In the end, Dr. Porters testimony did not finish today. By the time the industry lawyers had conducted their short cross-examination (during which he affirmed that Canadian cigarettes had no additives, that no elastic cigarettes had been put on the market, and that a low tar cigarette could not be over-smoked to give higher deliveries than its parent brand), it was nearing 5 oclock. The lawyer for the federal government, Mr. Maurice Regnier, said that he would not be able to complete his questions in a few minutes, and Dr. Porter was scheduled to return on June 11th ...
BUZZMONITOR: A TOOL FOR MEASURING WORD OF MOUTH LEVEL IN ON-LINE COMMUNITIES Alessandro Barbosa Lima Jairson Vitorino Henrique Rebêlo ABSTRACT This paper describes an application to monitor on-line Word
The chief purpose of the present chapter is not to review lung cancer trends in general, but merely to consider the extent to which trends in national lung cancer rates can help assess any differences between the carcinogenic effects of different types of cigarette. For this limited purpose, the British data are uniquely informative, for British male lung cancer rates were already high but stable before the cigarette tar levels were halved, and British male cigarette consumption remained stable for some years thereafter. Against this apparently stable background, an otherwise unexplained decrease of about one-half in British male lung cancer mortality in early middle age has followed the decrease in cigarette tar deliveries, which is consistent with Stellmans conclusion (this volume), based on review of the case-control and prospective studies, that cigarette-induced lung cancer risks are approximately proportional to machine-measured tar deliveries. Lung cancer trends are also reviewed for males from
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OConnor and colleagues demonstrated that the UK tobacco industry met the 2001 European Union (EU) regulatory standard of lowering yields to tar (10 mg), nicotine (1 mg) and CO (10 mg) by increasing filter ventilation.8 The results of the present study, which examined changes in cigarette design characteristics and reported tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in selected Chinese cigarette brands from 2009 and 2012, demonstrate that the Chinese tobacco industry met the 2011 requirement to reduce tar limits from 15 to 12 mg in a similar fashion. Cigarette ventilation, as expected, was the most important predictor of yields, and was the only design parameter that significantly changed (a 31.7% increase) from 2009 to 2012, replicating the results found in the UK in 2004.16 ,17. In addition, a subset of brands appear to be innovating in terms of filter design, employing filters with pictograms carved in the ends, channelled filters, dual filters and carbon filters. Future research will need to ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cigarettes with minuscule holes in the filter paper have been making the headlines recently. These ventilated filter cigarettes are at least as harmful as cigarettes without filter ventilation holes. The quantities of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (abbreviated to TNCO) that are determined using the standard measurement method prescribed by the EU are in fact lower than those inhaled by smokers. This type of cigarette has been named sjoemelsigaret (cheating cigarette) by the Dutch media.
Indeed, the belief that low-tar cigarettes are safer has official backing. High-tar cigarettes were banned by the EUs Tobacco Products Directive in 2001. Article 3 of the directive states: From 1 January 2004, the yield of cigarettes released for free circulation, marketed or manufactured in the member states shall not be greater than 10mg per cigarette for tar, 1mg per cigarette for nicotine, 10mg per cigarette for carbon monoxide. By previous standards, the only cigarettes available now are low tar. Why would the EU bother with such a rule if there were no benefit at all? (We will leave aside the obvious answer: its the EU and it frequently makes stupid laws.). As for childhood smoking, this has been illegal for a very long time in the UK. The Childrens Act 1908 made it an offence to sell tobacco to anyone who is apparently under 16. So campaigners are trying to charge tobacco companies with killing people because they started to smoke when it was illegal to do so. The real problem is ...
This blog was co-written with Lorne Stockman, Research Director at Oil Change International. In the summer of 2012, advocates of Keystone XL hailed Southern Pacific Resources announcement that it had signed a five-year contract to bypass pipeline bottlenecks and ship tar sands by rail to the Gulf Coast as proof that tar sands projects would move forward with or without pipelines. Two years after becoming the first tar sands producer to attempt to rely entirely on rail to ship its production to the Gulf, Southern Pacific Resources stands on the brink of financial ruin. Rather than proving that rail can be an alternative to pipelines to the Gulf Coast, Southern Pacific Resources experience illustrates the profound economic obstacles associated with tar sands production. The poor performance of tar sands by rail to the Gulf has only proved why the industry needs projects like the proposed Keystone XL pipeline to expand.. Southern Pacific Resources plan called for the production from its McKay ...
A tar pit, or more accurately an asphalt pit or asphalt lake, is the result of a type of petroleum seep where subterranean bitumen leaks to the surface, creating a large area of natural asphalt. This happens because, after the material reaches the surface, its lighter components vaporize, leaving only the thick asphalt. Major tar pits include Binagadi asphalt lake, the La Brea Tar Pits, the Carpinteria Tar Pits, the McKittrick Tar Pits, Pitch Lake, and Lake Bermudez. Animals usually cannot escape from the asphalt when they fall in, making these pits excellent places to excavate bones of prehistoric animals. The tar pits can trap animals because the asphalt that seeps up from underground forms a bitumen pit so thick that even mammoths could not free themselves before they died of starvation, exhaustion from trying to escape, or exposure to the suns heat. Over a million fossils have been found in tar pits around the globe. For other rich deposits, fossilized where they occurred, see ...
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Update 9/3: Gap, Levi- Strauss and Timberland have not specifically committed to eliminating "tar sands oil" from their fuel sources, but each have committed in their own way to reducing the environmental and social impacts of their fuels. Any action to reduce environmental and social impacts of fuel choices must consider the significant impacts of tar sands, and give preference to suppliers who avoid it, but these companies are not specifically targeting tar sands fuel for a boycott. Walgreens, however, has made an explicit move away from tar sands oil, and has directed its suppliers to source non-tar sands fuels.. Original Post: The pen is mightier than the sword, but the purse may sometimes be mightier than the pen. Major US corporations are adding market pressure to the growing wave of opposition against tar sands expansion, giving tar sands producers a fresh reason to consider the consequences of their poor environmental street cred.. Whole Foods Market and Bed Bath and Beyond joined a list ...
GNU Tar provides the ability to create tar archives, as well as various other kinds of manipulation. For example, you can use Tar on previously created archives to extract files, to store additional files, or to update or list files which were already stored. Initially, tar archives were used to store files conveniently on magnetic tape. The name "Tar" comes from this use; it stands for tape archiver. Despite the utilitys name, Tar can direct its output to available devices, files, or other programs (using pipes), it can even access remote devices or files (as archives). ...
Enhanced capability design-rule halos for use in Computer Aided Design (CAD) software programs are described. Such enhanced halos, created around a design feature at the design rule distance from that feature, have the following characteristics: beveled corners for closer placement of adjacent non-parallel and/or non-perpendicular design features, level-to-level design rule halos, following a bend or turn in a design feature, the design rule halo automatically adapts to bends or turns in the design feature and associated changes in the design feature following the bend, following a bend or turn in a design feature, the design feature and the design rule halo automatically snap back, as required, to avoid a design rule violation with respect to an adjacent design feature, and the design-rule halo is prevented from extending closer to an adjacent design feature than the design rule distance. These actions are performed real-time and interactively.
Second-hand e-cig smoke has 10 times less particulate matter than regular cigarette smoke; but higher levels of certain toxic metals.
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In CRX 2.x, the default maximum size of the data_,id,.tar files is 256mb.. To avoid reaching this limit, we recommend to increase the maximum file size of the data_,id,.tar files to at least 512 (512 MB). Please note that the maximum value is 1024 (1024 MB).. If you are hit by the problem, please inform GSG. The resolution is to stop CRX, delete all index*.tar files, rename all data*.tar files (but keeping the relative order), and start CRX.. To reconfigure the maximum file size, the ...
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Cigarettes look deceptively simple, consisting of paper tubes containing chopped up tobacco leaf, usually with a filter at the mouth end.. In fact, they are highly engineered products, designed to deliver a steady dose of nicotine.. Cigarette tobacco is blended from two main leaf varieties: yellowish bright, also known as Virginia where it was originally grown, contains 2.5-3% nicotine; and burley tobacco which has higher nicotine content (3.5-4%).. US blends also contain up to 10% of imported oriental tobacco which is aromatic but relatively low (less than 2%) in nicotine.. In addition to the leaf blend, cigarettes contain fillers which are made from the stems and other bits of tobacco, which would otherwise be waste products. These are mixed with water and various flavorings and additives. The ratio of filler varies among brands.. For example, high filler content makes a less dense cigarette with a slightly lower tar delivery. Additives are used to make tobacco products more acceptable ...
By Bhaskar Prasad February 4, 2012 12:35 AM EST. The World Cancer Day is observed on Feb 4 in honor of the global fight against the non-communicable disease (NCD), which claimed more than 7.6 million lives in 2008 and the World Health Organization says the number is expected to rise above 11 million by 2030.. The data from the World Health Organization Global Status Report on NCDs demonstrate that almost 80 percent of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries and a quarter happen before the age of 60.. The main types of cancer are:. Lung Cancer (1.4 million deaths). It is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than of breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and the earlier you started smoking, the greater your risk for lung cancer. There is no evidence that smoking low-tar cigarettes lowers the risk. Stomach Cancer (740,000 ...
Cigarettes look deceptively simple, consisting of paper tubes containing chopped up tobacco leaf, usually with a filter at the mouth end.. In fact, they are highly engineered products, designed to deliver a steady dose of nicotine.. Cigarette tobacco is blended from two main leaf varieties: yellowish bright, also known as Virginia where it was originally grown, contains 2.5-3% nicotine; and burley tobacco which has higher nicotine content (3.5-4%).. US blends also contain up to 10% of imported oriental tobacco which is aromatic but relatively low (less than 2%) in nicotine.. In addition to the leaf blend, cigarettes contain fillers which are made from the stems and other bits of tobacco, which would otherwise be waste products. These are mixed with water and various flavorings and additives. The ratio of filler varies among brands.. For example, high filler content makes a less dense cigarette with a slightly lower tar delivery. Additives are used to make tobacco products more acceptable ...
The stigmatization of the tar sands industry is also growing outside the United States. In Germany, as previously reported on Planetsave, the largest science institution in the nation - one of the worlds most prestigious research institutions - last week severed its ties with a major Alberta Tar Sands research project, citing fears to our environmental reputation. In England, a growing protest movement is demanding that the UK reject proposals to import tar sands oil from Canada. Even in Israel, fossil-fuel protesters turned out to greet President Obama during his visit last week with demands that he reject the Keystone Pipeline. ...
Other articles where Götar is discussed: Sweden: Settlement patterns: The Svear and the Götar (believed by some scholars to be the original Goths) were united into one state about 1000 ce. The Götar lived in Östergötland, Västergötland, and Småland, and the Svear around Lake Mälar. Certain differences remain in the dialects spoken in these two regions.
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As you know, the planet is steadily warming: 2010 was the warmest year on record, and weve seen the resulting chaos in almost every corner of the earth.. And as you also know, our democracy is increasingly controlled by special interests interested only in their short-term profit.. These two trends collide this summer in Washington, where the State Department and the White House have to decide whether to grant a certificate of national interest to some of the biggest fossil fuel players on earth. These corporations want to build the so-called Keystone XL Pipeline from Canadas tar sands to Texas refineries.. To call this project a horror is serious understatement. The tar sands have wrecked huge parts of Alberta, disrupting ways of life in indigenous communities-First Nations communities in Canada, and tribes along the pipeline route in the U.S. have demanded the destruction cease. The pipeline crosses crucial areas like the Oglalla Aquifer where a spill would be disastrous-and though the ...
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Opening a tar file and then a sub file, used to be able to save. Doesnt seem to be the case in the latest Emacs pretest. In fact, everythings opening as read-only. Test case: M-! touch foo; tar cf foo.tar foo RET C-x C-f foo.tar RET f C-x q ,EDIT, C-x s ! The above should save the files including the sub file, but instead complains about the tar file being. The following patch removes the C-x q and saving actually works. Seems this bug was a result of tar-mode inheriting from special-mode. Thanks for Emacs, /a 2012-03-13 Aaron S. Hawley ,[email protected], * tar-mode.el (tar-mode): Fix saving by conditionally undoing `special-mode setting of `buffer-read-only. --- tar-mode.el 2012-02-13 11:13:25.000000000 -0500 +++ tar-mode.el 2012-03-13 12:54:00.376389400 -0400 @@ -634,6 +634,9 @@ See also: variables `tar-update-datestamp and `tar-anal-blocksize. \\{tar-mode-map} + (when (and buffer-file-name + (file-writable-p buffer-file-name)) + (setq buffer-read-only nil)) ;; Undo what `special-mode ...
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A smokeless cigarette currently under review by the FDA for sale in the U.S. may not be as harmless as the tobacco industry claims, a new study shows.
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First Nations are on the front lines of the devastating impacts of the tar sands. They breathe the smoggy air, and drink the polluted water. And in July, Ill join hundreds of people in a Healing Walk...