The PIK3CA-AKT-mTOR pathway is commonly activated in cancer; thus, mTOR inhibitors have potential in precision medicine. First-generation allosteric mTOR inhibitors (including rapamycin) have had limited success in cancer, and second-generation mTOR kinase inhibitors (including AZD8055) are in clinical trials. Rodrik-Outmezguine, Okaniwa, Yao, and colleagues explored the resistance mechanisms of available mTOR inhibitors in order to develop third-generation mTOR inhibitors that may overcome the resistance mechanisms. Deep sequencing of breast cancer cells treated with rapamycin or AZD8055 to generate resistant colonies revealed two mutations (MTORA2034V and MTORF2108L) in the mTOR FKBP12-rapamycin-binding domain (FRB domain) of rapamycin-resistant clones, and a mutation (MTORM2327I) in the kinase domain of MTOR of the AZD8055-resistant clones. The FRB domain mutations targeted the rapamycin-binding pocket; however, the MTORM2327I mutation was more than 15 Å from the inhibitor site. Further, ...
Two crystal forms of unligated FKBP12.6 exhibit multiple conformations in the active site and in the 80s loop, the primary site for known protein-recognition interactions. The previously unreported NMR backbone assignment of FKBP12.6 revealed extensive doubling of amide resonances, which reflects a slow conformational transition centered in the 80s loop. The primary known physiological function of FKBP12.6 involves its role in regulating the RyR2 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca{sup 2+} channels in cardiac muscle, pancreatic β islets and the central nervous system. With only a single previously reported X-ray structure of FKBP12.6, bound to the immunosuppressant rapamycin, structural inferences for this protein have been drawn from the more extensive studies of the homologous FKBP12. X-ray structures at 1.70 and 1.90 Å resolution from P2{sub 1} and P3{sub 1}21 crystal forms are reported for an unligated cysteine-free variant of FKBP12.6 which exhibit a notable diversity of conformations. In ...
1KT0: Structure of the large FK506-binding protein FKBP51, an Hsp90-binding protein and a component of steroid receptor complexes
1KT0: Structure of the large FK506-binding protein FKBP51, an Hsp90-binding protein and a component of steroid receptor complexes
PAE645Hu01, Polyclonal Antibody to FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5), P54; FKBP51; FKBP54; Ptg-10; Rotamase; 51 kDa FK506-binding protein; 54 kDa progesterone receptor-associated; Androgen-regulated protein 6; HSP90-binding immunophilin | Products for research use only!
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The October 2019 G.19 Consumer Credit data were temporarily unavailable in the Data Download Program (DDP). The data are now available at: http://www.federalreserve.gov/datadownload/Choose.aspx?rel= ...
SAFit2 is a highly potent, highly selective FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) inhibitor with a Ki of 6 nM and also enhances AKT2-AS160 binding. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
FKBP52小鼠单克隆抗体[Hi52C](ab59460)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 仓鼠, 狗, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
We investigated the interaction of the 12kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) with two ryanodine-receptor isoforms (RyR1 and RyR3) and with two myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor isoforms (IP3R1 and IP3R3). Using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FKBP12 affinity chromatography, we could efficiently extract RyR1 (42±7% of the solubilized RyR1) from terminal cisternae of skeletal muscle as well as RyR3 (32±4% of the solubilized RyR3) from RyR3-overexpressing HEK-293 cells. These interactions were completely abolished by FK506 (20µM) but were largely unaffected by RyR-channel modulators. In contrast, neither IP3R1 nor IP3R3 from various sources, including rabbit cerebellum, A7r5 smooth-muscle cells and IP3R-overexpressing Sf9 insect cells from Spodoptera frugiperda, were retained on the GST-FKBP12 matrix. Moreover, immunoprecipitation experiments indicated a high-affinity interaction of FKBP12 with RyR1 but not with IP3R1. In order to determine the FKBP12-binding site, we fragmented ...
Graph and download economic data for Future Capital Expenditures; Diffusion Index for FRB - Philadelphia District (CEFDFSA066MSFRBPHI) from May 1968 to Mar 2020 about FRB PHI District, diffusion, expenditures, capital, indexes, and USA.
Expression of FKBP1A (FKBP-12, FKBP1, FKBP12, FKBP12C, PKC12, PPIASE) in soft tissue 1 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA051798 and CAB004639 in immunohistochemistry.
The interest rates paid on reserve balances published at a maintenance period frequency in table 1 of the Boards H.3 statistical release, "Aggregate Reserves of Depository Institutions and the Monetary Base," have been discontinued. As previously announced, effective July 23, 2015, the Federal Reserve Board changed the formula for calculating interest for depository institutions with excess balances to be based on the daily interest rate on excess reserves (IOER rate) and the daily balance maintained, rather than the maintenance period IOER rate and the average balance maintained over the maintenance period. The IOER and IORR rates effective for a given day are now published on the "Interest on Required Balances and Excess Balances" page on the Federal Reserve Boards public website and are available in the Policy Rates Data Download Program. Historical data for all discontinued series, including maintenance period interest rates, remain available through the H.3 Data Download Program. For more ...
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The immunosuppressive drug FK506 binds its targets FK506-binding protein (FKBP) family and modulates cellular processes. Recent studies demonstrated that FK506 shows anti-malaria effects. Newly identified FK506-binding protein 35 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfFKBP35) is assumed to be the molecular target of FK506 in the parasite. Currently, molecular and structural basis of growth inhibition of the parasite by FK506 remains unclear. In this study, to examine characteristics of PfFKBP35 and also understand its molecular mechanism of the inhibition by FK506, we have cloned, expressed, and puriWed the full-length PfFKBP35 and its FK506-binding domain (FKBD). We demonstrate that the full-length PfFKBP35 and the FKBD were properly folded, and suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies. PfFKBP35 showed a basal activity in inhibiting the phosphatase activity of calcineurin in the absence of FK506, but the presence of FK506 greatly enhanced its calcineurin-inhibitory activity. Our NMR data ...
Here, we demonstrated that the activity of FKBP38 is controlled by its association with Ca2+/CaM. Enzymatic activity was observed at calcium concentrations below 1 μM. Simultaneously, appearance of an FK506‐binding site in the heterodimeric complex was observed. In the absence of Ca2+/CaM, the enzyme remained completely inactive, and commonly known FKBP ligands, such as immunosuppressive and nonimmunosuppressive peptidomacrolides and their derivatives, failed to bind.. Our study provides the first example for a cofactor‐regulated folding helper enzyme. In order to verify enzyme activation by intracellular Ca2+ rise, the active site concentration of endogenous FKBP38 was determined by co‐immunoprecipitation and affinity absorption on MBP‐Bcl‐2 amylose beads. The inactive form of FKBP38 dominates in unstimulated SH‐SY5Y cells.. Near‐UV CD spectroscopy revealed activation of FKBP38 in the Ca2+/CaM/FKBP38 complex by changes of the tertiary structure‐related signals of the enzyme. As ...
This Application Note presents an example protocol using the NanoBiT® PPI System and the GloMax® Discover multimode plate-reader to detect rapamycin-inducible FKBP:FRB protein interactions. Dose response of rapamycin was evaluated, and kinetics of the protein association were followed in real time.
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It has been shown that rapamycin forms a complex with the immunophilin FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12), which then inhibits the protein kinase activity of mTOR ...
We further explored the physiologic significance of the ability of ACVR1[R206H] to respond to activin A in our mouse model of FOP. Inhibition of activin A with a blocking antibody completely inhibited development of HO. Although our results do not exclude the possibility that other ligands may participate, they indicate that activin A (and perhaps the activin A-containing heterodimers, activin AB and AC) must play a major, indeed obligate, role. Moreover, our data were consistent with the idea that activin A, normally produced by cells of the immune system during inflammation (22, 23), is co-opted and reinterpreted by ACVR1[R206H]-expressing cells with osteogenic potential. Hence, activin A may provide the missing link between inflammation and HO in FOP.. We would like to caution, however, that there is a paucity of data implicating activin A as the driver of HO in FOP patients per se; this is largely due to the inability to safely biopsy patients in between, or during, attacks. We cannot ...
The binding protein FKBP5 is an important modulator of the function of the glucocorticoid receptor, the main receptor of the stress hormone system. This turns the FKBP5 gene into a key candidate for gene-environment interactions, which are considered critical for pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. The authors explored gene-environment interactions between FKBP5 gene variants and adverse life events in predicting the first occurrence of a major depressive episode.The analyses were based on 884 Caucasians in a 10-year prospective community study. At baseline, they were 14-24 years old and did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode. The DSM-IV-based Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess adverse life events preceding baseline and major depressive episodes during follow-up. On the basis of previous findings, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FKBP5 gene were selected for genotyping.While the authors did not observe genetic main ...
A database search of the ASK1 sequence outside its kinase domain showed that a short amino acid sequence in the NH2-terminal part contains a motif for an FK506-binding protein (FKBP)-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, of which the functional importance is unknown (Fig. 1A). The kinase domain of ASK1 has sequence similarity with members of the MAPKKK family including MEKK1 (30.0%) in mammal and SSK2 (32.3%) and STE11 (30.4%) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phylogenetic comparison suggested that ASK1 is distantly related to RAF-1, KSR1, TAK1, and TPL-2 mammalian MAPKKKs but most closely related to the SSK2 or SSK22 family of yeast MAPKKKs, which are upstream regulators of yeast HOG1 MAPK (13).. Despite differences in the overall structures of ASK1 and SSK2 or SSK22 (13), it was of interest to examine whether ASK1 might act as a functional kinase in yeast and thereby complement the loss of SSK2 or SSK22. We used yeast strain TM257-H1 (ssk2Δ ssk22Δ sho1Δ) (13, 14), which grows in a normal YPD ...
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine and threonine protein kinase that regulates numerous cellular functions, in particular, the initiation of protein translation. Rapamycin is a natural product macrolide that induces G|sub>1|/sub> growth arrest in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. mTOR has a long list of synonyms including FK506 binding protein12 - rapamycin associated protein 1, FK506 binding protein12 - rapamycin associated protein 2, FRAP1, FRAP2, RAFT1, RAPT1 and/or FKBP12-rapamycin associated protein (FRAP). mTOR is one of a family of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, DNA recombination, and DNA damage detection. In rat, mTOR is a 245-kD protein referred to as RAFT1 with significant homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein TOR1 and has been shown to associate with the immunophilin FKBP12 in a rapamycin-dependent fashion. The FKBP12-rapamycin complex is known to inhibit progression through the G|sub>1|/sub> cell cycle stage by interfering with mitogenic
Expression of FKBP4 (FKBP52, FKBP59) in esophagus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA006148 and CAB017441 in immunohistochemistry.
Antibodies to confirm expression iDimerize Homodimer (DmrB) and Heterodimer (DmrA and DmrC) system fusion proteins. Also detects FKBP12 and FRB fusions from ARGENT Regulation Kits.
Antibodies to confirm expression iDimerize Homodimer (DmrB) and Heterodimer (DmrA and DmrC) system fusion proteins. Also detects FKBP12 and FRB fusions from ARGENT Regulation Kits.
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Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and disabling genetic condition characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in specific anatomic patterns. {file27251}{file27252}Most cases arise as a result of a spontaneous new mutation.
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP; MIM 135100) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification of soft connective tissues including skeletal muscle, tendons and ligaments. Individuals with FOP appear normal at birth, except for malformed great toes and thumbs. The ossification begins in early childhood and progresses over the course of a lifetime. It leads to a debilitating ankylosis of all major joints of the axial and appendicular skeleton and most patients will be confined to wheelchair by the third decade of life. Most FOP cases are sporadic, but there are reports of affected siblings. FOP is caused by mutations in the ACVR1 gene that codes for activin A receptor, type I. It belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and functions as a receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs are extracellular signaling proteins that are critical for the early development of heart, central nervous system, cartilage, and bone. All of the ACVR1 ...
MONTREAL, CANADA, June 13, 2016 - Clementia is pleased to announce that the Phase 2 Open-label Extension Trial (PVO-1A-202) has been modified to enroll up to 20 new participants and to investigate new palovarotene dosing regimens in participants with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). The modification to the Phase 2 Open-label extension trial is designated as Part B.. The Phase 2 Trial (Study PVO-1A-201), which is now complete, was designed as an exploratory dose-ranging study that examined the safety and efficacy of two different dosing regimens of palovarotene in participants for acute flare-up. All 40 individuals who completed the Phase 2 trial have enrolled into the Phase 2 Open-label Extension Trial, which provides access to palovarotene to any participant experiencing an eligible flare-up and continues to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of palovarotene.. Much has been learned from these studies. Emerging data suggests that the risk to develop heterotopic ossification ...
... (FOP), also known as Stone Man Syndrome, is a very rare inherited disorder in which muscle tissue and connective tis
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and intractable disease characterized by extraskeletal bone formation through endochondral ossification. Patients with FOP harbor point mutations in ACVR1, a type I receptor for BMPs. Although mutated ACVR1 (FOP-ACVR1) has been shown to render hyperactivity in BMP signaling, we and others have uncovered a mechanism by which FOP-ACVR1 mistransduces BMP signaling in response to Activin-A, a molecule that normally transduces TGF-β signaling. Although Activin-A evokes enhanced chondrogenesis in vitro and heterotopic ossification (HO) in vivo, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be revealed. To this end, we developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) system using FOP patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (FOP-iPSCs) to identify pivotal pathways in enhanced chondrogenesis that are initiated by Activin-A. In a screen of 6,809 small-molecule compounds, we identified mTOR signaling as a critical pathway for the aberrant chondrogenesis of ...
Results All patients presented small asymptomatic lesions similar to hamartomas at the level of the dorsal medulla and ventral pons, associated with minor brainstem dysmorphisms and abnormal origin of the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves. The size of the brainstem lesions did not correlate with patients age (p=0.061), age at first flare-up (p=0.733), severity of disability (p=0.194), history of head trauma (p=0.415) or hearing loss (p=0.237). The radiologic features and the absence of neurological symptoms were consistent with a benign process. Variable signal abnormalities and/or calcifications of the dentate nuclei were noted in all patients, while basal ganglia abnormalities were present in nine subjects. Brain calcifications positively correlated with patients age (p,0.001) and severity of disability (p=0.002). ...
Principal Investigator:Kitoh Hiroshi, Project Period (FY):2015-04-01 - 2018-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery
TY - JOUR. T1 - FKB1 encodes a nonessential FK 506-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and contains regions suggesting homology to the cyclophilins. AU - Wiederrecht, G.. AU - Brizuela, L.. AU - Elliston, K.. AU - Sigal, N. H.. AU - Siekierka, J. J.. PY - 1991/2/21. Y1 - 1991/2/21. N2 - FK 506, a powerful immunosuppressant that blocks allograft rejection by preventing T-cell activation, binds to an 11-kDa protein called the FK 506-binding protein (FKBP). Like cyclophilin, a cytosolic protein that binds another immunosuppressant, cyclosporin A, FKBP possesses peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. We have isolated a genomic clone encoding the yeast FKBP (FKB1). The gene encodes a protein of 114 amino acids having a calculated M(r) of 12,158. Disruption of the gene shows that FKB1 is not essential for growth. A search of translated nucleic acid data bases revealed bacterial FKBP homologs in Neisseria meningiditis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparison of the conserved amino acids in ...
The term heterotopic ossification (HO) describes bone formation at an abnormal anatomical site, usually in soft tissue. HO can be classified into the following 3 types: Myositis ossificans progressiva (fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva) - This disorder is among the rarest genetic conditions, with an incidence of 1 case per 2 million persons.
Table of Contents: Split inteins are versatile tools for the ligation of polypeptide sequences via native peptide bonds. The protein trans-splicing reaction begins with the association of the intein fragments, which are parts of two separate polypeptide sequences. The splicing competent intein complex then mediates its own excision out of the precursor protein and concomitantly links the fused N- and C-extein sequences. The specific intein fragment association makes this ligation of two separately prepared protein fragments a highly chemoselective reaction. Besides several naturally occurring examples the growing number of artificially split inteins becomes more and more important. To expand the scope of protein trans-splicing the Ssp DnaB intein, split after position 104 and lacking the endonuclease domain, was characterized in vitro under native conditions. The importance of assisted association via rapamycin-induced hetero¬dimerzation of the fused FKBP and FRB domains for the protein ...
Cell culture. iPSCs were maintained in primate embryonic stem (ES) cell medium (ReproCELL) supplemented with 4 ng/ml recombinant human FGF2 (Wako Pure Chemical). To activate the production of induced neural crest cells (iNCCs), mTeSR1 medium (STEMCELL Technologies) was used for the feeder-free culturing of iPSCs. The induction and maintenance of iNCCs and iMSCs derived from iPSCs were previously described (43, 45) (Supplemental Figure 1A). Briefly, iNCCs were induced in chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with 10 μM SB-431542 and 1 μM CHIR99021 for 7 days. iNCCs were maintained in CDM supplemented with 10 μM SB-431542, 20 ng/ml FGF2, and 20 ng/ml recombinant human EGF (R&D Systems), and we used up to 20 passages in this study. iMSCs were induced and maintained in αMEM (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific) supplemented with 10% (v/v) FBS (Nichirei), 5 ng/ml FGF2, and 0.5% penicillin and streptomycin (Invitrogen, Thermo Fisher Scientific). The FOP-iPSCs used in this study (previously ...
Beginning in early childhood, the muscle, tendons and connective tissue of those afflicted with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva simply morph into bone.
Rapamycin is macrolide produced by Streptomyces hygroscopius. It was initially identified in soil samples taken from the Easter Islands, also known as Rapa Nui (9). It was remarkable for its effect on metabolism and cell growth. During the early 1990s, the studies of the effects of rapamycin on yeasts led to the discovery of the targets of rapamycin (TOR1 and 2). The mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR) was described shortly thereafter (10).. Initially, it was found that mTOR formed a multi-protein complex, later termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Other components of mTORC1 are mammalian lethal with sec-13 protein 8 (mLST8, also known as GβL), regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin (Raptor) (11), DEP domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR), the Tti1/Tel2 complex, and proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40) (10). The activity of mTORC1 is inhibited by rapamycin and other rapamycin analogues (rapalogues). Rapamycin forms a complex with FKBP12, which interacts ...
mTOR forms two distinct protein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 that regulate cell growth and survival. mTOR pathway is one of the most frequently targeted pathways in human cancers. Hyper-activation of mTOR signaling renders oncogenic advantages in growth and survival. Rapamycin and several rapamycin analogs are mTORC1-specific inhibitors and US FDA-approved anticancer drugs. mTOR kinase inhibitors, which target both mTORC1 and mTORC2, are also developed and currently under human cancer clinical trials. Efforts are directed at understanding the genetic and molecular basis underpinning the sensitivity and resistance to mTOR-targeted agents. We are especially interested in how mTOR cross-talks with other major growth pathways. This should allow us to develop more effective strategies such as rational drug combination for co-targeting these pathways, improving treatment outcomes.. ...
I am reposting my first, most serious answer, since it seems to me that it didnt find its way into the list] I am the maintainer of lineno.sty! At 17:19 04.02.09, Joao.Santos at ny.frb.org wrote: ,I am trying to use lineno.sty with latex. , ,First, I went to CTAN, followed the instructions and downloaded the ,following files to my computer , , lineno.sty, edtable.sty, ednmath0.sty, ltabptch.sty and longtable.sty , ,Second, in a latex document I am trying to add line, I added at the to , ,\usepage{lineno} At 18:10 04.02.09, Joao.Santos at ny.frb.org wrote: ,Sorry, That is not the problem (that was a typo in my email) I am indeed ,using the command ,\usepackage{lineno} ,When I try to compile the document, I keep getting the following error , ,(c:/Program Files/PCTeX/PCTeXv6/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/amssymb.sty) ,(c:/Program Files/PCTeX/PCTeXv6/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/epsfig.sty) ,(./lineno.sty , ,! LaTeX Error: Missing \begin{document}. Please send me an exact copy of your document ...
Astronomers have located the origin of mysterious radio waves that have baffled them for a decade. The fast radio burst, or FRB 121102, has been traced to a...
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La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company Receives Orphan Drug Designation for Two Novel Compounds for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
TY - JOUR. T1 - Essential role of Fkbp6 in male fertility and homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis. AU - Crackower, Michael A.. AU - Kolas, Nadine K.. AU - Noguchi, Junko. AU - Sarao, Renu. AU - Kikuchi, Kazuhiro. AU - Kaneko, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Eiji. AU - Kawai, Yasuhiro. AU - Kozieradzki, Ivona. AU - Landers, Rushin. AU - Mo, Rong. AU - Hui, Chi Chung. AU - Nieves, Edward. AU - Cohen, Paula E.. AU - Osborne, Lucy R.. AU - Wada, Teiji. AU - Kunieda, Tetsuo. AU - Moens, Peter B.. AU - Penninger, Josef M.. PY - 2003/5/23. Y1 - 2003/5/23. N2 - Meiosis is a critical stage of gametogenesis in which alignment and synapsis of chromosomal pairs occur, allowing for the recombination of maternal and paternal genomes. Here we show that FK506 binding protein (Fkbp6) localizes to meiotic chromosome cores and regions of homologous chromosome synapsis. Targeted inactivation of Fkbp6 in mice results in aspermic mates and the absence of normal pachytene spermatocytes. Moreover, we identified the ...