Ethanol consumption is associated with impaired immunity. Our data demonstrate that even a single dose of a biologically relevant concentration (25-150 mM) of ethanol can down-regulate antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast, ethanol augmented mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, suggesting that its inhibitory effect on antigen-specific T cell proliferation was due to its effects on monocytes (m phi s) rather than on T cells. The immunodepressive effects of ethanol on m phi antigen-presenting cell (APC) capacity were manifested whether alcohol treatment was limited to the antigen uptake-processing period only or was present during the entire period of antigen presentation. These inhibitory effects of ethanol were also evident on both the high-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-negative (-31 +/- 17%), and low-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-positive (-42 +/- 15%) m phi subpopulations. Further analysis demonstrated that ethanol inhibits the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and
Human and rhesus macaque primary antigen‐specific T cells derived from infected or immunized individuals or animals are a valuable material with which to study cellular immune responses against pathogens and tumors
In this webinar, we feature Dr. Karen Anderson who utilized 3D Flow Analysis to deeply profile antigen specific T cells. Hear about the exciting biology uncovered from these rare cells utilizing this novel technique.
We found a selective increase in T-lymphocyte number in morbid obese subjects, which was mainly caused by an increase in CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Also, in morbid obese subjects TREC content was decreased in all T-lymphocyte subpopulations, demonstrating that the increase in T-lymphocytes is mainly caused by increased proliferation. Moreover, in morbid obese subjects we found increased plasma levels of IL-7 and CCL5, both potent enhancers of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Also, plasma of morbid obese subjects enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.. Finally, both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes had some skewing of the TCR repertoire. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporin A inhibits initiation but not progression of human T cell proliferation triggered by phorbol esters and calcium ionophores. AU - Kumagai, N.. AU - Benedict, S. H.. AU - Mills, G. B.. AU - Gelfand, E. W.. PY - 1988/12/1. Y1 - 1988/12/1. N2 - Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent inhibitor of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by Ag and mitogens. In an attempt to further delineate the mechanism of action of CsA, we have examined its effects on T cell proliferation induced by the combination of the phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. T cells were rendered competent as the result of a 30-min initial incubation with both drugs, after which the drugs were washed out. Competence is defined as the ability to subsequently proliferate in response to exogenously added IL-2 or PDB in the second phase of the culture, but not to synthesize IL-2 or proliferative without these additions. Addition of CsA (1 μg/ml) to the cells in the ...
Identification and characterization of antigen-specific T lymphocytes during the course of an immune response is tedious and indirect. To address this problem, the peptide-major histocompatability complex (MHC) ligand for a given population of T cells was multimerized to make soluble peptide-MHC tetramers. Tetramers of human lymphocyte antigen A2 that were complexed with two different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived peptides or with a peptide derived from influenza A matrix protein bound to peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro and to T cells from the blood of HIV-infected individuals. In general, tetramer binding correlated well with cytotoxicity assays. This approach should be useful in the analysis of T cells specific for infectious agents, tumors, and autoantigens. ...
Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Our experiments explicitly show that: (a) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen induces significant proliferation independent of co-stimulatory signals (e.g., accessory cells, recombinant lymphokines, or tumor promoter), (b) F(ab)2 fragments of mAb directed at the TCR and F(ab)2 anti-CD2, crosslinked with F(ab)2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse IgG, promote the proliferation of highly purified T cells, (c) a prompt and sustained increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration results from crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, (d) T cell proliferation induced by this novel approach is curtailed by EGTA and by direct or competitive inhibitors of PKC, (e) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen ...
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Immunotherapy treatments for cancer are becoming increasingly successful, however to further improve our understanding of the T-cell recognition involved in effective responses and to encourage moves towards the development of personalised treatments for leukaemia immunotherapy, precise antigenic targets in individual patients have been identified. Cellular arrays using peptide-MHC (pMHC) tetramers allow the simultaneous detection of different antigen specific T-cell populations naturally circulating in patients and normal donors. We have developed the pMHC array to detect CD8+ T-cell populations in leukaemia patients that recognise epitopes within viral antigens (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and influenza (Flu)) and leukaemia antigens (including Per Arnt Sim domain 1 (PASD1), MelanA, Wilms Tumour (WT1) and tyrosinase). We show that the pMHC array is at least as sensitive as flow cytometry and has the potential to rapidly identify more than 40 specific T-cell populations in a small sample of T-cells ...
Lentiviral vectors have emerged as efficient tools for investigating T cell biology through their ability to efficiently deliver transgene expression into both dividing and nondividing cells. Such lentiviral vectors have the potential to infect a wide variety of cell types. However, despite this advantage, the ability to transduce primary human T cells remains challenging and methods to achieve efficient gene transfer are often time consuming and expensive. We describe a method for generating lentivirus that is simple to perform and does not require the purchase of non-standard equipment to transduce primary human T cells. Therefore, we provide an optimized protocol that is easy to implement and allow transduction with high efficiency and reproducibility.
Mature T lymphocytes of the CD8 or CD4 classes bear αβ T cell receptors (TCR) that are specific for a molecular complex consisting of a major histocompatibility complex class I or II (MHC class I or II) molecule bound to a unique self or foreign peptide
Polyfunctional CD4 or CD8 T cells are proposed to represent a correlate of immune control for persistent viruses as well as for vaccine mediated protection against infection. A well-suited methodology to study complex functional phenotypes of antiviral T cells is the combined staining of intracellular cytokines and phenotypic marker expression using polychromatic flow cytometry. In this study we analyzed the effect of an overnight resting period at 37°C on the quantity and functionality of HIV-1, EBV, CMV, HBV and HCV specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in a cohort of 21 individuals. We quantified total antigen specific T cells by multimer staining and used 10-color intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) to determine IFNγ, TNFα, IL2 and MIP1β production. After an overnight resting significantly higher numbers of functionally active T cells were detectable by ICS for all tested antigen specificities, whereas the total number of antigen specific T cells determined by multimer staining remained
The CD8 antigen is a disulfide-linked dimer, which exists either as a CD8α homodimer or as a CD8α/β heterodimer. CD8α is required for surface expression of CD8β. The molecular weight of each monomer of α or β is approximately 32-34 kDa. CD8 binds to a non-polymorphic domain (α3 domain) of MHC Class I molecules. CD8 is expressed on a subset of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. A subset of NK cells possess the CD8 antigen but show low to medium density of expression. CD8α homodimer is expressed by NK cells and γ/δ+ T cells. CD8 is also present on most thymocytes where it is frequently co-expressed with CD4, and on a subpopulation of bone marrow cells. The CD8 molecule acts with the T Cell Receptor (TCR) as a coreceptor for MHC class I restricted antigen recognition. CD8 is widely used as a marker of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. *Alexa Fluor and Pacific Blue are registered trademarks of Molecular Probes, Inc ...
Effect of three kinds of anaesthetic drugs on postoperative recovery, regulatory T cells and T lymphoid cells in elderly patients
The CD2 antigen (LFA-2) is a monomeric 50 kDa glycoprotein. It was formerly described as the sheep red blood cell receptor, causing T-cell rosetting, and has been identified as the ligand for CD58 (LFA-3). It is also a receptor for CD48, CD59 and CD15, which binds to the multimeric form of CD2. CD2 is present on the majority of normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and a high percentage of NK cells. It is also expressed by all thymocytes ...
The data in this paper show that MD-1 is not associated directly with CD80/CD86, DEC205, or OX2 on the membrane of functional DC (Fig. 3⇑). However, inhibition of MD-1 synthesis achieved by incubating DC with the ODN-1 blocked MD-1 synthesis and then indirectly inhibited up-regulation of the costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 in response to LPS (Fig. 2⇑). These ODN-1-altered DC-stimulated Th2-type cytokine production instead of Th1 cytokines when cultured with allogeneic responder splenocytes (Table I⇑), and proliferation and CTL generation was not seen. Instead, there was generation of cells that could suppress in a secondary test culture the allogeneic response of untreated C3H splenic T cells to unaltered allogeneic DC (Table II⇑). Generation of these suppressor cells was dependent on persistent OX2 expression on the ODN-1-treated DC, because anti-OX2 mAb blocked the effect. The ability of ODN-1-treated DC to enhance allograft survival in vivo via an OX2-dependent pathway (Fig. 4⇑) ...
Un metodo per espandere γδ cellule T dalle cellule mononucleate del sangue periferico (PBMC) è descritta. PBMC cellule derivate γδ T...
Characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted epitopes derived from viral pathogens is imperative for formulating therapeutic interventions, as well as for vaccine design and monitoring. Sensitive, easy and cost-effective assays that measure the frequency of antigen-specific T lymphocytes are crucial for evaluating and improving vaccines and therapies. This paper reviews the ELISPOT technique that allows for quantifying HIV-specific T lymphocytes at the single cell level from peripheral blood by detection of antigen-induced cytokine secretion. The assay can be used successfully to quantify T cell immune responses in humans infected with different pathogens and to assess T cell immunogenicity of vaccines in phase I/II and III clinical trials. This review focuses on the ELISPOT methodology and discusses how it can be standardized and potentially used by multiple international laboratories attached to clinical trial sites.
Depasquale, jardieu P.; Fraker, P J.; and Luecke, R W., "Regeneration of t-cell helper function in zinc deficient adult a/j mice. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1286 ...
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Interleukin 2 (IL-2, aldesleukin) was discovered as a T cell growth factor more than 30 years ago. IL-2 was the first human cytokine used therapeutically. IL-2 induces antigen specific T cells, and two important lymphocyte subsets: regulatory T cells (T-regs) and natural killer cells (NK) cells. T-regs have a critical role in self-tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune disease or graft versus host disease (GVHD), and they have been extensively studied in solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, viral hepatitis, and HIV infections. NK cells have a unique role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. NK cells facilitate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment reduce GVHD and increase graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. NK cells have important roles on pathogenesis of malignancies, autoimmune disease and AIDS. Conventional dose IL-2 treatment promotes marked expansion of regulatory T cells, and NK cells but is associated with significant side effects. However, much lower doses of interleukin-2 ...
It is suggested that human γδ T cells play significant roles during intracellular infections, such as tuberculosis (20), malaria (21), ehlrichosis (22), and many others (23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). Evidence indicates that human T cells bearing Vγ2Vδ2-TCR, which constitute the vast majority of γδ T cells in healthy adults, respond to unique Ags in the extracts and/or supernatants of these bacteria and protozoa and are activated with respect to proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity (17). These Ags include nonpeptide molecules such as a wide variety of small organic pyrophosphomonoesters (3, 4, 5, 7) and alkylamines (12) as well as unprocessed protein Ags (32, 33, 34). Although it has been indicated that the response takes place in a Vγ2Vδ2-TCR-dependent manner based on substantial evidence including the TCR gene transfer studies (15), knowledge of how human γδ T cells recognize such molecules has remained elusive.. It was indicated previously that activation ...
Freshly isolated, human peripheral blood T (PBT) cells are largely resistant to the apoptotic effects of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, ionomycin, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). We demonstrate here, however, that PBT cells, including both CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations, can be readily induced to undergo apoptosis when cocultured with either autologous or allogeneic monocytes (Mo) in PMA-containing medium. Incubation of PBT cells with Mo at a ratio of 1:1 for 18 hr resulted in maximal levels (80%) of apoptotic cell death. The mechanism whereby Mo enable PBT cells to undergo apoptosis in PMA-containing medium appeared to depend on cell-cell contact or close proximity between Mo and PBT cells rather than solely via soluble mediators. It was demonstrated that Mo acquire the ability to prime PBT cells for apoptosis after treatment with PMA and that treated Mo maintain this ability even after fixation with formaldehyde. It was also found that once PBT cells became primed for apoptosis by ...
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that a type of immune cell called T lymphocytes may play an important role in inducing the regression of different cancers, in particular of blood cancers. Other immune cells called macrophages accumulate in solid tumors and are numerous in growing tumors of poor prognosis. Based on these results, many people consider that, for cancer patients, lymphocytes are "good guys" and macrophages are "bad guys". However, the reality is likely to be not that Manichean. Indeed, immune responses that are efficient against infection require efficient cooperations between different cell types. We have designed a local treatment for tumor-bearing mice which has been conceived on the model of an anti-infectious response, as if there was an infection at the level of the tumor. This resulted in a systematic tumor regression.. We perform an accurate kinetic analysis of the immune response by combining immunofluorescence in tumor sections with a global analysis of the ...
Melanie Chabaud has been awarded a Long-Term Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP) to investigate the molecular events leading to T cell arrest.. T cells constantly migrate through the peripheral lymphoid organs, briefly pausing to sample the antigenic peptides presented by antigen presenting cells. Long-lasting interactions with antigen presenting cells, resulting in sustained signalling, is required to generate a robust immune response. But what makes them stop and what happens when they do?. Melanie believes that increased membrane tension in T cells triggers the critical events leading to T cell arrest, including reorganisation of the cytoskeleton and initiation of signalling cascades. Using purpose-built microchambers, she can observe T cells under the microscope as they recognise their target antigen and stop. She can then observe the actin cytoskeleton remodelling and other changes at the molecular level.. After completing her Ph.D. at the Institut Curie ...
Tissue in monkeys infected with a close relative of HIV can ramp up production of a type of T cell that actually weakens the bodys attack against the invading virus. The discovery, in lymph nodes draining the intestinal tract, could help explain how the HIV virus evades the bodys immune defenses. [en español]
PositivelyPositive.ca is designed to create awareness around the many HIV and AIDS issues and promotes messages of positive living with HIV
T lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that produce factors regulating the function of other cells of immune system thereby shaping the systemic immune response. CD4+ T lymphocytes play a crucial role in directing the immune responses against foreign pathogens, damaged or transformed cells. However, when deregulated, the T cells may also mediate a number of autoimmune diseases such as type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, activated T cells mediate graft rejection and may significantly affect the development and progression of inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Therefore, understanding the complex molecular mechanisms that regulate T cell effector functions may lead to development of therapeutic strategies designed to treat and/or alleviate T cell-mediated immune system disorders in humans. Our research focuses on unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating T cell activation and communication with other cells ...
Gene therapy. A researcher prepares culture dishes of gene-corrected T-lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes are white blood cells that play a crucial role in the immune system. This stock of lymphocytes is derived from cells taken from a patient with a suppressed immune system. The original sample was genetically altered to make the cells more active, and then cultured to produce large numbers. The cells can then be reintroduced into the patient to help restore the immune system. - Stock Image G210/0538
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two T-lymphocyte white blood cells. Characteristic of T-lymphocytes are the long microvilli projecting from the cell surface. T-lymphocytes are susceptible to infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. Magnification 1300x at 35mm. - Stock Image C023/9649
CD3, PE-Cyanine5, clone: UCHT1, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; PE-Cyanine5 CD3, PE-Cyanine5, clone: UCHT1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD1 to CD5
CD3 is an essential T cell co-receptorand defines T cell lineage. CD3is therefore an ideal T cell marker. This mini-review explains the structure of CD3, the genes involved in its expression, its function and the signal transduction pathways mediated by CD3 complex.
I was wondering if my transfections are not working because Im using the wrong cell line, I have been using HEK293, but is HEK293T better for transient and stable transfection? Also is there a difference with vendors (ie, some have better cell lines? lower passages perhaps?). Im just getting frustrated with these transfections that do not work. If anyone has any suggestions I would greatly appreciate it ...
Looking for the meaning of t-lymphocytes? Find out what is the meaning of t-lymphocytes on Phrases.net! The Webs largest and most authoritative phrases and idioms resource.
1MWA: Structural comparison of allogeneic and syngeneic T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility complex complexes: a buried alloreactive mutation subtly alters peptide presentation substantially increasing V(beta) Interactions.
Description of disease T cell, peripheral. Treatment T cell, peripheral. Symptoms and causes T cell, peripheral Prophylaxis T cell, peripheral
Improved cancer therapy using a combination treatment with tumour-reactive T-lymphocytes obtained by an in vitro method for expansion and activation of tumour-reactive lymphocytes, in particular CD4+
We know that the immune system of a young can react faster and more effectively against a microbe than a senior one.. During his life, a human being is faced with many microbes, fought fortunately in most cases victoriously by the immune system . Most of the time, this victorious battle takes place without us being aware of it. Sometimes we suffer from fever and other symptoms, consequences of this struggle. There are also germs (especially viruses) that are controlled and mitigated by the body, but that it can not make them disappear completely.. There is probably a price to pay : we believe that these chronic infections cause the immune system to use a lot of its energy, and with time, it is no longer able to react sufficiently quickly and effectively against the new infections. Its the same with vaccination in elderly people . To create a sufficient protection, it is necessary to have a fully functional immune system. [3]. # Epitalon has been tested successfully for many years (1992-2007) ...
We know that the immune system of a young can react faster and more effectively against a microbe than a senior one.. During his life, a human being is faced with many microbes, fought fortunately in most cases victoriously by the immune system . Most of the time, this victorious battle takes place without us being aware of it. Sometimes we suffer from fever and other symptoms, consequences of this struggle. There are also germs (especially viruses) that are controlled and mitigated by the body, but that it can not make them disappear completely.. There is probably a price to pay : we believe that these chronic infections cause the immune system to use a lot of its energy, and with time, it is no longer able to react sufficiently quickly and effectively against the new infections. Its the same with vaccination in elderly people . To create a sufficient protection, it is necessary to have a fully functional immune system. [3]. # Epitalon has been tested successfully for many years (1992-2007) ...
If you DO get infected by bacteria or fungi resistent to antibiotics and antifungal drugs, your immune system will be your only defense. So you need to learn how to have a strong and functional immune system. Until science gives us new cures. ...
The test evaluates and monitors T-lymphocyte helper cells (CD4) and inducer T-cells. T-lymphocyte helper cells (such as CD4 cells) play a critical role in orchestrating the response to infections. After activation of the immune response, T-lymphocyte suppressor cells (such as CD8) deactivate the immune cells fighting t
IL-7R[alpha] is one component of the heterodimeric IL-7R[alpha] receptor, and signaling through this receptor is essential for murine T and B cell development as well as human T cell development. IL-7R[alpha] signaling is ...
Baptism Preparation, Ages 0 - 7 Years The Importance of Preparation and How to Begin: The Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston and the Co-Cathedral of
声门癌放疗,15例T2b期声门鳞癌放射治疗疗效分析顾科 张晓萍 傅晓艳[摘要] 目的 分析15例T2b期声门鳞癌的放射治疗效果,复习文献,讨论提高T2b期声门鳞癌放疗生存率的方法。 方法 1985年至1994年江苏省肿瘤医院和常州市肿瘤医院收治T2b期声门鳞癌15例,均行单纯放射治疗,局部5
若第二階段無法順利清除病原體3則會進入第三階段4前面兩階段的免疫細胞會提供抗原資訊給淋巴器官3B細胞及T細胞在淋巴器官內被活化增生後3產生專一性3即可更有效率消滅致病 ...
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Looking for Major histocompatability complex? Find out information about Major histocompatability complex. In vertebrates, a family of genes that encode cell surface glycoproteins that regulate interactions among cells of the immune system, some components of the... Explanation of Major histocompatability complex
TY - JOUR. T1 - T-cell hyporesponsiveness induced by activated macrophages through nitric oxide production in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AU - Nabeshima, Shigeki. AU - Nomoto, Mari. AU - Matsuzaki, Goro. AU - Kishihara, Kenji. AU - Taniguchi, Hatsumi. AU - Yoshida, Shin Ichi. AU - Nomoto, Kikuo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - In active tuberculosis, T-cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to be reduced. In the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice, we observed that T-cell proliferation in response to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) reached the maximum level on day 7, then declined to the minimal level on day 14, and persisted at a low level through day 28 postinfection. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4 T cells in the spleen on day 28 decreased to one-sixth on day 7. To further investigate the mechanism of this T-cell hyporesponsiveness, we next analyzed the suppressive activity of spleen macrophages on T-cell function. The ...
The T cell receptor (TCR) V beta-determining region of two bacterial superantigens, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) and SEE, has been mapped to the COOH-terminal region of SEA and SEE using a panel of recombinant SEA/SEE hybrids. Total TCR V beta mRNA enrichment in human peripheral blood T cell cultures was determined by a novel single-tube amplification technique using a redundant V beta-specific primer. SEA routinely enriched mRNA coding for hV beta 1.1, 5.3, 6.3, 6.4, 6.9, 7.3, 7.4, and 9.1, while SEE, which is 83% homologous to SEA, enriched hV beta 5.1, 6.3, 6.4, 6.9, and 8.1 mRNA. Exchanging residues 206 and 207 was sufficient to convert in toto the TCR V beta response of human peripheral T lymphocytes. In addition, an SEA-reactive murine T cell line, SO3 (mV beta 17), unresponsive to wild-type SEE responded to SEE-S206N207, while an SEE-specific human T cell line, Jurkat (hV beta 8.1), unresponsive to SEA was stimulated strongly by SEA-P206D207. Exchanging all other regions of SEA and ...
We next examined the effect of thalidomide on cytokine production by the three T cell populations when stimulated by anti-CD3 in the absence of exogenous IL-2. Thalidomide induced a consistent concentration-dependent increase in IL-2 production at 12 h (time of peak production determined in preliminary kinetic experiments), in CD8+ and in bulk T cells (Fig. 3,A). Although a trend towards a thalidomide dose response in IL-2 production by purified CD4+ T cells was apparent, production of this cytokine was modest in comparison to that of bulk and CD8+ populations. Exposure to thalidomide consistently increased IFN-γ production by all three T cell populations. Since there was no clear peak in production of the latter cytokine, the results of a kinetic experiment are shown for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (Fig. 3,B) using a single concentration of thalidomide (10 μg/ml). Again, the drug induced relatively greater production of IFN-γ by purified CD8+ T cells. However, the thalidomide-induced augmentation ...
Rubin, B; Hertel, wulff B.; and Kimura, A, "Alloantigen-specific idiotype-bearing receptors on mouse t lymphocytes. I. Specificity characterization and genetic association with the heavy-chain igg allotype." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 4576 ...
The migration of T lymphocytes is a vital component of the immune system, with roles in immunosurveillance and inflammation. The role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase within T lymphocyte migration is unclear, with some evidence that it may be a disposable signal. Here, using Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the T cell line CEM cells, the role of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream kinases was investigated. CCL22 mediated CEM cell migration and CXCL12 mediated peripheral blood mononuclear cell migration were shown to be independent of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase using several different broad-spectrum Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. However, these cells were Akt-dependent, as demonstrated by incubation with the Akt inhibitor Akti-1/2. Differences in the effect of the inhibitors on Akt activity were discovered, indicating that either Akt can be activated in the absence of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, or differences exist regarding the relative ...
0065]Following incubation of the APCs with effector T lymphocytes obtained from a mammal immunized against the pathogen, the inventive method comprises screening for an immune response from the effector T lymphocytes. The immune response can be any suitable effector T lymphocyte immune response known in the art, including, but not limited to, cytokine secretion, effector T cell cytotoxicity, and immune activation of effector T cells. Preferably, the inventive method comprises screening for secretion by the effector T lymphocytes. In this regard, cytokine secretion from an effector T lymphocyte contacting an APC indicates that the effector T lymphocyte recognizes the antigen produced and displayed by the APC. Furthermore, it is well known in the art that effector T lymphocytes, such as effector helper T effector lymphocytes, secrete cytokines upon antigen recognition which promote different activities. In this regard, inflammatory or Th1 CD4 T cells produce interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon gamma ...
Description of disease T-suppressor cell. Treatment T-suppressor cell. Symptoms and causes T-suppressor cell Prophylaxis T-suppressor cell
Author Summary There is a desperate need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to eradicate HIV infection. HIV actively subverts the potent natural immune responses against it, particularly cellular cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The development of a therapy that allows long-lived immune self-containment of HIV and restoration of these CTL responses by the host would be ideal. Through genetic manipulation of human blood-forming stem cells, we introduced a molecule- an HIV-targeting T cell receptor (TCR)-that allowed the generation of functional HIV-specific CTLs following differentiation within human tissues in a humanized mouse model. To assess if these newly developed, HIV-specific CTLs can allow active suppression of HIV replication, we infected these mice with HIV. We found that the development of genetically modified, HIV-specific CTLs in these mice results in the presence of a functional antiviral CTL response in vivo that significantly lowers viral replication following HIV
Our study shows that (1) CD8+ T‐cell activation and memory generation occurs in response to atherogenic diet feeding in apoE−/− mice; (2) A small fraction of these activated CD8+ T cells in apoE−/− mice are antigen‐specific that are reactive to the p210 peptide fragment of apoB‐100, supporting the notion that p210 is a self‐antigen; and (3) Immunization of apoE−/− mice with the p210 peptide fragment altered the immune‐dominant epitopes, concurrent with reduced atherosclerosis. This has significant implications in our efforts to characterize immune functions in atherosclerosis and develop potential apoB‐100 peptide‐based vaccine candidates.4, 22. T‐cell activation is a hallmark feature of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells undergo activation and clonal expansion of antigen‐specific T cells when encountering antigen presented by antigen‐presenting cells in the context of costimulatory signaling. Such antigen‐specific T cells further differentiate into effector and ...
CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF receptor family and has a TNF-related transmembrane ligand, CD70. The CD27/CD70 receptor-ligand pair cooperates with the TCR in the regulation of the peripheral T cell response. The study presented here reveals that CD27 may play a similar role in thymic pre-T cell development. We have previously cloned the cDNA encoding murine CD27, prepared specific mAbs and observed that murine CD27 is expressed on virtually all thymocytes, with the exception of a subpopulation of CD4-8- precursor T cells. It is shown here that induction of murine CD27 expression occurs at the transition from the CD4-8-25+ to the CD4-8-25- precursor T cell stage and is regulated by the pre-TCR. Therefore, we investigated whether CD27 contributes to pre-TCR-mediated thymocyte development. Pre-TCR function was mimicked by the induction of CD3 signaling in thymocytes of recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient mice. This in vivo anti-CD3 epsilon mAb treatment induces an about ...
In cellular signal transduction, scaffold proteins provide binding sites to organize signaling proteins into supramolecular complexes and act as nodes in the signaling network. Furthermore, multivalent interactions between the scaffold and other signaling proteins contribute to the formation of protein microclusters. Such microclusters are prominent in early T cell signaling. Here, we explored the minimal structural requirement for a scaffold protein by coupling multiple copies of a proline-rich peptide corresponding to an interaction motif for the SH3 domain of the adaptor protein GADS to an N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide polymer backbone. When added to GADS-containing cell lysates, these scaffolds (but not individual peptides) promoted the binding of GADS to peptide microarrays. This can be explained by the cross-linking of GADS into larger complexes. Furthermore, following import into Jurkat T cell leukemia cells, this synthetic scaffold enhanced the formation of microclusters of signaling ...
Adoptive T cell therapy to treat cancer in combination with re-directing specificity through T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer, represents an effective therapeutic option. However, reduced effector responses due to the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment and insufficient long-term engraftment of transferred cells represent two potential limitations. Tumours often employ mechanisms to inhibit T cell responses including secretion of TGFβ and depleting the tumour microenvironment of amino acids. The main aim of this PhD project was to develop a strategy to enhance T cell function for tumour therapy. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates CD8 T cell differentiation such that high mTOR activation leads to enhanced effector whilst low mTOR activation leads to increased T cell memory formation. Two retrovirus constructs have been designed whereby one expresses the positive mTOR regulator Rheb and the other expresses the negative mTOR regulator Pras40. Rheb transduction into ...
In this report we show that it is possible to detect the expression of a G protein-coupled receptor, the A2AR, in human lymphocytes both on the basis of a functional assay (cAMP accumulation) and by flow cytometry using an antireceptor mAb. We were able to describe for the first time the distribution of A2AR among minor T cell subpopulations through the use of a combination of anti-A2AR mAb and mAbs that recognize T cell surface markers or cytokines. The principle findings of this study are that much higher levels of A2AR expression is found in T cells than in B cells (Fig. 3) and higher levels of cytokines are detected in activated T cells that express A2AR than in activated T cells that do not express these receptors (Figs. 6 and 7).. The detection of higher levels of cytokines among A2AR+ cells is surprising because A2AR-mediated signaling antagonizes the effects of T cell activation (Koshiba et al., 1997; Huang et al., 1997). Therefore, we expected that cytokine secretion would be the lowest ...
Background Different types of membrane microdomains (rafts) have been postulated to be present in the rear and front of polarized migrating T-lymphocytes. reorganization in human being T-lymphocytes and possible roles of flotillins in lymphocyte polarization. Results We studied flotillin reorganization and lateral mobility at the plasma membrane using immunofluorescence staining and FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). We show that flotillins redistribute early upon chemokine stimulation and form very stable caps in the uropods of human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes colocalizing with the adhesion molecule PSGL-1 and activated ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins. Chemokine-induced formation of stable flotillin caps requires Haloperidol (Haldol) integrity and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton but is not abolished by inhibitors suppressing Rho-kinase or myosin II activity. Tagged flotillin-2 and flotillin-1 coexpressed in T-lymphocytes but Haloperidol (Haldol) not singly expressed ...
Tumor cell-derived exosomes (TEX) suppress functions of immune cells. Here, changes in the gene profiles of primary human T lymphocytes exposed in vitro to exosomes were evaluated. CD4(+) Tconv, CD8(+) T or CD4(+) CD39(+) Treg were isolated from normal donors peripheral blood and co-incubated with TEX or exosomes
The human T cell receptor for antigen (Ti) has recently been identified on IL-2 dependent T cell clones as a 90 kd disulfide-linked heterodimer comprised of one 49-51 kd alpha (alpha) and one 43 kd beta (beta) chain. These subunits are noncovalently associated with a monomorphic 20-25 kd T3 molecule. Here, we produce monoclonal antibodies to a human tumor (REX) derived from an earlier stage of thymic differentiation in order to determine whether clonotypic structures are expressed and to define the ontogeny of Ti. The results of SDS-PAGE and peptide map analyses indicate that an homologous T3-associated heterodimer is synthesized and expressed by REX. This glycoprotein shares several peptides in common with clonotypic structures on an IL-2 dependent T cell clone. In addition, similar Ti related molecules appear during intrathymic ontogeny in parallel with surface T3 expression. The latter findings provide the structural basis for the immunological competence observed exclusively within the T3+ thymocyte
Ertl, Hildegund; Gerike, Rainer und Koszinowski, Ulrich H. (1977): Virus-Specific T-Cell Sensitization. Requirements for vaccinia virus specific T cell sensitization in vivo. In: Journal of immunogenetics, Vol. 4: S. 515-522 ...
A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES ...
Video articles in JoVE about sequence alignment include Semi-automated Biopanning of Bacterial Display Libraries for Peptide Affinity Reagent Discovery and Analysis of Resulting Isolates, Creating and Applying a Reference to Facilitate the Discussion and Classification of Proteins in a Diverse Group, A Practical Guide to Phylogenetics for Nonexperts, Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Investigate Eukaryotic Gene Origin, Investigating Protein Sequence-structure-dynamics Relationships with Bio3D-web, Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules, CAPRRESI: Chimera Assembly by Plasmid Recovery and Restriction Enzyme Site Insertion, Mapping Genome-wide Accessible Chromatin in Primary Human T Lymphocytes by ATAC-Seq, Isolation of Fidelity Variants of RNA Viruses and Characterization of Virus Mutation Frequency, Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing for Assessment of DNA Methylation at Base Pair Resolution, Optimization of Synthetic Proteins:
Therapies that Ag-specifically target pathologic T lymphocytes responsible for multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases would be expected to have improved therapeutic indices compared with Ag-nonspecific therapies. We have developed a cellular immunotherapy that uses chimeric receptors to selectively redirect therapeutic T cells against myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T lymphocytes implicated in MS. We generated two heterodimeric receptors that genetically link the human MBP84-102 epitope to HLA-DR2 and either incorporate or lack a TCRzeta signaling domain. The Ag-MHC domain serves as a bait, binding the TCR of MBP-specific target cells. The zeta signaling region stimulates the therapeutic cell after cognate T cell engagement. Both receptors were well expressed on primary T cells or T hybridomas using a tricistronic (alpha, beta, green fluorescent protein) retroviral expression system. MBP-DR2-zeta-, but not MBP-DR2, modified CTL were specifically stimulated by cognate MBP-specific T
At first glance, an association of a CD4 T cell-mediated disease with HLA class II gene products, whose function is to present peptides to CD4 T cells, appears easily explainable. Over the years, the most obvious, nonexclusive theories have been tested: instability and poor peptide binding of diabetogenic HLA class II molecules (6), unique peptide repertoire of the same molecules (7), T cells focused on the recognition of HLA-DQβ57 (8), failed thymic selection of autoreactive T cells (9), and abnormal T-cell binding to autoimmune peptide-MHC complexes (10). While all of those might bear truth and give some level of understanding of what the β57 residue might do, none could formally associate the mutation to a molecular mechanism leading to diabetes. The closest one to explaining the association of the same mutation with a disease was in the context of celiac disease, where the same HLA-DQ molecules are strongly predisposing to onset and also promote a frequent association with type 1 diabetes ...
T cells are an important part of the immune system. However, they are not only capable of destroying pathogens. They can also become harmful themselves. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich and the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz have discovered the conditions under which certain T cells become the kind of pathogenic T cells associated with multiple sclerosis. Their results explain why certain treatments are not consistently effective.
The CD2 receptor on T lymphocytes is essential for T cell adhesion and stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Blockade of CD2 function is immunosuppressive in both model systems and humans, indicating the importance of CD2 for the cellular immune response. Although the affinity of the molecular interaction between CD2 and its counter-receptor, CD58, is relatively low when measured in solution, this interaction mediates tight adhesion within the 2D cell-cell interface. To understand the mechanisms responsible for regulating the avidity of the CD2-CD58 interaction, we measured the number, affinity, and lateral mobility of CD2 molecules on resting and activated T cells. Cell activation caused a 1.5-fold increase in the number of CD2 sites on the cell surface, and the 2D affinity of CD2 for CD58 increased by 2.5-fold. The combination of T cell activation and CD2 ligation to CD58 decreased the laterally mobile fraction of the ligated CD2. Together, these changes would substantially enhance CD2
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by Barbara Stranger, Ye CJ, Feng T, Kwon HK, Raj T, Wilson MT, Asinovski N, McCabe C, Lee MH, Frohlich I, Paik HI, Zaitlen N, Hacohen N, De Jager P, Mathis D, Regev A, Benoist C. T lymphocyte activation by antigen conditions adaptive immune responses and immunopathologies, but we know little about its variation in humans and its genetic or environmental roots. We analyzed gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during unbiased activation or in T helper 17 (T(H)17) conditions from 348 healthy participants representing European, Asian, and African ancestries. We observed interindividual variability, most marked for cytokine transcripts, with clear biases on the basis of ancestry, and following patterns more complex than simple T(H)1/2/17 partitions. We identified 39 genetic loci specifically associated in cis with activated gene expression. We further fine-mapped and validated a single-base variant that modulates YY1 binding and the activity of an enhancer element controlling the autoimmune-associated ...
A central question in T cell development is what makes cortical thymocytes respond to stimulation in a qualitatively different way than any other thymocyte subset. Part of the answer is that AP-1 function changes drastically at two stages of T cell development. It undergoes striking down-regulation as thymocytes differentiate from immature, CD4^-CD8^- double-negative (DN) TCR^- thymocytes to CD4^+CD8^+ double-positive (DP) TCR^(lo) cortical cells, and then returns in the cells that mature to TCR^(high), CD4^+CD8^- or CD4^-CD8^+ single-positive (SP) thymocytes. At all three stages, the jun family mRNAs can be induced similarly. However, we demonstrate that DP cortical thymocytes are specifically impaired in c-fos and fosB mRNA induction, even when stimuli are used that optimize survival of the cells and a form of in vitro maturation. fra-2 expression is induction independent but much lower in DP cells than in the other subsets. Overall Fos family protein induction accordingly is severely ...
This gene was identified by the up-regulation of its expression upon Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B lymphocytes. This gene is predicted to encode a G protein-coupled receptor that is most closely related to the thrombin receptor. Expression of this gene was detected in B-lymphocyte cell lines and lymphoid tissues but not in T-lymphocyte cell lines or peripheral blood T lymphocytes. The function of this gene is unknown ...
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are critical in establishing and maintaining the appropriate microenvironment for negative selection and maturation of immunocompetent T cells with a self-tolerant T cell antigen receptor repertoire. Cues that direct proliferation and maturation of mTECs are provided by members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily expressed on developing thymocytes. Here we demonstrate a negative role of the morphogen TGF-β in tempering these signals under physiological conditions, limiting both growth and function of the thymic medulla. Eliminating TGF-β signaling specifically in TECs or by pharmacological means increased the size of the mTEC compartment, enhanced negative selection and functional maturation of medullary thymocytes as well as the production of regulatory T cells, thus reducing the autoreactive potential of peripheral T cells.
T and B-lymphocytes play an important role in an adaptive immune response. Communication between these two cells may result in either a humoral immune response or tolerance. Communication between T and B-lymphocytes involves a number of inducible cell surface molecules on both T and B-lymphocytes. It was the aim of this project to gain a greater understanding of the role of CD40 in the dynamic communication that occurs between naïve T-lymphocytes and resting B-lymphocytes during cognate communication. Because in vivo antigen specific T-lymphocytes are at low frequency, it is difficult to examine antigen-specific naïve T-lymphocytes. Thus, an in vitro system employing naïve antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic T cells and small resting B-lymphocytes that did not express CD40 was devised to examine the role of CD40 in cognate communication between naïve T-lymphocytes and resting B-lymphocytes. Upon recognition of antigen on resting B-lymphocytes that expressed CD40, T-lymphocytes
Figure 1: CD4 T cell proliferative responses to control antigens (PPD, KLH, TT and HA), and peptide libraries derived from the sequences of Dstls two antibodies (chimeric, top, and humanized, bottom). The cell division index (CDI) is determined as a ratio of the proportion of CFSE-dim [divided] cells in the stimulated versus unstimulated samples. 40 different donor samples were tested and the cumulative results are shown. Lower scores are indicative of reduced potential antigenicity in humans. Data reproduced by kind permission of Dstl.. Before considering whether to move the treatment into clinical trials, the Dstl team wanted to gather as much information as possible on the potential immunogenicity of their novel antibody construct. For this, they used ProImmunes Immunogenicity services and requested that ProImmune test both antibodies in CFSE T cell proliferation assays. Briefly, CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to overlapping peptide libraries generated from the sequences of each ...
The main finding reported here is that production of the signature Th17 cytokine IL-17A is more strongly associated with AIHA than are Th1 IFN-γ responses, which have previously been described in the disease. Not only were the levels of IL-17A, but not IFN-γ, significantly increased in the serum of patients versus healthy control donors, but IL-17A was the more prominent cytokine in the responses of patients T cells to autologous RBC used as a source of antigen. It was also confirmed that a specific autoantigen, the RhD protein,12-14,19 contains epitopes that elicit such IL-17A responses. These results raise the possibility that autoreactive Th17 cells contribute to pathogenic helper T-cell activity in AIHA, and are responsible for at least some of the effects previously attributed to the Th1 subset.. Following the recognition that Th17 cells constitute a distinct helper subpopulation, the pathogenesis of many inflammatory immune diseases has been re-examined and it has become clear that ...
While emerging proof indicates that dendritic cells (DC) play a central part in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), their modulation with immunoregulatory providers provides potential customer as disease-modifying therapy. 1,25(Oh yea)2D3-treated DC nor their capability to induce Capital t cell hyporesponsiveness. In addition, the Capital t cell hyporesponsiveness caused by 1,25(Oh yea)2D3-treated DC is definitely antigen-specific and powerful since Capital t cells maintain their capability to react to an unconnected antigen and perform not really reactivate upon rechallenge with completely mature standard DC, respectively. These findings underline the medical potential of tolerogenic DC (tolDC) to right the immunological. ...
RESEARCH AREA 2: The p15Paf oncogene. Specific recognition of MHC-peptide complexes results in extraordinary T cell proliferation, with doubling occurring approximately every 2-4 hours. Data from my lab suggested that a poorly characterized PCNA interacting protein, p15PAF, might play role a role in this rapid expansion of antigen specific T cells. Intriguingly, p15Paf, has also been shown to be substantially up-regulated in virtually every type of cancer and studies support that p15Paf is itself an oncogene. To determine the in vivo function of p15Paf in the immune system, my lab generated p15Paf deficient mice. Genetic disruption of p15Paf by homologous recombination resulted in altered hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and subsequent progenitor development, directly impacting the peripheral T and B cell compartments. Moreover, p15Paf controls the regulated proliferation of HSCs, keeping long-term-HSCs quiescent and protecting them from premature exhaustion. Our results also show that ...
Blood T-cells from 28 patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes (IDDM) of variable duration were examined for the Tac antigen by immunofluorescence, and for proliferation in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL 2). The mean percentage of Tac+ cells in patients whose IDDM was of less than 2-yr duration was 6.2% compared with 2% in patients whose IDDM was of 3 or more years duration, or in healthy controls. The percentage of Tac+ cells in the patients blood correlated positively with the amount of thymidine uptake in a 24-h culture of blood mononuclear cells and with the percentage of T-cell blasts generated in a 6-day culture. The patients T-cell blasts stained with OKT 4 or OKT 8, suggesting that each of these subsets is present in the activated T-cell population in the patients blood. The T-cell blasts did not show specificity for pork insulin in an antigen restimulation assay. There was no correlation between increased Tac+ cells and the presence or absence of islet cell antibodies. ...
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene. The formation of PD-1 receptor / PD-L1 or B7.1 receptor /PD-L1 ligand complex transmits an inhibitory signal which reduces the proliferation of these CD8+ T cells at the lymph nodes. Supplementary to that PD-1 is also able to control the accumulation of foreign antigen specific T cells in the lymph nodes through apoptosis which is further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2.
Cleveland Clinic The immune system has the potential to be a powerful tool to destroy tumors; however despite ample evidence of endogenous anti-tumor immune responses in many patients, as well as years of immunotherapy development, truly effective immune-based therapies remain out of reach. We have previously shown that co-incubation of normal human T cells with various tumor lines can induce dysfunctional changes in the T cells characterized by the loss of CD27/CD28 expression, hypo-proliferation upon activation, and the gain of suppressive function in vitro. We also found that this process could be inhibited by IL-7 signaling, primarily through PI3k/AKT signaling, and enhancing the expression of the pro-survival molecule Mcl-1. In the current study, we show that the process of tumor-induced dysfunction also induces the expression of PD-1 in both human and mouse T cells, and that tumor-exposed mouse T cells are also capable of suppressive function. We further show that the tumor ...
We all know how important is the immune system in our body. But what is the most important Immune System Function? Why is it that important for us?
In the present study, a multivariable analysis of the CD8+ T-cell response in mice vaccinated with different recombinant vaccines encoding the melanoma antigen TRP-2 delineated three main situations. The simplest finding involved the activity of the powerful rAd-hTRP-2 vaccine in prophylaxis of tumor challenge. All of the mice mounted a vigorous immune response against the mouse Kb-restricted epitope, as indicated by the significant changes in the number and functions of TRP-2-specific T lymphocytes. The immune response was so strong that correlation with the number of metastases was not feasible because the majority of the mice did not present countable metastases after challenge with B16 (7 of 10 mice had no metastases). T lymphocytes stimulated with the TRP-2180-188 peptide in vitro also recognized the wild-type melanoma. Nevertheless, it must be noted that prophylactic vaccination with the xenogeneic form of the antigen, although valuable for several experimental mouse tumor antigens, would ...
Jurkat cells are an immortalized T-lymphocyte cell line, treated with serial dilutions of staurosporine, camptothecin, and etoposide and then assay using Early Tox Live/Dead Assay Kit.
HLA-A*24:02 HIV env gp160 peptide(null Peptide) from MBL.MHC tetramers can be used for direct detection of antigen specific T cells.
A type of T cell apoptosis that occurs towards the end of the expansion phase following the initial activation of mature T cells by antigen and is triggered by T cell receptor stimulation and signals transmitted via various surface-expressed members of th…
HLA-A*02:01 EBV LMP2 I6M Tetramer-TVCGGMMFL-PE(Human Class I) from MBL.MHC tetramers can be used for direct detection of antigen specific T cells.
Results High expression of αEβ7 was noted on CD8+ and CD4+ Th9 cells, while α4β7 was expressed on CD8+, Th2 and Th17 cells. T cell receptor stimulation and transforming growth factor β were key inducers of αEβ7 on human T cells, while butyric acid suppressed αEβ7. In comparison to α4β7 blockade via vedolizumab, blockade of β7 via etrolizumab surrogate antibody superiorly reduced colonic numbers of CD8+ and Th9 cells in vivo after 3 hours, while no difference was noted after 0.5 hours. AEβ7 expression was higher on CD8+ T cells from patients with IBD under vedolizumab therapy. ...
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) will be collected from healthy volunteers and patients who present with different diseases that involve or implicate the immune system dysregulation (HIV infection, autoimmune diseases and cancer). These PBMC will be studied in vitro for a number of functional parameters, including generating soluable factors that inhibit HIV infection, developing patterns of immune dysregulation, and inducing apoptotic T cell death. The purpose of such studies is to obtain insight into the mechanisms of natural resistance to viral infections, AIDS pathogenesis, and disease-induced immune dysregulation ...
The killer, or cytotoxic, T lymphocytes can be identified in the laboratory by a surface molecule called CD8. Their function is to destroy body cells that
T cells are known to be plastic and to change their phenotype according to the cellular and biochemical milieu they are embedded in. In this study, we transposed this concept at a macroscopic level assessing whether changes in the environmental housing conditions of C57/BL6 mice would influence the phenotype and function of T cells. Our study shows that exposure to 2 weeks in an enriched environment (EE) does not impact the T cell repertoire in vivo and causes no changes in the early TCR-driven activation events of these cells. Surprisingly, however, T cells from enriched mice showed a unique T helper effector cell phenotype upon differentiation in vitro. This was featured by a significant reduction in their ability to produce IFN-γ and by an increased release of IL-10 and IL-17. Microarray analysis of these cells also revealed a unique gene fingerprint with key signaling pathways involved in autoimmunity being modulated. Together, our results provide first evidence for a specific effect of EE on T
l-Arginine is a versatile amino acid that plays a central role in the normal function of several organ systems including the immune system. Its availability is tightly controlled and varies significantly in different organs and tissues in the body. l-Arginine plays an important role in supporting T-cell proliferation. Its depletion in certain disease states results in a diminished T-cell response. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the depletion of l-arginine on the expression of the T-cell receptor (TCR) proteins. When the helper T-cell line Jurkat was cultured in arginine-free medium, there was a preferential decrease in the expression of the TCR ζ chain (CD3ζ). The reduced expression of CD3ζ was observed within 24 h of culture in l-arginine-free medium and was completely reversed with the replenishment of l-arginine. Furthermore, the absence of l-arginine blocked the normal re-expression of the TCR that had been internalized after antigen stimulation. There also ...
Kanagawa, O.; Nakauchi, H.; Sekaly, R.P.; Maeda, K.; Takagaki, Y., 1990: Expression and function of the transfected CD8 alpha chain in murine T cell hybridomas
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-MCC peptide (ADLIAYLKQATK) T Cell Receptor (clone 226), Jurkat Cell Line product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
Introduction: CD137 (4-1BB) is a co-stimulatory molecule expressed by activated T and NK cells that, upon interaction with its CD137 ligand, further supports cell activation, proliferation and survival. Activation via CD137 holds great promise for cancer immunotherapy; however, current CD137 agonistic interventions are associated with systemic safety concerns. To develop a therapeutic modality that reduces the potential for systemic CD137 effects, we applied the DART® bispecific platform to generate proteins that can induce tumor-antigen dependent T-cell activation.. Methods: DART molecules were constructed containing anti-CD137 variable regions together with either anti-HER2 or anti-EphA2 variable regions. DART binding properties were evaluated by ELISA or flow cytometry; signaling responses assessed using a NF-κB luciferase reporter cell line expressing CD137. Co-stimulatory activity was characterized with primary human T cells in the presence or absence of tumor target antigen-expressing ...
T cells are produced in the thymus however precursor T cells are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to the thymus located in the mediastinum, once matured T cells will travel around the body. There are two types of T cells that derive from the thymus which can be distinguishable based on the molecules present on the cell surface. Helper T cells express a molecule called CD4 on their cell surface, therefore known as CD4 T cells (T helper cells). The other type of T cells express a molecule called CD8 on their cell surface, therefore known as CD8 T cells (known as cytotoxic after activation ...
Introduction. Recent research shows that programmed cell death has great importance in the pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. The BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes belong to Class III IAPs with the anti-apoptotic effect. The proteins display multidirectional action. According to the available literature, in addition to the effect of apoptosis inhibition they also display other properties. It is suggested that they play an important role in the processes of proliferation and cellular differentiation. Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the expression of the BIRC5 and BIRC6 genes in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis. Material and methods. The analysis was carried out on RNA samples obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 21 patients with diagnosed atherosclerosis. The specific fragment of the analysed gene was obtained through amplification with the use of cDNA synthesised in the reaction of reverse transcription. The ...
Straetemans T, Berrevoets C, Coccoris M, Treffers-Westerlaken E, Wijers R, Cole DK, Dardalhon V, Sewell AK, Taylor N, Verweij J, Debets R. 2015. Mol Ther.. 2015-02-23 ...