Zhang Y, Feng ZP, Naselli G, Bell F, Wettenhall J, Auyeung P, Ellis JA, Ponsonby AL, Speed TP, Chong MM, Harrison LC. MicroRNAs in CD4(+) T cell subsets are markers of disease risk and T cell dysfunction in individuals at risk for type 1 diabetes. Journal of autoimmunity 68 : 52 - 61(2016) PubMed (Grant IDs: 637338, 1004541, 1037321, 1026349 ...
A broad T cell receptor (TCR-) repertoire is required for an effective immune response. TCR-repertoire diversity declines with age. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a prematurely aged T cell system which is associated with defective T cell- mediated immunity. Recently, we showed that ESRD may significantly skew the TCR Vb-repertoire. Here we assessed the impact of ESRD on the TCR Vb-repertoire within different T cell subsets using a multi-parameter flow-cytometry-based assay, controlling for effects of ageing and CMV latency. Percentages of 24 different TCR Vb-families were tested in circulating naïve and memory T cell subsets of 10 ESRD patients and 10 age- and CMV-serostatus-matched healthy individuals (HI). The Gini-index, a parameter used in economics to describe the distribution of income, was calculated to determine the extent of skewing at the subset level taking into account frequencies of all 24 TCR Vb-families. In addition, using HI as reference population, the differential impact
Richard Jefferys, TAG. Recent research involving SIV-infected macaques has suggested that the early loss of a particular type of memory CD4 T cell (known as a central memory T cell or Tcm) may be a key predictor of the subsequent pace of disease progression. Tcm are a long-lived subset of memory T cells that can proliferate robustly in response to antigen. Tcm proliferation generates a fleet of T cells belonging to a shorter-lived subset called effector memory (Tem) cells. Tem are generally viewed as first-responders that can rapidly execute anti-pathogen functions, while Tcm provide a stem-cell like renewal source for new Tem if their numbers need to be bolstered. Studies in HIV-infected people have consistently shown a loss of Tcm and increase in Tem (which equates to a decrease in long-lived resting T cells and an increase in short-lived activated T cells), but whether changes in the numbers of different T cell subsets during early infection can predict disease progression has not been ...
Virgin and memory T cells reciprocally express high levels of the RA or the RO isoforms of CD45, respectively. In an examination of T cell expression of these two CD45 isoforms during human development, the RO+RA- memory T cells were infrequent in the newborn blood and spleen, but comprised approximately half of the T cells in adult tissues. These anticipated findings probably reflect the immunologic naivete of the newborn. Surprisingly, however, RO+RA- T cells were relatively abundant in fetal spleen and in cord blood samples from premature births, comprising approximately 25% and 10% of the T cells in these tissues, respectively. This early peripheral wave of RO+RA- T cells was composed of polyclonal T cells in both the CD4 and CD8 subpopulations. The fetal RO+ cells of CD4+ phenotype frequently expressed the CD25-alpha chain subunits that characterize high affinity IL-2 receptors, and were able to proliferate in response to exogenous IL-2. In further contrast with their RO+ memory T cell ...
A set of non-volatile storage elements is divided into subsets for erasing in order to avoid over-erasing faster erasing storage elements. The entire set of elements is erased until a first subset of the set of elements is verified as erased. The first subset can include the faster erasing cells. Verifying the first subset includes excluding a second subset from verification. After the first subset is verified as erased, they are inhibited from erasing while the second subset is further erased. The set of elements is verified as erased when the second subset is verified as erased. Verifying that the set of elements is erased can include excluding the first subset from verification or verifying both the first and second subsets together. Different step sizes are used, depending on which subset is being erased and verified in order to more efficiently and accurately erase the set of elements.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of functional subsets by flow cytometry. T2 - Intracellular detection of cytokine expression. AU - Maino, Vernon C.. AU - Picker, Louis J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/10/15. Y1 - 1998/10/15. N2 - Methods for analysis of T cell function have traditionally relied upon measurements of proliferation or cytokine expression in bulk cultures of PBMC in long term incubations with polyclonal mitogens or putative antigen. These techniques suffer from the drawback that they do not enable analysis of single cell responses in the context of unselected cellular backgrounds. In addition these methods are not sensitive enough to rapidly assess rare event responses characteristic of cognate memory T cell responses. This review discusses recently developed flow cytometric methods designed to rapidly assess leukocyte subset cytokine responses to polyclonal activators and specific antigen in PBMC and whole blood samples. These ...
The C-type lectin CD161 is expressed by a large proportion of human T lymphocytes of all lineages, including a population known as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. To understand whether different T cell subsets expressing CD161 have similar properties, we examined these populations in parallel using mass cytometry and mRNA microarray approaches. The analysis identified a conserved CD161++/MAIT cell transcriptional signature enriched in CD161+CD8+ T cells, which can be extended to CD161+ CD4+ and CD161+TCR gamma delta+ T cells. Furthermore, this led to the identification of a shared innate-like, TCR-independent response to interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18 by different CD161-expressing T cell populations. This response was independent of regulation by CD161, which acted as a costimulatory molecule in the context of T cell receptor stimulation. Expression of CD161 hence identifies a transcriptional and functional phenotype, shared across human T lymphocytes and independent of both T cell ...
Our analysis of DNTC suggests that they represent a novel suppressor cell population whose function is to negatively regulate immune responses. As DNTC acquire regulatory properties only after exposure to self Ags in vivo, it suggests that a self Ag-driven peripheral expansion plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of immunoregulatory function. Rather than stimulating rapid growth, effector cell formation, and acute activation markers, exposure to cognate Ag initiates DNTC to undergo slow expansion and memory conversion. For instance, DNTC having undergone self Ag-driven peripheral expansion possess markers of T cell memory, a lowered threshold of activation, an ability to rapidly express IFN-γ after TCR stimulation, and ex vivo cytolytic activity. However, DNTC from Ag+ mice differ from conventional T cells or those from Ag− mice in that they respond poorly when challenged with cognate Ag in vitro and fail to synthesize IL-2. As they possess potent cytolytic activity and express cognate Ag, ...
CD3gamma and CD3delta are two highly related components of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex which is essential for the assembly and signal transduction of the T cell receptor on mature T cells. In gene knockout mice deficient in either CD3delta or CD3gamma, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR was either undisturbed or severely blocked, respectively, and small numbers of TCR-alphabeta+ T cells were detected in the periphery of both mice. gammadelta T cell development was either normal in CD3delta-/- mice or partially blocked in CD3gamma-/- mice. To examine the collective role of CD3gamma and CD3delta in the assembly and function of pre-TCR and in the development of gammadelta T cells, we generated a mouse strain with a disruption in both CD3gamma and CD3delta genes (CD3gammadelta-/-). In contrast to mice deficient in either CD3gamma or CD3delta chains, early thymic development mediated by pre-TCR is completely blocked, and TCR-alphabeta+ or TCR-gammadelta+ T cells were absent in the
It has been unquestionably useful in advancing our understanding of immune cell function to recognize that B cells, T cells, and different T cell subsets (CD4+, CD8+, α/β, γ/δ, and natural killer T cells) constitute distinct lineages that do not interconvert. Although new subsets of TH cells continue to be elevated to the status of lineages, there are really no accepted criteria for what qualifies a cell for this august designation. The selective production of cytokines is the sine qua non for a subset, but this definition is tautologic and consequently leads to considerable confusion. TH1 cells make IFN-γ, but are all IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells TH1 cells? IL-22-producing cells make IFN-γ, but are they then TH1s or TH22s? Can a cell be a TH1/TH22, or should this be a new lineage? In the simplest view, TH cell lineages express lineage-defining transcription factors, but, as discussed, we know that transcription factor expression is dynamic; a particular subset can express more than ...
CD4+ T cells are critical for host defense but are also major drivers of immune-mediated disease. These T cells specialize to become distinct subsets and produce restricted patterns of cytokines, which are tailored to combat various microbial pathogens. Although classically viewed as distinct lineages, recent work calls into question whether helper CD4+ T cell subsets are more appropriately viewed as terminally differentiated cells or works in progress. Herein, we review recent advances that pertain to this topic and the mechanisms that contribute to helper CD4+ T cell commitment and plasticity. The therapeutic implications of these new findings are also considered.. ...
Immune cells act as TSA screeners in the intestine-tolerating commensal microbes and food antigens but remaining vigilant against attack. However, it has remained unclear how T cell precursors differentiate into the different cell types required to perform this balancing act. Now, Bilate et al. report that the T cell receptor (TCR) itself does not limit T cell fate to a single identity. The authors found that cells expressing a single TCR derived from a peripheral regulatory T cell (Treg) developed into either Tregs or CD4+CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD4IELs) in the gut. This differentiation depended on cues from both the microbiota and the surrounding environment. ...
Phenotypic and functional properties of gammadelta T cells, which play an important role in mucocutaneous immunity, were examined to elucidate whether immunological abnormality in Behcets disease may be related to a specific T cell population. We found that CD45RA+ Vgamma9+ Vdelta2+ gammadelta T ce …
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: In order to identify cytokines with immunoregulatory functions in chickens, CD4+ hybridoma designated as P34 which spontaneously secretes various cytokines was developed. Rabbit antibody was developed against a P34 culture supernatant fraction with T-cell promoting activity and used to screen the P34 cDNA library. A cDNA encoding a 12kDa protein was identified and cloned into pBluescript vector. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA indicated a 143-amino acid precursor peptide. This 12kDa protein was expressed in many tissues including spleen, intestine and muscle using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR). Activation of spleen cells with concanavalin A enhanced the expression of this protein in a time dependent manner in Northern blot. Stable transfection of this gene in CHO and SF9 cells produced a biologically active protein which supported the growth of gamma delta T lymphocytes. In summary, a ...
Ana A. Weil, Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Taufiqur R. Bhuiyan, Regina C. LaRocque, Aaron M. Harris, Emily A. Kendall, Azim Hossain, Abdullah A. Tarique, Alaullah Sheikh, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I. Khan, Farhan Murshed, Kenneth C. Parker, Kalyan K. Banerjee, Edward T. Ryan, Jason B. Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Stephen B. Calderwood ...
Unconventional T cells Introduction T lymphocytes are characterized by the expression of the CD3 molecule and the associated T cell receptor for antigen
T cells are central to the cell-mediated immune response. There are many different types of T cells, all derived from same lymphoid stem cell. T cell function, lineage and the T cell receptor are discussed, along with markers and antibodies used to define them.
Description of disease T cell, peripheral. Treatment T cell, peripheral. Symptoms and causes T cell, peripheral Prophylaxis T cell, peripheral
These cells inhibit the activation phase of the immune response by suppressing the response of B cells (antibody producing cells) or of other T cells (killer T cells, helper T cells) to an antigen resulting in tolerance for the antigen by the host ...
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The immune system cells known as T cells play a central role in the bodys ability to fight infections and cancer. For decades, however, details of the molecular signaling process that leads to T cell activation have remained a mystery.
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Looking for delta T lymphocyte? Find out information about delta T lymphocyte. a deposit of clay, silt, and sand formed at the mouth of a river where the stream loses velocity and drops part of its sediment load. No delta is formed if... Explanation of delta T lymphocyte
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha beta) T cells with TCR composed of two glycoprotein chains called α (alpha) and β (beta) TCR chains. In contrast, gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is usually much less common than αβ T cells, but are at their highest abundance in the gut mucosa, within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The antigenic molecules that activate gamma delta T cells are still largely unknown. However, γδ T cells are peculiar in that they do not seem to require antigen processing and major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) presentation of peptide epitopes, although some recognize MHC class Ib molecules. Furthermore, γδ T cells are believed to have a prominent role in recognition of lipid antigens. They are of an invariant nature and may be ...
CD4-CD8- (double negative [DN]) alpha/beta T cells are a largely uncharacterized subpopulation of unknown function. To investigate whether these cells are selected to recognize particular antigens or antigen-presenting molecules, DN alpha/beta T cells were purified from the peripheral blood of five normal donors and their T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains were examined. Random cloning of TCR alpha chains by single-sided polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification identified an invariant rearrangement between V alpha 24 and J alpha Q, with no N region diversity, which was expressed preferentially by DN alpha/beta T cells from all donors. Random cloning also identified a precise V alpha 7.2-J alpha (IGRJa14) rearrangement, with two variable amino acids encoded in the V-J junction, which was enriched in the DN alpha/beta T cell preparations from some, but not all, donors. Analysis of TCR beta chains by quantitative PCR amplification demonstrated that the expression of four V beta gene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Altered homeostasis and development of regulatory T cell subsets represent an IL-2R-dependent risk for diabetes in NOD mice. AU - Dwyer, Connor J.. AU - Bayer, Allison L. AU - Fotino, Carmen. AU - Yu, Liping. AU - Cabello-Kindelan, Cecilia. AU - Ward, Natasha C.. AU - Toomer, Kevin H.. AU - Chen, Zhibin. AU - Malek, Thomas. PY - 2017/12/19. Y1 - 2017/12/19. N2 - The cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is critical for the functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The contribution of polymorphisms in the gene encoding the IL-2 receptor subunit (IL2RA), which are associated with type 1 diabetes, is difficult to determine because autoimmunity depends on variations in multiple genes, where the contribution of any one gene product is small. We investigated the mechanisms whereby a modest reduction in IL-2R signaling selectively in T lymphocytes influenced the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse model. The sensitivity of IL-2R signaling was reduced by about two- to threefold in Tregs from ...
CD4-CD8- (double negative [DN]) alpha/beta T cells are a largely uncharacterized subpopulation of unknown function. To investigate whether these cells are selected to recognize particular antigens or antigen-presenting molecules, DN alpha/beta T cells were purified from the peripheral blood of five normal donors and their T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains were examined. Random cloning of TCR alpha chains by single-sided polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification identified an invariant rearrangement between V alpha 24 and J alpha Q, with no N region diversity, which was expressed preferentially by DN alpha/beta T cells from all donors. Random cloning also identified a precise V alpha 7.2-J alpha (IGRJa14) rearrangement, with two variable amino acids encoded in the V-J junction, which was enriched in the DN alpha/beta T cell preparations from some, but not all, donors. Analysis of TCR beta chains by quantitative PCR amplification demonstrated that the expression of four V beta gene ...
Kakita, N., Kanto, T., Itose, I., Kuroda, S., Inoue, M., Matsubara, T., Higashitani, K., Miyazaki, M., Sakakibara, M., Hiramatsu, N., Takehara, T., Kasahara, A. and Hayashi, N. (2012), Comparative analyses of regulatory T cell subsets in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A crucial role of CD25−FOXP3− T cells. Int. J. Cancer, 131: 2573-2583. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27535 ...
Certain T cell subsets are increased in systemic sclerosis patients, particularly Vδ1|sup|+|/sup| γδ T cells in the blood and lungs and CD8|s...
Results Th17 cells were decreased in the peripheral blood of RA patients, while OA patients had surprisingly an altered ratio of CD25+Tregs and Tr1 cells in circulation. In synovial tissues Th17 cells, TFH and regulatory T cell subsets were enriched among CD4+ T cells in RA as compared to OA patients, while frequencies of Th1 cells were similar. RA patients had higher serum levels of IL-17, IL-10 and BAFF, while serum IL-21 was elevated in both RA and OA patients. Importantly, serum levels of IL-17, IL-10 and BAFF were enhanced only in patients with active RA or with detectable autoantibodies. Moreover, BAFF and IL-17 levels in synovial fluid were also higher in RA as compared to OA patients, while IL-10 concentrations were similar. B cells from synovial fluid spontaneously released high amounts of IgG in the absence of CD4+ helper T cells, and regulatory T cell subsets were unable to suppress B cell IgG production.. ...
The generation of T helper cells in vitro requires macrophages or macrophage-derived factors such as genetically related macrophage factor (GRF) or nonspecific macrophage factor (NMF). However, there is a basic difference of T helper cell induction when using particulate antigens. The present study demonstrates that this difference is based on the activation of two different T cell subsets. GRF activates short-lived T1 cells which amplify the induction of T2 cells, which are the helper cell precursors. Thus, the genetic restriction of T helper cell induction seen with soluble antigen or GRF lies on the level of macrophage or GRF interaction with T1 cells. NMF (or macrophages) and particulate antigens directly activate the helper cell precursor (T2) indicating no requirement for T1-T2 cooperation. The direct activation of the helper cell precursor with particulate antigens does not require histocompatible macrophages or NMF from histocompatible macrophages. The present results may explain some of the
Objectives Evaluate the number and distribution of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes and their CD4+ naïve T cells (TN), central memory (TCM), non-terminated effector memory (TNTEM) and terminated effector memory (TTEM) T cells subsets in a population of recently diagnosed DMARD naive RA patients before and along the first 6 months of methotrexate (MTX) treatment. ...
Our lab studies the basic processes of T lymphocyte development and activation. We are interested in the concepts underlying lineage decisions that govern the the maturation of different T cell subsets as well as memory T cells. The information is important in understanding the balance between protective- vs. auto-immunity.. ...
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TCR gamma/delta, PerCP-eFluor™ 710, clone: eBioGL3 (GL-3, GL3), eBioscience™ 100μg; PerCP-eFluor™ 710 TCR gamma/delta, PerCP-eFluor™ 710,...
alpha beta TCR Mouse anti-Human, FITC, Clone: WT31, eBioscience™ 25 tests; FITC alpha beta TCR Mouse anti-Human, FITC, Clone: WT31, eBioscience™ Primary...
Human T cells expressing CD161 and an invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha-chain (Valpha24invt T cells) specifically recognize CD1d and appear to have immunoregulatory functions. However, the physiological target cells for this T-cell population, and whether alterations in CD1d expression contribut …
The immune system has evolved to fend off challenges from a wide array of pathogens while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and benign environmental antigens. CD4 helper T cells are critical in regulating these processes with different subsets of CD4 T cells responsible for regulating different facets of the immune system. T helper 1 (Th1) cells, which contribute to antiviral immunity, and T helper 2 (Th2) cells, which contribute to antihelminth immunity and allergy, were the first CD4 T cell subsets to be discovered. Recently a number of new subsets have been discovered. Here we review what is known about CD4 T cell subsets with particular focus on neonatal immunity. ...
Denne rapport beskriver en metode til at fremkalde kronisk eksperimentelt autoimmunt tørt øje i Lewis rotter gennem immunisering med...
Maloney began by explaining that CAR-T cells produced from distinct T-cell subsets differ in potency. NSG mice bearing Raji tumors (0.5x10 6tumor cell inoculation; day 0) were treated with human CAR-T cells manufactured from distinct T-cell subsets (on day 7). CAR-T cells produced from CD8 +T CMcells were highly potent ( Sommermeyer et al.2015).. Engineering selected T-cell subsets could enhance potency and allow delivery of the same cell product in all patients, potentially providing more uniform data on dose response and toxicity.. Pre-clinical studies have established that a defined composition of CD8 +T CMderived and CD4 +derived CAR T-cells provides optimal potency.. ...
Experimental work has shown that T cells of the immune system rapidly and specifically respond to antigenic molecules presented on the surface of antigen-presenting-cells and are able to discriminate between potential stimuli based on the kinetic parameters of the T cell receptor-antigen bond. These antigenic molecules are presented among thousands of chemically similar endogenous peptides, raising the question of how T cells can reliably make a decision to respond to certain antigens but not others within minutes of encountering an antigen presenting cell. In this theoretical study, we investigate the role of localized rebinding between a T cell receptor and an antigen. We show that by allowing the signaling state of individual receptors to persist during brief unbinding events, T cells are able to discriminate antigens based on both their unbinding and rebinding rates. We demonstrate that T cell receptor coreceptors, but not receptor clustering, are important in promoting localized rebinding, and show
يصف هذا التقرير طريقة للحث على جفاف المناعة الذاتية المزمن التجريبي العين في الفئران لويس من...
Chattopadhyay, P. K. and Roederer, M. 2005. Immunophenotyping of T Cell Subpopulations in HIV Disease. Current Protocols in Immunology. 65:12.12:12.12.1-12.12.15. ...
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Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Dr. Brigitta Stockinger on CD4 T cell subsets, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [M Lahn, H Kalataradi, P Mittelstadt, E Pflum, M Vollmer, C Cady, A Mukasa, A T Vella, D Ikle, R Harbeck, R OBrien, W Born].
Data points near the top of the curve are an underestimate, as this represents just the real variety of areas which were counted; in some certain areas, areas had been TNTC (asterisks). responding T cells may become fatigued or removed in the T cell repertoire also, as recommended from our function in ovarian cancers.12 Fourth, much like any antigen, tumors may undergo immune editing and enhancing that leads towards the outgrowth of tumor cells that no more express the targeted neoantigen.14 One method of address the next and third problems (i.e., too little responding T BRL 44408 maleate cells in sufferers) is to execute priming of neoantigen-specific T cells using bloodstream from an MHC-matched healthful donor. Within a scientific setting, the causing neoantigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) could after that be utilized to engineer the patients T cells to make a mutation-specific infusion item. To this final end, a recent research interrogated the naive T cell repertoire of healthful ...
Induction of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-secreting CD8+ T cell subpopulations upon DC priming.PBMC from volunteer CVD4000#65 were co-cultured with DC alone (media), or p
T cell, type of leukocyte (white blood cell) that is an essential part of the immune system. T cells are one of two primary types of lymphocytes-B cells being the second type-that determine the specificity of immune responses to antigens (foreign substances) in the body.
In order to discuss all the subsets of a given set, let us introduce the following terminology. We shall call the original set the universal set, one-element subsets will be called unit sets, and the set which contains no members the empty set. We do not introduce special names for other kinds of subsets of the universal set. As an example, let the universal set U consist of the three elements {a, b, c}. The proper subsets of U are those sets containing some but not all of the elements of U. The proper subsets consist of three two-element sets namely, {a, b}, {a, c}, and {b,... ...