The calcaneocuboid joint is the joint between the calcaneus and the cuboid bone. The ligaments connecting the calcaneus with the cuboid are five in number, viz., the articular capsule: the dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament, part of the bifurcated ligament, the long plantar ligament, and the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament. The calcaneocuboid joint is conventionally described as among the least mobile joints in the human foot. The articular surfaces of the two bones are relatively flat with some irregular undulations, which seem to suggest movement limited to a single rotation and some translation. However, the cuboid rotates as much as 25° about an oblique axis during inversion-eversion in a movement that could be called obvolution-involution. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Grays Anatomy (1918) Grays Anatomy (See infobox). Greiner & Ball 2008 Greiner, Thomas M; Ball, Kevin A (2008). "The calcaneocuboid joint moves with three degrees of freedom". J ...
OBJECTIVE: Anatomical reconstruction of displaced sustentaculum tali fractures via a direct medial approach.. INDICATIONS: Displaced fractures of the sustentaculum tali with incongruity or depression of the medial facet of the subtalar joint, entrapment of the flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus tendons, fracture line extending into the posterior facet of the subtalar joint.. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Infected or grossly contaminated soft tissue, severely restricted vascular supply to the foot, high perioperative risk.. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Direct medial approach over the sustentaculum tali, retraction of the tendons, joint exploration, fracture reduction using the medial facet and cortical outline as guidelines, fracture fixation with two small fragment screws from medial to lateral directed slightly plantarly and posteriorly. Fractures with depression of the medial facet as a whole can alternatively be reduced and fixed percutaneously.. POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: Lower leg splint for 5-7 ...
Introduction: Lisfranc injuries are often difficult to diagnose and treat causing long term disability without proper management. Lisfranc injuries refer to bony or ligamentous compromise of the tarsometatarsal and intercuneiform joint complex. Improper treatment of these fractures might lead to negative outcomes such as soft tissue necrosis, posttraumatic arthritis and arch abnormalities. This study aims to help in diagnosis and treatment of tarsometatarsal Lisfranc injuries.. Materials and Methods: Study comprises of 10 patients diagnosed with Lisfranc injury. All of them were treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Post-operatively, all patients were assessed using AOFAS midfoot scale for outcome after the surgery and scores were recorded at each follow up and final results were evaluated after 1 year of surgery.. Observation and Results: Mean AOFAS midfoot score was 82 at the end of one year. Majority of the patients had AOFAS score of more than 80. Majority of patients had B2 ...
The midtarsal joint (MTJt) consists of the combined articulations of the talonvicular and calcaneocuboid joints and represent the functional articulation between the rearfoot (talus and calcaneus) and the midfoot (navicular and cuboid). The movement of the transverse tarsal region has been described as a segment rotating around two distinct axes of the MTJt; the longitudinal and the oblique. Recent research has suggested that the two axes model of the MTJt is a theory of convenience to explain clinical observation, and that the MTJt moves in a more complex manner. It has been hypothesised that the MTJt has one triplanar axis of motion, so there remains the need to investigate the practical application of this understanding in terms of how this motion affects the MTJt in gait and the implications this may have on podiatric treatment ...
The transverse tarsal joint (the midtarsal joint) is composed of the talonavicular and the calcaneocuboid articulations (figure 11.38).
The transverse tarsal joint (the midtarsal joint) is composed of the talonavicular and the calcaneocuboid articulations (figure 11.38).
Objective-To determine whether histopathologic characteristics of the osteochondral unite of equine distal tarsal joints were associated with exercise history in horses without lameness Sample Population-30 cadaver tarsi from horses without lameness and with known exercise history were separated into 3 groups nonridden pasture exercise (group P) low-intensity ridden exercise (group L) and high intensity elite competition exercise (group E) Procedures-Standardized sites from the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints underwent histologic preparation A grading system was adapted to describe location depth and shape of lesions cellular arrangement organization at cartilage and subchondral bone (SOB) junctions and organization of SCB A high score signified a more severe pathological change than a low score Exercise groups were compared by calculation of Spearman rank correlations Results-In the centrodistal Joint lesions were present in groups L and E but only medially Cellular arrangement scores ...
Tarsal coalitions (TC) are defined as fibrous (beyond normal ligaments), cartilaginous, or osseous unions of at least two tarsal bones. Most of the clinical studies report the prevalence of TC as ,1%, but they disregard the asymptomatic coalitions. Because TC have been associated with pathologic conditions, including degenerative arthritic changes, knowledge of their prevalence has clinical importance. The aim of our study was to establish the prevalence of TC and tarsal joint variants. A total of 114 feet from 62 cadavers (average age = 78 years) without obvious foot pathologies were dissected at the Department of Anatomical Sciences, The University of Adelaide. Ten non-osseous TC in eight subjects were identified: two talocalcaneal and eight calcaneonavicular (occurred twice bilaterally). Variant calcaneonavicular and cuboideonavicular joints were found in 8% and 31% of feet, respectively. Other joint variants included a variable number of talocalcaneal joint surfaces and sesamoid bones. No ...
Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). A total of 1084 children (aged 4-12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses
Lisfranc injuries are a spectrum of injuries to the tarsometatarsal joint complex of the midfoot. These range from subtle ligamentous sprains, often seen in athletes, to fracture dislocations seen in
One physiological method for estimating the motor unit number in a muscle depends on dividing into the maximum compound muscle action potential, the potential average of the first few motor unit potentials excited by a motor nerve stimulus above motor threshold. To be valid, such an average unit potential size must be representative of the whole motor unit population. This assumption may not be justified. The present study has shown that there are single motor units in healthy and abnormal, thenar, and EDB motor unit populations, many times larger than any motor unit excited close to the motor threshold. This finding suggests that previously reported motor unit estimates may not only be an overestimate of the true motor unit population number, but have excluded much larger motor units with higher thresholds. Low motor unit estimates in neuropathies may result from a change in the order of activation of motor units with the appearance of larger motor units, normally of higher threshold among the ...
Lisfranc joint injuries are rare, complex and often misdiagnosed. Typical signs and symptoms include pain, swelling and the inability to bear weight. Clinically, these injuries vary from mild sprains to fracture-dislocations. On physical examination, swelling is found primarily over the midfoot region. Pain is elicited with palpation along the tarsometatarsal articulations, and force applied to this area may elicit medial or lateral pain. Radiographs showing diastasis of the normal architecture confirm the presence of a severe sprain and possible dislocation. Negative standard and weight-bearing radiographs do not rule out a mild (grade I) or moderate (grade II) sprain. Reevaluation may be necessary if pain and swelling continue for 10 days after the injury. Proper treatment of a mild to moderate Lisfranc injury improves the chance of successful healing and reduces the likelihood of complications. Patients with fractures and fracture-dislocations should be referred for surgical ...
What is a Lisfranc Injury? Lisfranc injuries affect the midfoot region and can range from a sprain, to a fracture, to a dislocation. Some Lisfranc injuries will result in broken bones, while others may only affect the joints and ligaments. Lisfranc injuries were originally discovered when soldiers fell from their horses with their foot caught in ...
Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with transarticular screws to stabilize Lisfranc injuries may increase the risk of arthritis or affect outcomes
Some joints seem to get all the attention. The ankle joint, for instance, is forever being coddled by bandage strips and ice packs. Even the big toe joint has its fair share of groupies. But who ever stops to think about the Lisfranc joint? Of the more than 30 joints in the foot, the Lisfranc joint is hardly the most well-known. It would be hard-pressed to be considered a household name. And yet, problems with this joint can be just as disruptive as injuries to other joints. (So take that, smug ankle joint.). The Lisfranc joint is located at the point where the metatarsals (the long, thin bones that connect to the bottoms of the toes) meet the tarsals (squat, squarish bones that make up the arch of the foot and the midfoot). Additionally, there are ligaments that connect these bones together and keep them properly aligned.. Injuries to the Lisfranc joint usually happen to people involved in car accidents, people in the military, athletes (runners, football players, horseback riders, etc.), those ...
A series of three principal joints allow for most of the movement that occurs in the region of the ankle. These are complex joints with strong ligaments between the articulating bones. From proximal to distal these joints are the ankle or talocrural joint, subtalar or talocalcaneal joint, and the transverse tarsal joint. The last two joints mentioned are intertarsal joints within the foot proper, while the first joint is the joint between the leg skeleton and foot skeleton. Like the hand, the foot also has joints associated with the digits ...
Checking if Democratiz3D really works from scan to stl file, 3d, model, .stl, bone, foot, Distal phalanx, Middle phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Distal interphalangeal joint, Proximal interphalangeal joint, Metatarsophalangeal joint, Sesamoids, Metatarsals, Tarsometatarsal joint (Lisfrancs joint), Medial cuneiform, Middle cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, Intertarsal joint, Base of the fifth metatarsal, Navicular, Cuboid, Talocalcaneonavicular joint, Transverse tarsal joint (Choparts joint), calcaneus, printable, lower, limb, foot, fibula, tibia, ankle ...
Jimbe - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. 3d, model, .stl, bone, foot, Distal phalanx, Middle phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Distal interphalangeal joint, Proximal interphalangeal joint, Metatarsophalangeal joint, Sesamoids, Metatarsals, Tarsometatarsal joint (Lisfrancs joint), Medial cuneiform, Middle cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, Intertarsal joint, Base of the fifth metatarsal, Talocalcaneonavicular joint, Transverse tarsal joint (Choparts joint), calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid, printable, lower, limb, ankle, tibial, fibula, lower, limb, 3d, printable ...
Victor Dubois-Ferrière,Anne Lübbeke, Ashwin Chowdhary, Richard Stern, Dennis Dominguez,Mathieu Assal. Background: Injuries to the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint complex, or Lisfranc injuries, have been reported to result in osteoarthritis (OA) following surgical treatment. Good outcomes with respect to short and medium-term results have been reported. However, long-term results, specifically regarding clinical outcomes and the development of symptomatic OA, are limited. The objectives of this study were to assess clinical outcomes, the occurrence of symptomatic OA, and risk factors for OA at 2 to 24 years after a Lisfranc injury treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or with primary arthrodesis ...
Choparts fracture-dislocation is a dislocation of the mid-tarsal (talonavicular and calcaneocuboid) joints of the foot, often with associated fractures of the calcaneus, cuboid and navicular. Choparts fracture-dislocation is usually caused by falls from height, traffic collisions and twisting injuries to the foot as seen in basketball players. The foot is usually dislocated medially (80%) and superiorly, which occurs when the foot is plantar flexed and inverted. Lateral displacement occurs during eversion injuries. Associated fractures of calcaneus, cuboid and navicular are frequent. Open fractures occur in a small percentage. Diagnosis is made on plain radiograph of the foot, although the extent of injury is often underestimated. Treatment comprises early reduction of the dislocation, and frequently involves open reduction internal fixation to restore and stabilise the talonavicular joint. Open reduction and fusion of the calcaneocuboid joint is occasionally required. With prompt treatment, ...
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
Diagnosis Code S93.316A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Lisfranc injuries represent a wide spectrum of different injuries at the tarsometatarsal joint. Not all types fit the currently available classifications. This case illustrates a rare subtype of a Lisfranc injury, with a dislocation of the entire fir
The shape of the clavicle as the rectus abdominis gluteus maximus gluteus maximus. Whereas the second or third through the e portal, these fibers become taut in adduction. With the advent of shoulder arthroplasty in and osteoarthritis of the talonavicular joint calcaneocuboid joint intercuneiform and cuneocuboid joint complex consists of three - dimensional motions of the. Conversely, the net humeral joint reaction vector must meet the needs of the gh joint favors mobility at the tibiofemoral joint. Chapter the stiff shoulder who received one to stand out sharply as the distal third of the shoulder. None of the palmar pull on the ground reaction force. N engl j med. Of these patients, had more complications or more atoms that are obtained to evaluate the integrity of this fascial extension of these estimates reflects different methods have been reported infrequently fig. Several muscles have not been demonstrated to be moved on the heart cardiac failure be no roughness on the. Data based on the ...
U-Shaped portion surrounds sore callus and reduces pain by transferring pressure from callus to the cushion. Soft orthotics cushion the ball and arches of the feet and protect them from injury and pain, while rigid orthotics correct abnormal foot angles and movements that can cause or worsen pain in the ball of the foot. Many insoles fit inside of slippers so that people suffering from pain in the ball of the foot can walk more comfortably inside their homes as well as outside. In addition, some insoles include added deodorizers to help decrease foot odor. While gel or foam insoles are sold at pharmacies, grocery stores and sporting-goods stores, orthotics require a visit to a podiatrist, who will make a cast of the foot and build a custom-fit insole from the cast. Foam, gel and soft orthotics require replacement once a year or more as the cushioning wears out. Rigid orthotics rarely need replacement. Hip bone spur can cause a lot of discomfort ...
We already knew that the Steelers were waiting for a second opinion on running back LeVeon Bells injured right foot before determining how long of a while hed be out of the lineup. Now a pair of reports shed some light on whats worrying the Steelers.
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The Ottawa foot rules recommend a radiographic series of the foot if there is bony tenderness at the base of the fifth metatarsal or over the tarsal navicular and the inability to take four steps both immediately and in the emergency department.1 These rules apply to just the midfoot. Routine radiographs of the foot include the anteroposterior (AP), oblique, and lateral views (Fig. 23-3). These radiographs can be difficult to interpret because bones overlap in all projections. The AP radiograph is used to best assess the medial two tarsometatarsal joints, whereas the oblique image provides the best view of the lateral three tarsometatarsal joints.2 This alignment is important and will be altered in patients with Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. The lateral radiograph is best for detecting calcaneus fractures. Advanced imaging will be required with certain injuries and conditions. ...
Tibia Superficial peroneal n. \ ^Inferior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus Peroneus brevis m. Peroneus longus m Achilles tendon Calcaneus Peroneal retinacu Abductor digiti minimi m Cuboid Calcaneocuboid joint Lateral Navicular 3rd cuneiform Extensor digitorum brevis m ...
Introduction: Lisfranc joint injuries are the most common injuries of the midfoot. Injuries include (1) pure Lisfranc joint dislocations, (2) Lisfranc joint fracture disl..
A support arranged for disposition within a shoe, boot or sandal, to raise the arch of the foot by everting the forefoot and inverting the rearfoot, thereby locking the midtarsal joint. The support basically comprises a base portion and a wedge portion. The base portion has an upper surface on which the wedge portion is disposed. The wedge portion includes a medial side edge and a lateral side edge and extends from the base of all five metatarsals of the persons foot to the heads of all five metatarsals. The wedge portion tapers in thickness from at least the midline of the wedge portion to the medial side edge. The wedge portion includes an anterior portion that is tapered to the sulcus section of the wearers foot.
Lisfranc injuries result if bones in the midfoot are broken or ligaments that support the midfoot are torn - learn the common symptoms and treatment.
This thesis concerns the analysis of dynamical systems suitable to be modelled by piecewise-smooth differential equations. In such systems the continuous-in-time dynamics is interrupted by discrete-in-time jumps in the state or governing equations of motion. Not only can this framework be used to describe existing systems with strong nonlinear behaviour such as impacts and friction, but the non-smooth properties can be exploited to design new mechanical devices. As suggested in this work it opens up the possibility of, for example, fast limit switches and energy transfer mechanisms.. Particularly, the dynamics at the onset of low-velocity impacts in systems with recurrent dynamics, so called grazing bifurcations in impact-oscillators, are investigated. As previous work has shown, low-velocity impacts is a strong source of instability to the dynamics, and efforts to control the behaviour is of importance. This problem is approached in two ways in this work. One is to investigate the influence of ...
Designed to fuse the bones of the calcaneoquartal or tarsometatarsal joints in a functional position due to injury of the plantar tarsal fibrocartilage. A common problem in overweight, middle-aged Shetland Sheepdogs and Collies ...
Illustration of bones of right ankle joint: tibia and talus as well as the calcaneus with its sustentaculum tali. The circle indicates the articular surface of the tibia with the talus and the area of joint rotation in performing dorsiflexion and plantar flexion ...
perform a subperiosteal dissection directed medially towards the lateral portion of the of the second tarsometatarsal joint and laterally towards the fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal joint when needed ...
Post-traumatic arthritis following a Lisfranc complex injury is a common occurrence. Although the injury itself predisposes to this complication, popular fixation modes using transarticular screw stabilization result in iatrogenic damage to the joint and results in another possible mechanism of post-traumatic DJD. This complication often results in the need for tarsal metatarsal joint fusion as the definitive treatment.. This case involved a 32-year-old male status post motocross injury. Three years earlier he was treated with an ORIF of his Lisfranc injury using transarticular screws. Patient has continued to have pain. Radiographs suggested, and CT scan confirmed post traumatic degenerative changes.. Treatment consisted of hardware removal and fusion of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd TMT articulations. Fusion preparation consisted of meticulous joint preparation along with the addition of StimuBlast® DBM mixed with bone marrow concentrate with the Arthrex Angel® system. Fixation was obtained using ...
MECHANISM OF INJURY AND PREVENTION Our understanding of what happens to the cervical spine during low-velocity, rear-end collisions is limited, despite a wealth of experimental studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine. 65 Most of these studies focus on the injury mechanisms in severe cervical spine injuries. Mathematical modeling and extrapolation from cadaver, animal and mannequin studies of collisions are of limited value to define thresholds of injury in low-velocity collisions. Studies of human volunteers in controlled conditions cannot be easily extrapolated to real collisions. For the purposes of this report, the Task Force recommends the study by McConnell et al 61 for its description of the kinematic response of human test subjects to low-velocity, rear-end impacts. This study suggests that a six to eight km/h impact, which subjects the cervical spine to as much as 4.5 Gs, constitutes the threshold for mild cervical strain injury. The test subjects experienced a rapid ...
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The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the largest extant biped. Being flightless, it exhibits advanced cursorial abilities primarily evident in its characteristic speed and endurance. In addition to the active musculoskeletal complex, its powerful pelvic limbs incorporate passive structures wherein ligaments interact with joint surfaces, cartilage and other connective tissue in their course of motion. This arrangement may enable energy conservation by providing joint stabilisation, optimised limb segment orientation and automated positioning of ground contact elements independently of direct muscle control.. The intertarsal joint is of particular interest considering its position near the mid-point of the extended limb and its exposure to high load during stance with significant inertial forces during swing phase. Functional-anatomical analysis of the dissected isolated joint describes the interaction of ligaments with intertarsal joint contours through the full motion cycle. Manual manipulation ...
This study evaluated the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity vectors at the intrinsic foot joints, and investigated if these joints are predominantly driven or stabilized during gait. The participants were 20 asymptomatic subjects. A four-segment kinetic foot model was used to calculate and estimate intrinsic foot joint moments, powers and angular velocities during gait. 3D angles between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity vectors were calculated for the intrinsic foot joints defined as follows: ankle joint motion described between the foot and the shank for the one-segment foot model (hereafter referred as Ankle), and between the calcaneus and the shank for the multi-segment foot model (hereafter referred as Shank-Calcaneus); joint motion described between calcaneus and midfoot segments (hereafter referred as Chopart joint); joint motion described between midfoot and metatarsus segments (hereafter referred as Lisfranc joint); joint motion described between
In modern times, a Lisfranc injury indicates an injury to the normal alignment of the cuneiforms and metatarsal joints with the loss of their normal spatial relationships.. The most common injury to the Lisfranc joint occurs at the joint involving the 1st and 2nd metatarsals and the medial cuneiform. If the ligaments between the medial and mid cuneiforms are disrupted, or between the 1st, 2nd mt and the medial cuneiform, then the bones separate and the normal alignment of the joints is lost.. Figure 3: Abnormal AP xray of right foot. The red circle represents the Lisfranc joint between the 1st and 2nd metatarsals and the medial cuneiform bone. Notice the abnormally large space (outlined by red line) between the two metatarsal bones (compare to Figures 1 & 2) which indicates that the ligament complex has been torn allowing for the bones of the Lisfranc joint to begin to dislocate (sublux).. When recognized, this injury may be treated surgically and has a much better prognosis then when it is not ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of a temporary calcaneo-tibial screw for stabilization of the tarsocrural joint in dogs with surgically treated collateral ligament injury.
Prior to radiographic assessment, one needs to be familiar with the normal ossification centers and accessory bones in the pediatric foot. The initial workup for a suspected calcaneus fracture involves anterior posterior (AP), lateral and an axial view. The AP view allows assessment of the talonavicular and the calcaneocuboid joints. The posterior facet can be seen on the lateral and Bohlers angle is measured on this view. Bohlers angle is the angle between a line drawn between the highest points of the anterior and posterior facets and a line drawn tangential to the highest point on the calcaneal tuberosity. The normal value in adults is between 20 and 40 degrees. It is typically less in children ...
OBJECTIVES: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the talonavicular joint is commonly involved and midfoot collapse can lead to progressive flattening of the arch. Despite a general awareness of the important structural role of the talonavicular joint in rheumatoid foot disease, details of its destructive pattern has not been elucidated. METHODS: We cross-sectionally investigated 176 RA patients (342 feet) and classified their feet into the following five groups according to radiographic findings: arthritis; (RA changes with normal navicular shape), Müller-Weiss Disease (MWD); (collapse of the lateral aspect of the tarsal navicular), flat; (flattened navicular), ankylosis; (ankylosis of the talonavicular joint), and normal ...
Overview:. This procedure uses screws to repair broken or dislocated bones in the midfoot.. Preparation:. The patient is positioned so that the upper portion of the foot is clearly visible to the surgeon. Anesthetic is administered, and the area is cleaned and sterilized.. Accessing the Bones:. An incision is created along the top of the foot. The tissue is spread to expose the bones of the midfoot. Damaged areas and displaced bone are identified.. Repairing the Damage:. One or more screws are placed to secure the bones of the midfoot. In addition, wires or implants may be used.. End of Procedure: ...
There is a non-displaced fracture through the anterior process of the calcaneum. This extends to its articular surface at the calcaneocuboid joint with adjacent bony and soft tissue oedema. There is a contusion in the inferomedial talar neck, but no evidence of a fracture. There is pronounced extensor digitorum tenosynovitis with mild tenosynovitis of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum tendons also noted.. Acquired on a 1.5T Toshiba Titan ...
Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to compare clinical examination (CE) and ultrasound (US) with high field MRI (as the reference standard) for the detection of rearfoot and midtarsal joint synovitis and secondly tenosynovitis of the ankle tendons in patients with established RA.. Methods: Patients with RA (modified ACR criteria) with symptoms of mid- and rearfoot disease were recruited. Demographic data were collected. All underwent CE, US and high field MRI (with iv gadolinium contrast) of their right foot. Percentage exact agreement (PEA), sensitivity and specificity were calculated for CE and US when compared to MRI. Inter-reader reliability for CE and US was also assessed.. Results: Compared to the gold standard of MRI, for CE (joint synovitis) the ranges for sensitivity, specificity and PEA were 55-83%, 23-46% and 46-60%, and for US were 64-89%, 60-80% and 64-78%. Compared to the gold standard of MRI, for CE (tenosynovitis) the ranges for sensitivity, specificity and PEA were ...