which vary according to dose and BEC curve phase. Temperature-dependent effects are likely during a BEC curve falling phase with a steep slope, following a high alcohol dose. Temperature-independent effects are likely during a BEC curve falling phase with a flatter slope, when BEC is still high following a moderate alcohol dose, or during a BEC curve rising phase soon after alcohol ...
Horseradish peroxidase represents one of the most exploited enzymes in the process of enzymatic phenol removal from aqueous solutions. It has a catalytic ability over a broad pH range, temperature and contaminant concentration. In this study we have investigated the influence of pH and temperature on process of phenol removal by crude horseradish peroxidase from aqueous solution. Reaction was performed in the presence of low molecular polyethylene glycol (PEG 300) at different temperatures (4, 12, 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C) and pH values (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Reaction was monitored by measuring of absorbance changes of the samples taken at certain time intervals from reaction mixture. Obtained results shown that phenol removal from aqueous solution increases by temperature increase up to 35 °C, after which this effect no longer exists. Also, phenol removal increases in the pH range of 3 - 7, while a further increase of pH value leads to the opposite effect. Based on this it can be concluded
SKF today announces the new offer of SKF extreme temperature bearings, featuring a graphite cage that lubricates the bearing up to 350°C without the need for relubrication. This offers an especially powerful solution in the metal industry, where operators can cut maintenance costs, boost reliability and improve product quality by replacing conventional grease lubricated bearings with the SKF extreme temperature bearings. The extreme temperature bearing is included in the SKF BeyondZero* portfolio.. SKF extreme temperature bearings address the need for bearings that can perform in hot, dry environments on slow rotating machinery. Grease lubricated bearings often fail at temperatures exceeding 250°C because even special greases lose their ability to lubricate adequately above this temperature. In contrast, SKF extreme temperature bearings require no relubrication and can operate in temperatures up to 350°C, cutting the cost and maintenance demand of relubrication and offering a significant ...
A temperature compensation circuit is disclosed that includes a first field-effect transistor (FET), a second FET, a resistor, and current generating circuitry. The second FET has a larger current conducting channel than the current conducting channel of the first FET, and the gate of the second FET is coupled to the gate of the first FET. The resistor is coupled between a first node that is common with the source of the first FET and a second node that is common with the source of the second FET. The current generating circuitry generates and maintains substantially equal drain currents in the first and second FETs. In an alternative embodiment, a positive temperature coefficient current generation stage that includes a first FET causes a first current conducted by the channel of the first FET to increase when temperature increases and decrease when temperature decreases, and a programmable current transfer and modification stage generates a third current that may be selectively programmed to be any
Effect of water temperature on the development and energetics of early, mid and late-stage phyllosoma larvae of spiny lobster |i|Sagmariasus vereauxi|/i|
Temperature plays a key role in outdoor industrial cultivation of microalgae. Improving the thermal tolerance of microalgae to both daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations can thus contribute to increase their annual productivity. A long term selection experiment was carried out to increase the thermal niche (temperature range for which the growth is possible) of a neutral lipid overproducing strain of Tisochrysis lutea. The experimental protocol consisted to submit cells to daily variations of temperature for 7 months. The stress intensity, defined as the amplitude of daily temperature variations, was progressively increased along successive selection cycles. Only the amplitude of the temperature variations were increased, the daily average temperature was kept constant along the experiment. This protocol resulted in a thermal niche increase by 3°C (+16.5 %), with an enhancement by 9 % of the maximal growth rate. The selection process also affected T. lutea physiology, with a feature generally
Background: Natural environments fluctuate and all organisms experience some degree of environmental variance. Global climate models predict increasing environmental variance in the future. Yet we do not fully understand how environmental variation affects performance traits. Questions: Does temperature fluctuation during development affect adult size and wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster? If so, are the effects predictable? Do they depend on heterozygosity? Do fluctuations in developmental temperature affect adult physiological performance at high temperature? Methods: We tested the effect of one fluctuating (21 degrees C/29 degrees C) and several constant (21 degrees C, 23 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 29 degrees C) developmental temperature regimes on three wing morphometric traits (wing length, wing width, and wing shape) in an experiment using three inbred lines of D. melanogaster and their first-generation hybrids. We also tested the effect of fluctuating and constant ...
Figure 2: The vertical structure of changes in atmospheric temperature in satellite observations (top panel) and in computer model simulations performed as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5; bottom panel). As described in the PNAS paper, both panels provide a vertically smoothed picture of atmospheric temperature change. Information from only three atmospheric temperature layers - the lower stratosphere (TLS), the mid- to upper troposphere (TMT), and the lower troposphere (TLT) was used in generating the two plots. We show temperature changes in this vertically smoothed space because satellite-based estimates of atmospheric temperature change are available for TLS, TMT, and TLT, and because our signal detection study is performed with the zonally-averaged temperature changes for these three layers. All temperature changes are in the form of linear trends (in degrees Celsius) over the 408-month period from ...
Body temperature varies throughout the day, depending on the outside temperature, your level of activity and what you eat and drink. Temperature can vary due to emotional and psychological reactions, illness and a range of other factors. Heres some more information about your body temperature and what factors affect it.. Normal Body Temperature. A body temperature of 98.6 degrees F is considered to be normal. Most people have a normal body temperature of between 97.6 and 99.6 degrees F when the temperature is measured orally. Measuring the body temperature rectally often produces a slightly higher reading. Measuring under the armpit may produce a somewhat lower reading. Slight fluctuations in normal body temperature occur throughout the day, depending on a number of factors.. Factors that Can Affect Body Temperature. There are a wide range of factors that can affect your body temperature. Hot and cold weather can affect your body temperature somewhat, as can illness, physical activity, hot ...
A major challenge to the development of the next-generation all-solid-state rechargeable battery technology is the inferior performance caused by insufficient ionic conductivity in the electrolyte and poor mixed ionic-electronic conductivity in the electrodes. Here we demonstrate the utility of elevated temperature as an advantageous means of enhancing the conductivity in the electrolyte and promoting the catalytic activity at electrodes in an all-ceramic rechargeable Na+-battery. The new Na+-battery consists of a 154-μm thick Na-β′′-Al2O3 electrolyte membrane, a 22-μm thick P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 cathode and 52-μm thick Na2Ti3O7-La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 composite anode. The battery is shown to be capable of producing a reversible and stable capacity of 152 mAhg−1 at 350 °C. While the batterys achievable capacity is limited by the electrode materials employed, it does exhibit unique low self-discharge rate, high tolerance to thermal cycling and an outstanding safety feature. ...
Low temperature performance affects the geographical distribution of insects. The lower critical temperature limits of chill-susceptible insects are likely determined by failure of ion and water balance at low temperature. I used phenotypic plasticity in the cold tolerance of Gryllus pennsylvanicus, and the naturally higher cold tolerance of Gryllus veletis to test the hypothesis that variation in low temperature performance is accompanied by variation in ion and water homeostasis at low temperatures. Low temperature acclimation and cold adaptation enhanced performance at low temperatures. Groups with higher cold tolerance had an enhanced ability to prevent or mitigate the migration of hemolymph Na+ and water into the digestive system, which ultimately resulted in smaller decreases in K+ equilibrium potentials at the muscle tissue. The ability to maintain ion and water balance as a result of changes in gut membrane permeability increased performance at low temperatures, and reduced the onset of chilling
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measuring flow velocity at elevated temperature with a hot wire anemometer calibrated in cold flow. AU - Benjamin, Stephen F.. AU - Roberts, Carol A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Correction factors enable a hot wire anemometer calibrated at room temperature to be utilised at elevated temperature. This short paper reviews the equations on which those correction factors are based. The standard methods of correction, which work only over moderate temperature changes of a few degrees in the ambient, have been investigated over a greater temperature range. Modified correction factors are effective over a velocity range of 0-14 m/s and temperature range of 300-500 K. The modified method of correction has been developed during research into the warm up of automotive catalysts and this has prescribed the range of velocity and temperature considered. AB - Correction factors enable a hot wire anemometer calibrated at room temperature to be utilised at elevated temperature. This short paper ...
Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability in stress susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the growth rates and photosynthetic activities of six cultured strains of Symbiodinium spp. (clades A, B, C, D, and F) at elevated temperature (33 °C). We also observed the recovery of photodamaged-PSII in the presence or absence of a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor (lincomycin). The growth rates and photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased in parallel at high temperature in thermally sensitive strains, B-K100 (clade B followed by culture name) and A-Y106, but not in thermally tolerant strains, F-K102 and D-K111. In strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, growth declined markedly at high temperature,
Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels. Disc-shaped gels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with N, N- methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) as crosslinker in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was measured during in situ swelling process at various temperatures and it was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, tau(c) and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D-c from intensity, weight and volume variations during the swelling processes. It is observed that swelling time constants, tau(c) decreased and diffusion coefficients, D-c increased as the swelling temperature is increased. The swelling activation energies, Delta E were measured from the intensity, weight and ...
Because most animals are ectotherms, it is critical to determine whether individual differences in PTs, and correlations among PTs, are maintained over the range of temperatures that ectothermic individuals normally experience during a typical day. We observed that most of the individuals in our experiments were very responsive to changes in temperature, dramatically increasing their levels of activity, boldness and aggressiveness as a function of increases of only a few degrees of temperature. In observational and manipulation studies involving two different species of damselfish, average scores for activity, boldness and aggressiveness increased 2.5- to 6-fold as a function of relatively minor (3°C or less) differences in temperature. If we had ignored temperature in these studies, and had measured different individuals at slightly different temperatures, our estimates of the personality of any given individual would have been strongly affected by the temperature at which we measured its ...
Article on mathematical representation of viscosity of ionic liquid and molecular solvent mixtures at various temperatures using the Jouyban-Acree model.
Article: Temperature-dependent effect of percolation and Brownian motion on the thermal conductivity of TiO2-ethanol nanofluids ...
Novel thermal death models were developed with certain assumptions, and these models were validated by using actual heat treatment data collected under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures over time and in commercial food-processing facilities where temperatures were dynamically changing over time. The predicted mortalities of both young larvae and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were within 92-99% of actual measured insect mortalities. There was good concordance between predicted and observed mortalities of young larvae and adults of T. castaneum exposed to constant temperatures in laboratory growth chambers and at variable temperatures during structural heat treatments of commercial food-processing facilities. The models developed in this study can be used to determine effectiveness of structural heat treatments in killing young larvae and adults of T. castaneum and for characterizing insect thermotolerance ...
Abstract. Most deep ocean carbon flux profiles show low and almost constant fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the deep ocean. However, the reason for the non-changing POC fluxes at depths is unknown. This study presents direct measurements of formation, degradation, and sinking velocity of diatom aggregates from laboratory studies performed at 15 °C and 4 °C during a three-week experiment. The average carbon-specific respiration rate during the experiment was 0.12 ± 0.03 at 15 °C, and decreased 3.5-fold when the temperature was lowered to 4 °C. No direct influence of temperature on aggregate sinking speed was observed. Using the remineralisation rate measured at 4 °C and an average particle sinking speed of 150 m d−1, calculated carbon fluxes were similar to those collected in deep ocean sediment traps from a global data set, indicating that temperature plays a major role for deep ocean fluxes of POC. ...
A chemical cross-linked transparent film was got by a silicon compound to crystalline cellulose. Temperature dependency for the elasticity modulus of a provided film was measured. The shear elastic modulus was obtained the value of 2 x 106 [Pa] at room temperature. The sample decreases in 190 [deg. C] for the elasticity modulus at the room temperature as 60%, but approximately 10% recover when temperature rises up to 200 [deg. C] or more ...
The mean daily temperature for the April transplanting was 16.0°C, while the mean maximum daily temperature was 24.5°C. Only 28% of all April transplants produced harvestable heads largely due to a disease rate of 45% and the fact that 12% of the plants bolted prematurely. The mean daily temperature for the June transplanting was 24.8°C. Only 20% of all June transplants produced harvestable heads due to soft rot and tipburn. In August, the mean daily temperature dropped to 21.7°C, and 66% of all plants produced harvestable heads. The mean daily temperature for the September transplanting was 15.5deg.C, and the harvestable yield was 93%. Heat-tolerant cultivars from the April and June transplanting dates could not be identified because all cultivars produced a relatively low percentage of harvestable heads. Conversely, temperatures following the September transplanting were nearly ideal for Chinese cabbage production, so heat-tolerant cultivars could not be detected. Temperatures after the ...
Numerical tools that facilitate predictions of the mechanical behaviour of elastomeric products exposed to various temperatures have great cost saving potentials in multiple industries. To unleash these potentials, precise experimental data and improved constitutive models that capture the essential physics of the materials must be obtained. This work consist of an experimental and numerical study of the mechanical behaviour of particle-filled HNBR and FKM elastomers subjected to various loading modes at a range of temperatures. The thesis is organized as a synopsis, providing the motivation, the objectives, the theoretical background, and a summary of the work, while the main body is a collection of three journal articles providing the scientific contribution. Paper I deals with the tension behaviour of three different commercial elastomeric materials, being two HNBR and one FKM compound, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 150 oC. A cyclic deformation history was applied to quantify ...
Combined with or containing all the solute that can normally be dissolved at a given temperature. Oversaturate definition is - to saturate to an excessive degree; also : supersaturate. Temperature Effects on the Solubility of Gases, Pressure Effects On The Solubility of Gases, Temperature Effects On The Solubility of Gases. Supersaturation is the driving force for crystallization and is a prerequisite before a solid phase will appear in a saturated solution. By definition, the dielectric constant of a vacuum is 1. Saturation definition: Saturation is the process or state that occurs when a place or thing is filled completely... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples 1. the act or result of filling a thing or place completely so that no more can be added: 2. the…: Vedi di più ancora nel dizionario Inglese - Cambridge Dictionary According to the IUPAC definition, solubility is the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a ...
Abstract. Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect ...
The objective of this paper is to utilize images of spatial and temporal fluctuations of temperature over the Earth to study the global climate variation. We illustrated that monthly temperature observations from weather stations could be decomposed as components with different time scales based on their spectral distribution. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filters were applied to smooth and interpolate gridded temperature data to construct global maps for long-term (≥ 6 years) trends and El Nino-like (2 to 5 years) movements over the time period of 1893 to 2008. Annual temperature seasonality, latitude and altitude effects have been carefully accounted for to capture meaningful spatiotemporal patterns of climate variability. The result revealed striking facts about global temperature anomalies for specific regions. Correlation analysis and the movie of thermal maps for El Nino-like component clearly supported the existence of such climate fluctuations in time and space.
Advanced temperature modulation techniques now allow for the elimination of fever as well as controlled hypothermia. However, as demonstrated in this study, shivering is frequently encountered (64%), and the severity of shivering as measured by the BSAS is strongly associated with graded increases in systemic metabolism. The application of therapeutic normothermia or hypothermia has not been shown to improve outcome after cerebrovascular injury, and the metabolic consequences of shivering may prove to be a limiting step in demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic temperature modulation. A scale that can simply and reliably detect and quantify shivering can be used as an end point for antishivering interventions and may play an important role in minimizing the day-to-day complications of cerebrovascular patients undergoing therapeutic temperature modulation in the intensive care unit.. Previous reports have considered shivering to be a binary event;8-10 however, the metabolic impact of shivering ...
For temperature limits of SKF greases, refer to Selecting a suitable grease.. When using lubricants not supplied by SKF, temperature limits should be evaluated according to the Traffic light concept.. ...
Our findings demonstrate that environmental temperature significantly impacts digestive performance of salamanders (energy intake, energy assimilation and digestive efficiency), which is consistent with the understanding that temperature has profound impacts on ectotherm physiology (Huey, 1979) and, specifically, digestive performance (McConnachie and Alexander, 2004; Waldschmidt et al., 1986; Wang et al., 2002). Similar to a recent study of energy assimilation in plethodontid salamanders (Clay and Gifford, 2017), we found that the performance of eastern red-backed salamanders is highest at an intermediate temperature (15°C) and is reduced at relatively cool and warm temperatures (10 and 20°C). Although it is possible our results were influenced by the order of temperature trials, which was consistent among individuals, Clay and Gifford (2017) were able to detect species- and population-level differences in thermal optima using a similarly repetitive order of trials. Therefore, we expect that ...
The ZIP file contains a Hodgkin-Huxley based circuit model and the simulation environment MadSim used to study the interaction of leak and IMI on the gastric mill network of the crab (Cancer borealis) as represented in (C. Städele, S. Heigele and W. Stein, 2015) MadSim, the simulation environment used for this study, is freeware and included in the package ...