Abstract: : Purpose: A new imaging interferometer is described which provides novel information about the structure of tear film breakup and the mechanisms which cause it. Methods: The optical system is modified from Doanes interferometer (1989, Opt. Vis. Sci. 66, 383). Broad- and narrow-spectral band, infrared, video images of the pre-corneal tear film are recorded simultaneously. The broad-band image shows the lipid layer of the tear film. Full-thickness interference fringes (as in Newtons rings) are derived by dividing the narrow-band image by the broad-band image (King-Smith et al., 2004, The Ocular Surface 3, S80). The images also show any distortion of the tear film caused by tear film breakup. Video resolution is 656 x 494 and the area imaged is about 7.5 x 6 mm, with a frame rate of about 20/sec. Results: Two main types of breakup (pronounced change in the images) are observed. First, the reflection may develop a grainy appearance whose mean intensity is similar to that of the ...
purpose. To demonstrate the feasibility of indirectly measuring the precorneal tear film thickness and pre- and postlens tear film (PLTF) thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT).. methods. Central corneal thickness (C1) which includes the tear film (T) of both eyes of 40 non-contact lens wearers was measured using OCT after calibration. The mean age of the 40 subjects was 31.2 ± 9.3 years with a mean horizontal K-reading of 7.87 mm. Rigid contact lenses with base curves 0.3- to 0.5-mm steeper than the flattest K of the eye were fitted to measure real corneal thickness (C2), independently of the postlens tear film. T was calculated by T = C1 − C2. To measure pre- and postlens tear film thickness, Focus Night & Day and Acuvue lenses (Vistakon, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Jacksonville, FL) were fitted on both eyes. Central soft lens thickness (L1), which includes the prelens tear film (P), was measured by OCT in situ and in saline in a wet cell (L2). P was calculated by P = L1 − ...
The purpose of the study is to compare the efficacy of FDA-approved Travoprost (Travatan Z) and Latanoprost (Xalatan)as anti-glaucoma treatment. Several studies indicate that glaucoma medications may be associated with decreased tear production and tear film break-up time (TBUT), and increased inflammatory cells in the conjunctiva (membrane lining of the eye lids and the covering of the eye) leading to dry eye. Normal tear film (coating of the eye) is continuous and blinking maintains the tear film continuity. If you keep your eyes open long enough without blinking, the tear film will start breaking up. Your eye will feel uncomfortable forcing you to blink. In patients with dry eyes, the tear film is unstable, and breaks up faster. Therefore the tear break up time in patients who have dry eyes is shorter.. In this study, the investigators will be comparing the two previously mentioned FDA-approved eye drops Latanoprost and Travoprost. The difference between the two medications is a preservative ...
Tear film osmolarity and dry eye disease: a review of the literature Richard Potvin,1 Sarah Makari,1 Christopher J Rapuano21Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USA; 2Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To evaluate the evidence in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the use of tear osmolarity as a physiological marker to diagnose, grade severity, and track therapeutic response in dry eye disease (DED). In addition, to review the evidence for the role of tear osmolarity in the pathophysiology of DED and ocular surface disease.Methods: A literature review of all publications after the year 2000, which included the keywords “tear osmolarity”, was conducted. Relevant articles were graded according to quality of evidence and research, using the University of Michigan Practice Guideline and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) rating systems. Articles were further categorized by the nature of any reported financial support and by the overall
Background After an explosion and fire in two tanks containing contaminated oil and sulphur products in a Norwegian industrial harbour in 2007, the surrounding area was polluted. This caused an intense smell, lasting until the waste was removed two years later. The present study reports examinations of tear film break up time among the population. The examinations were carried out because many of the people in the area complained of sore eyes. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between living or working close to the polluted area and tear film stability one and a half years after the explosion. Methods All persons working or living in an area less than six kilometres from the explosion site were invited to take part in the study together with a similar number of persons matched for age and gender living more than 20 kilometres away. Three groups were established: workers in the explosion area and inhabitants near the explosion area (but not working there) were considered to ...
Results Three months after radiosurgery, the subjective dry eye symptom score and lissamine green staining score of the ocular surface were significantly higher in the treated eyes compared with the fellow eyes (p,0.001, p=0.028, respectively). After 12 months, a significant difference between the treated and the fellow eyes in corneal sensitivity (p=0.041) and corneal fluorescein staining (p=0.002) was found when compared with pretreatment values. After 24 months Schirmer test values without local anaesthesia were significantly reduced in the treated eyes vis-à-vis untreated fellow eyes and pretreatment values (p=0.004). The dose applied to the lacrimal gland was significantly correlated to ocular surface staining scores (p=0.001) and Schirmer test values (p=0.026) at 24 months after irradiation.. ...
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The two groups did not differ from each other with respect to baseline characteristics viz. mean age (p=0.4), gender (p=0.7), preoperative UCVA (p=0.3), BCVA (p=0.14), spherical equivalent (p=0.06), mean astigmatism (p=0.8), tear function tests like tear break up time, tear film meniscus height, Schirmer I and II (p=0.08, 0.26, 0.6, 0.14 respectively) and pterygium height and width (p=0.12 and 0.5). Initial graft stability was better for group II till 1 month (p=0.001) but achieved graft stability equivalent to group I at 6 months follow up. Median graft inflammation score was significantly more for group II at day 1 and 7 (p=0.04 and 0.007 respectively. However no significant difference between the two groups was observed in relation to underlying corneal clarity and sub-conjunctival hemorrhage ...
Squalene (SQ) possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities (antioxidant, drug carrier, detoxifier, hydrating, emollient) that can be of benefit to the ocular surface. It can come in contact with human meibum (hMGS; the most abundant component of the tear film lipid layer) as an endogenous tear lipid or from exogenous sources as eyelid sebum or pharmaceuticals. The aims of this study were to determine (i) if SQ is in tear lipids and (ii) its influence on the surface properties of hMGS films. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR confirmed 7 mol % SQ in Schirmers strips extracts. The properties of SQ/hMGS pseudo-binary films at the air/water interface were studied with Langmuir surface balance, stress-relaxation dilatational rheology and Brewster angle microscopy. SQ does not possess surfactant properties. When mixed with hMGS squalene (i) localized over the layers thinner regions and (ii) did not affect the film pressure at high compression. Therefore, tear SQ is unlikely to instigate
Dry eye disease involves significant changes to the structure and function of the tear film. While it is widely believed and accepted that the various components in the tear film, including lipids, proteins, mucins and salts, play a critical role in preventing tear film evaporation and collapse, the report suggested that further studies are warranted to confirm or deny this concept.. Historically, the tear film has been viewed as a tri-layered structure comprising of the outermost lipid, middle aqueous and an inner mucin layer. However, over the past few years enough evidence has been generated to suggest that the tear film is a bi-phasic structure composed of an outer lipid layer overlying a muco-aqueous phase.. The lipid layer. The lipid layer consists of several non-polar and amphiphilic (polar) lipids. The lipid layer is important in stabilizing the whole of the tear film - this is partly through its ability to lower the surface tension of the tear film. The role of the lipid layer in ...
The concentrations of tear lysozyme, lactoferrin, ceruloplasmin, IgA, and IgG have been estimated in patients with dry eyes at the same time as semiquantitative bacterial culture was performed of the conjunctivae and lids. Staphylococcal isolations were quantified and biotyped. There was no increased conjunctival colonisation by any particular biotype of Staphylococcus aureus or Staph. epidermidis, and similar numbers of conjunctivae were sterile as in controls (33%); neither were any pathogens such as pneumococci or haemophili isolated. We consider that the conjunctiva of the dry eye, without the lacrimal secretion components of lysozyme and lactoferrin, has an alternative protective antibacterial mechanism which is derived from serum proteins via chronically inflamed vessels. ...
The EPA from fish and flaxseed oils is elongated by enzymes to produce the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE3 and the anti-inflammatory leukotriene LTB3. EPA and docosahexaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from flaxseed oil competitively inhibit the conversion of omega-6s to arachidonic acid (AA) thereby reducing inflammation by this pathway. Production of PGE1 is also stimulated. This is desirable as prostaglandin PGE1 has anti-inflammatory properties, further helping to reduce meibomitis and associated ocular surface inflammation. More importantly, PGE1 acts on G protein-coupled receptors designated E-prostanoid or EP receptors. Specifically, PGE1 binds to EP2 and EP4 receptors to activate adenylate cyclase to increase cyclic AMP (cAMP) (12). PGE1 has been shown to stimulate aqueous tear production in rabbits (13) and cAMP has been shown to stimulate aqueous tear secretion in dry eye patients (14,15). Secondly, essential fatty acids are used by the meibomian glands in the eyelid to ...
DES severity was graded using conventional DES testing methods, including: Schirmer test, tear breakup time (TBUT), tear meniscus height, corneal fluorescein staining and a patient questionnaire. Subsequently, each patient underwent a two-minute TFI test followed by a retest after 30 minutes. The TFI measures the aqueous layer thickness (ALT) at a nanometer level and calculates average ALT as well as the ALT rate. In addition, the TFI measures the lipid layer thickness (LLT) at a sub-nanometer level and establishes average LLT and lipid breakup time (LBUT ...
Maintaining good ocular health and comfort is a challenge even under ordinary conditions. It is especially difficult when you use a pulmonary assist machine, such as C-PAP, BiPAP, etc., with a face mask, because such use can affect the stability of your tear film. A stable protective three-layer tear film is partially responsible for good vision and comfortable, healthy eyes.. We are most familiar with reflex tears, those watery tears you experience while watching a sad movie or cutting onions. If these reflex tears are present for no particular reason, the culprit is usually a dry eye condition. This exists when the other, more protective, and less familiar tear is absent, either due to reduced production or increased evaporation.. Numerous small glands in your eyelids produce the protective three-layer tear film that is necessary for the health of the external surface of your eyes. If the tear film is absent, the external surface breaks down, which can be very painful and can increase the ...
Objectives : To study the relationships between dampness in concrete floors and building design on the one hand, and symptoms and medical signs of the eyes and nose in hospital workers, on the other. Methods : Four hospitals for geriatrics were selected to represent buildings with different ages and design, irrespective of symptom prevalence....
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE. Rosenberg, TX (January 8, 2018) - OCuSOFT Inc., a privately-held eye and skin care company with an established reputation for innovation in eyelid hygiene and ocular health, is pleased to announce a new distribution agreement with I-MED Pharma Inc., a Montreal-based biotechnology company to make the I-PEN® Osmolarity System available in the United States. On December 22, 2017, the FDA issued an Acceptance Review Notification for the I-PEN® Osmolarity System 510k submission. This distribution partnership will officially commence upon final FDA approval of the 510k, which is anticipated in the first quarter of 2018.. The I-PEN® Tear Osmolarity System is a handheld device that measures the osmolarity (concentration of dissolved salts in solution) of human tears in normal and dry eye disease (DED) patients. The I-PEN® Tear Osmolarity system, used with the I-PEN® Single Use Sensors (SUS), provides a quick and simple method for determining tear osmolarity by measuring the ...
The wettability index is derived from the slope of a metric developed to measure the regularity of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor image. The more wettable a lens is the more stable the metric and the slope of the metric (the wettability index) is closer to zero. The more negative values indicate a less wettable the lens ...
A method for evaluating the in vivo ability of a contact lens to become or remain wet includes the steps of supporting the subjects head to determine a fixed orientation of the lens, illuminating the lens with coherent light, imaging the pre-lens tear film in a manner to form an interference pattern, recording in a time sequence manner the image formed thereby, and determining the tear film thickness by correlating the interference bands of the recorded image. The classical contact angle is derived, and other measures, such as the time interval from blink until the onset of the tear film breakup, or the time until the film evaporates, and the initial or average film thickness are derived. In addition, the nature and evolution of localized dry spots may be directly observed, clarifying the causes of tear film breakdown on worn contact lenses. The invention includes methods for the evaluation of wetting characteristics as they are affected by lens material, lens aging and lens soiling, as well as the
Purpose: It was the main purpose of this study to investigate the influence of the moistening solution on TBUT measurements in an asymptomatic population.; Methods: An online survey was employed to determine the compliance of Spanish eye care practitioners with the recommended normalized procedure to administer TBUT. For the purpose of examining the clinical relevance of discrepancies from the recommended procedure, a randomized, double-masked, bilateral study was designed in which a micropipette was used to moisten fluorescein strips with a controlled volume of six different solutions, commonly available in the contact lens office, and TBUT was measured in 58 non-dry eye (OSDI , 15) subjects (age from 19 to 32 years).; Results: Results from the online survey revealed that 64% of Spanish practitioners frequently use (or have used) different solutions to moisten fluorescein strips during TBUT assessment. Statistically significant differences in TBUT values were found between the various solutions ...
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Walter Whitley, OD, MBA, and Derek Cunningham, OD, discuss the prevalence of dry eye among cataract surgery patients. Dr. Whitley explains that he begins by evaluating patients with a verified questionnaire, and uses tear osmolarity measurements to g…
Curr Eye Res. 2004 Feb;28(2):145-51. Akar Y, Cira A, Apaydin C, Erman MA, Yilmaz A. Source Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey. [email protected] Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the birth weight and the postconceptional age on the tear production of preterm and term newborn infants and to evaluate the changes in tear production during the first two months of life. SUBJECTS--METHODS: Both eyes of medically stable term and preterm infants were included in the study. Based on postconceptional age and birth weight, we divided preterm infants into three groups. Then, we measured the basal and reflex tear secretions of both eyes by Schirmer tests before and after instillation of topical anesthetic agent. We performed initial tear measurements on the second day of life (between first 24 hours to first 48 hours after birth): and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after birth. RESULTS: We tested a total of 138 infants (63 preterm and 75 term), 72 ...
The ocular surface is exquisitely in tune with its environmental conditions, and manipulation of factors such as temperature, wind or relative humidity can provide a means to induce tear-film instability and a desiccating stress on the ocular surface. In the controlled adverse environment, subject responses to an adverse environment challenge while performing a visual task are used as a baseline, and aid in identifying a defined population of subjects with comparable disease signs and symptoms. Like the CAC, the CAE can also be used to assess test-agent efficacy by measuring changes in the dry-eye status of subjects from baseline to post-challenge through slit lamp evaluations, validated scoring of dry-eye redness by the investigator and by computer,12 staining with fluorescein and lissamine, tear-film breakup times13 and Schirmers testing. The subjects symptomology is graded individually and with a variety of validated grading systems, again in a clinical setting and in real time, preventing ...
a): Raw camera Image. This image displays the raw camera image from a rabbits eye. This image displays the circular interference pattern caused by tear film layers along with other features such as: small and large dots with different orientations. This image is one of 1000 time-integrated frames that are captured by the cMOS camera to analyze the spatial fluctuations. (b): SCI.This image displays the calculated spatial correlation image (SCI) on a single frame. The SCI has a central peak and a sinusoidal background. The sinusoidal residues that are located around the peak of the SCI are later used to obtain the quantitative tear film thickness information. (c). Vertical and horizontal projection of the SCI. This image is displaying the SCI in terms of number of pixels vs. the correlation value. This image contains the Gaussian terms along with the residues for both vertical and horizontal axis of two-dimensional image. The width of the pixels is illustrated on the x-axis while the correlation ...
The Schirmer tear test for the measurement of tear formation in the dog was done according to 2 procedures: Schirmer I (the conventional procedure) and SCHIRMER II (with topical anesthesia and drying of the ventral conjunctival fornix. Results from 97 normal dogs averaged 21.0 mm wetting/minute (sta …
2. Dry eyes. Dry eyes occur frequently in adults as part of the aging process. They are less common in infants and children. Patients with dry eyes have decreased or unstable basal tear layers. This usually results in chronic ocular irritation. This may be an isolated finding, or it may occur in association with other systemic problems (Table 8-1). Paradoxically, some patients with dry eyes may have symptoms of excess tearing (Figure 8-2). This occurs because the decreased basal tears predispose the patient to ocular irritation. If the patients have normal reflex tears, they will produce a bolus of tears in response to the irritation, often enough to overflow and produce epiphora. As this bolus wears off, the irritation recurs, and the patients go through a repetitive cycle of decreased tears, irritation, and excess tears ...
Dutch photographer Maurice Mikkers uncovers the hidden beauty of human tears in his series of micrographs, which we first spotted on Fubiz. Imaginarium Of Tears tells us that while our tears are fragile and mark fragile moments in our lives, there…
Youre watching the final scene in Thelma and Louise, and youre on your third handkerchief. You turn your tear stained face to the side and look through blurred, saline-flooded vision at your cat, who is staring back at you witnessing the curious spectacle. Why is it that humans can be reduced to blubbering messes, while other members of the animal kingdom dont seem to let out even a sniffle?. We have tear ducts to lubricate and protect our eyes from dust and other particles. The ducts are under the upper eyelids and produce a salty liquid-a tear---that gets spread throughout the eye after each blink. Animals too have the ability to produce tears, but not necessarily for the same reasons that we humans produce them.. Three types of tears are generated by the human eye. Basal tears protect the eye and keep it moist. Reflex tears flush out the eye when it becomes irritated. And emotional tears flow in response to sadness, distress, or physical pain.. Studies have shown that emotional tears ...
The project "Imaginarium Of Tears" is a series of micrographs, that shows the hidden beauty behind a tear. Tears are often seen as a weakness and therefore not always accepted in our daily life. However, a tear can also be a.... The project "Imaginarium Of Tears" is a series of micrographs, that shows the hidden beauty behind a tear. Tears are often seen as a weakness and therefore not always accepted in.... ...
Orally administered ethanol was secreted into the tears. Ethanol in tears induced tear hyperosmolarity and shortened TBUT and triggered the development of ocular surface diseases. Similar changes could exacerbate signs and symptoms in patients with ocular surface disease.
A gritty, sandy feeling. It could be dry eye, a condition in which the eyes arent getting enough moisture because youre not making enough tears, your tears arent watery enough and/or theyre evaporating too quickly, which can happen when oil-producing glands in your eyelids are inflamed. Staring at screens without blinking regularly is a culprit. "If youre not blinking every four seconds, oil doesnt get released and tears evaporate, leaving the eye dry and irritated," says Dr. Marioneaux. "If your eyes water out of nowhere, thats emergency tears coming to the rescue." Dry eye can also be a side effect of some medications or the result of hormonal fluctuations or long-term use of contact lenses. Steer clear of air-conditioning or forced-air heat, which may hasten tear evaporation; take breaks from intense staring, and dampen eyes with artificial tears. You can also try adding more omega-3 fatty acids to your diet (good sources are fatty fish, like salmon) and using a humidifier to moisten ...
Jennifer Craig, MCOptom, PhD, discusses the clinical trial data on the Oculeve Intranasal Stimulator for the treatment of dry eye disease. The double-masked randomized, controlled, multicenter study, was conducted in nine centers across Australia and New Zealand. Active intranasal neurostimulation increased tear production at every visit with minimal adverse events.
When we cry we put pressure into our heads. This pressure causes a backup of tears into our eyes from our noses. We also increase our blood flow to our face and eyes, which causes an increase in the amount of tears. These two things cause our eyes to be over filled with tears. And because we have too many tears to fit into our eyes, they flow down our cheeks as we cry. ...
Humans are believed to be the only creatures that produce tears because of emotions like sadness and joy. But researchers at Israels Weizmann Institute of Science may have found another function for tears: they reduce mens testosterone. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors, induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of womens faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arous...
Nerve Biopsy Shows Hypomyelination & Schirmer Test Shows Alacrima Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Triple A Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
A fascinating new study just came out, showing that tears that were produced by women under negative emotions reduce the sex drive of men! This gives men yet another reason not to upset women.. Here is the abstract:. Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors, induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of womens faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arousal, reduced physiological measures of arousal, and reduced levels of testosterone. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that sniffing womens tears selectively reduced activity in brain-substrates of sexual arousal in men.. The full paper is here:. ...
The Moist Heat Therapies use heat to help open the critical glands that secrete the oily lipid layer of our tear film which slows tear evaporation of our tears every day. The increased humidity created helps prevent the evaporation of natural and artificial tears while wearing the goggle. Chronic sufferers can use tranquileyes to enhance the benefits of artificial tears, Restasis, ointments, Punctal Plugs and supplements. ...
Bees That Drink Human Tears Remember the Neatorama post about... ...out the sweat bees in New York that use humans as giant salt licks? Well, turns out that... ...py as these bees in Thailand that drink human tears : On landing, automatic blinking... ...ona attached to his lid, imbibing his... https://www.neatorama.com/2012/05/06/bees-that-drink-human-tears/ ...
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Isolation of VEGF, TNF-α, TGFβ1 and β2, IL-6, and IL-1 from the Precorneal Tear Film of Normal Horses and Horses with Stromal Abscesses ...
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Three weeks ago I was diagnosed with partial placenta abruption....I have two small tears in my placenta. Since then I have been having very bad cramps and recently mild contractions....three weeks ago when this was first discovered they said it can either reattach or get worse...I have a appointment next week with the high risk dr (that will be one month after I found this out). Last week my reg dr did an US just to see how things were going and the tears were still there and they saw me having contractions on US. The tears werent smaller or bigger. From the few ppl I talked to who have had similar situations they said by now (3-4 weeks) they healed (more so than the ones who said it got worse)....since there still there and Im still feeling horrible is this a bad sign? I was hoping everything be gone....btw Im 22 weeks. Tu ladies
La Bouche - No Tears (música para ouvir e letra da música com legenda)! No tears to cry, no sad good-byes / Im spreading my wings and Im ready to fly / No tears to shed, only happiness ahead / This millennium will be my time to be free
While Polyamorous Relationships Are Loving And Fulfilling For Many, They Dont Come Without Their Fair Share Of Problems. This True Story Illustrates The Ups And Downs For A Poly Triad When A Bisexual Wife Wants To Break Up With Her Girlfriend ... But Her Husband And The Other Woman Are Still Dating And Crazy In Love.
Meek Mill started officially calling Minaj "his girl" in 2015 and theyve collaborated together musically for Minajs The Pinkprint, with the songs "Buy a Heart" and "Big Daddy" and earlier projects like Meeks Dreams Worth More Than Money album, on the tracks "Bad for You" and "All Eyes On You.". According to sources Meek is not happy about the break up, and this has provided a bit of fear in the Minaj camp on rumors of sex tapes and nude photos that Meek claims he has of Nicki, and friends of Meek have confirmed. This of course would not be the first rumor of a sex tape of Nicki Minaj, as she has had a few, including a before they where famous one from way back in the day and the one with Lil Wayne, both of which we have debunked.. Showbiz Spy had reported trouble in paradise about 3 months ago, and now all seems to have gone the way we reported.. Keep your eyes open as we can guarantee this is going to get nasty we have no doubt at all.. ...
Am i the only who i thought right from the beginning he was using her? From what ive been told, hes kinda sorta new to the industry and isnt that good and hasnt gotten much of a fan base. Ever since he got with her, his followers rocketed by like 25,000 and he was tweeting to have fans vote for like fan favorite of the year, etc. It just seems suspicious to me. Like she seemed WAY more into him than he was into her. I think he used her to get his name out there and she was too oblivious to notice. He clearly isnt saddened by the break up and is making it clear that he was in it for a motive by his pimp tweet. But this is probably going to backfire on him in retrospect as he probably wont have like any fans now. I questioned his motives the second i hear about them two, and i am now confident that i was right. Some things are just too good to be true.. ...
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Break Up With Your Girlfriend, Im Bored - Ariana Grande. You got me some type of way (Hmm), Aint used to feelin this way (Mmm-mmm)
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