Over the past few years the NACDD Act on Data Workgroup has focused on building the capacity of state health department chronic disease prevention and control staff to apply systems thinking to complex issues. Act on Data coordinated trainings and developed tools on systems thinking. The latest tool is a new 6-minute video, Finding Leverage - The Power of Systems Thinking with Chris Soderquist. The video introduces the concepts of systems thinking using chronic disease prevention and control as an example. Its intended for people new to systems thinking and can be used with state health department partners to introduce systems thinking as a framework to plan, discuss, and find leverage for chronic disease prevention and control efforts.. ...
John Seddons Thoughts on Systems Thinking and the Public Sector . Jim Mather MSP. John Seddon Systems Thinking and the Public Sector . Systems Thinking Current problems & the need for Systems Thinking Public Sector Specifics How Systems Thinking can work for us Slideshow 247010 by jed
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Public health embraces a holistic, cell-to-society approach to understanding both the direct and underlying causes of disease and the conditions that contribute to an absence of well-being. In the early 21st century, interdisciplinary methods that address the interconnected and overlapping determinants of health are needed more than ever for dealing with modern, intractable, complex health problems, such as obesity and chronic disease. The relatively recent explosion of complexity science and systems thinking across a broad range of disciplines promises to bring new insight into the nature of these challenges while providing new methods for grappling with the characteristics specific to complex problems (such as nonlinearity, feedback loops, and their chaotic nature). There are varying definitions across these disciplines of complex system, systems approach, and even systems thinking. Some researchers have called for a common language and logic to describe systems approaches; this will likely ...
For example, it was policy that after each promotion an employee would be moved to another duty location to fill a position that required a more experienced person ps now spieleen. When an employee was moved to fill a vacancy, a second employee had to be moved to replace the position vacated by the first employee. That continual replacement cycle caused many more moves than the Coast Guard desired and had a negative effect on unit continuity. Using a Systems Thinking Methodology to address complex personnel issues was valuable because it produced an understanding within the Coast Guard that in complex systems there are ebbs and flows. Complex policy decisions that are made today may, in the short-term, produce negative effects on the system. Managers began to understand that the personnel issues were systems level problems which could be anticipated and if allowed would correct themselves in time. This mental preparation for expected short-term negative conditions made it possible to make ...
This post examines the structure of human-constructed hierarchy using a systems thinking lens. Like many of my friends who have a problem with authority - I always struggle with the concept of hierarchy. I think this is because the dominant form of hierarchy working in the human world is based on what peace and social…
Systems Tableau is suggested as a convenient tool for the integration of the three phases of systems theory: the synthesis of a model from the analysis of a system; the evaluation of the model; and the decision-making process for the design and control of the resulting system. From a basic consideration of Man-Nature communications, several mathematical, biological, engineering, and management examples of systems models are examined to develop a unified definition of a system. Logical, physical, mathematical, graphic, and computational requirements are postulated for the methodology of models for systems meeting the definition. These requirements are used to formulate the basic tableau as a hybrid of a mathematical mapping matrix and a graphical flowgraph that expresses the interrelationships among the components of a given system. Thus, a tableau is at once a matrix and a network representation of the system. The general (connecting), ordinal (dominating), and technological (directing) ...
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Computer Aided Systems Theory (CAST) deals with the task of contributing to the creation and implementation of tools for the support of usual CAD tools for design and simulation by formal mathematical
Learn about Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory in this lesson and explore the five levels of the environment that can influence human...
The concept of CAST as Computer Aided Systems Theory was introduced by F. Pichler in the late 1980s to encompass computer-theoretical and practical developments as tools for problem-solving in system
Free Essay: Bowen Systems Theory The primary focus is on the individuals ability to differentiate her/his own intellectual functioning from feelings and the...
79036 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: A Complex Adaptive System Approach on Logistics - Implications of adopting a complexity perspective.
Another theoretical focus of our work is the theory of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). CAS can be found across many different areas (from living and social to economical and technological systems) and are variable in form. Therefore, they are best captured by identifying the common features that describe their essential elements and convergent behaviors. CAS comprise many agents that exhibit independent properties and behaviors but work together to produce emergent properties that cannot be predicted by isolated understanding of these interacting agents/components. This quality of emergence is long recognized in homogeneous systems most notably in physics (e.g., turbulence, magnetism), which are relatively simple in terms of number of interacting elements (e.g., atoms/molecules). In contrast, biological and social CAS are highly heterogeneous and complex, both within and across broad scales of time and space.. As a consequence of the numbers of agents and dynamics of CAS, their behaviors play ...
James Case Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. By Simon Levin, Helix Books (a division of Perseus Books), Reading, Massachusetts, 1999, 250 pages, $27 hardcover, $17 paperback.. Simon Levin---whose PhD and earliest positions were in mathematics---is the Moffett Professor of Biology at Princeton University, as well as the founding director of the Princeton Environmental Institute and a member of the Science Board of the Santa Fe Institute. As the author or editor of more than 25 books on biology, ecology, and biodiversity,* he is a leading contributor to some of the most politically sensitive branches of science. In the book under review, Levin explains why he believes the biosphere to constitute a complex adaptive system (CAS)---in the sense of the systems studied by John H. Holland---and why he deems biodiversity to be an essential ingredient thereof.. Since bursting on the scene little more than a decade ago, Hollands brain-children (which include genetic algorithms as well as ...
A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action presents a comprehensive and detailed theory of early human development based on the principles of dynamic systems theory. Beginning with their own research in motor, perceptual, and cognitive development, Thelen and Smith raise fundamental questions about prevailing assumptions in the field. They propose a new theory of the development of cognition and action, unifying recent advances in dynamic systems theory with current research in neuroscience and neural development. In particular, they show how by processes of exploration and selection, multimodal experiences form the bases for self-organizing perception-action categories. Thelen and Smith offer a radical alternative to current cognitive theory, both in their emphasis on dynamic representation and in their focus on processes of change. Among the first attempt to apply complexity theory to psychology, they suggest reinterpretations of several classic issues in early ...
In recent years, there has been an increased interest within the program evaluation field for introducing systems thinking concepts. However, most of these attempts have been primarily directed towards supporting the practice of evaluation and not towards making theoretical advancements. This article is focused on introducing systems thinking, and specifically perspectives and concepts from the work in critical systems thinking (CST), at a theoretical level in the program evaluation field, towards a reframing of the Fourth Generation Evaluation methodology. The process for carrying out such reframing is introduced, as well as describing the major changes produced in the evaluation methodology by incorporating the CST perspective. A new model is proposed, and how this model may be beneficial for conducting an evaluation is discussed with recommendations made for future developments.. ...
Systems thinking is a little like immunology: If the T-cell count plummets, that jeopardizes the bodys resistance to disease. One thing affects another. Everything is connected.. To understand the parts, you must look at the whole-thats systems thinking.. In his book Generation to Generation, Edwin Friedman, who died in 1996, applied the way family members related to one another to the way churches and synagogues operate as a whole. A disciple of Friedman, Peter Steinke, a Lutheran (ELCA) minister and counselor, has written Healthy Congregations (Alban Institute), which evaluates the health of a congregation using family-systems theory. Steinke views churches as living, breathing organisms.. Leadership senior associate editor Dave Goetz asked Steinke how systems thinking might help pastors bring health to their congregations. ...
This course presents Bowen Family Systems Theory as it applies to families over the life and organizations over time. This is a theoretical course whose purpose is to provide the student with a broad, systemic perspective on human functioning. The course begins with a detailed presentation of Systems Theory, from both a family and organizational perspective. As presented there is a continual compare and contrast to other dominant theories of human functioning. It then applies the concepts of Systems Theory to the understanding and assessment of the stages of the normal family life cycle from a multi-generational, multi-cultural perspective. This is followed by discussions of the theorys application to the emotional problems of children, adolescents, adults and their families. Likewise, application to organizational behavior is made, including health care organizations. Relevant research is discussed throughout. ...
George Braziller, New York. Of particular interest.... Forward by Ervin Laszlo. ...In the late twenties, von Bertalanffy (himself in his twenties) spoke of the new perspective as a method, and called it organismic biology. He spoke of it as an attempt at explanation, calling it The system theory of the organism. Later (1947) he recognized that there exist mdels, principles and laws that apply to generalized systems or their suclasses irrespective of their particulatr kind, the nature of the component elements, and the relations or forces between them. We postulate a new discipline called General System Theory/. The use of this term in English has wroght a certain amount of havoc. mainly through misunderstanding. It was criticized as pseudoscience and said to be nothing more than an admonishment to attend to things in a holistic way. Such criticisms would have lost their point had it been recognized that von Bertalanffys general system theory is a perspective or paradigm, and that such ...
Get this from a library! Systems Science and Population Health. [Abdulrahman M El-Sayed; Sandro Galea] -- SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND POPULATION HEALTH employs principles from across a range of sciences to refine the way we understand population health. By augmenting traditional analytic approaches with new ...
0306459795 Principles of Quantitative Living Systems Science (IFSR International Series in Systems Science and Systems Engineering),books, textbooks, text book
Learn Systems Science and Obesity from Johns Hopkins University. Systems science has been instrumental in breaking new scientific ground in diverse fields such as meteorology, engineering and decision analysis. However, it is just beginning to ...
It is challenging to evaluate complex adaptive systems that often do not comprise easily observable processes that lead to easily measurable outcomes.5,8,35,56 Instead, these systems, such as in primary care, often have a plurality of aims and interests that sometimes conflict; they are influenced by their external environment, whose effects on the system could be minimal or profound; and the impact of the external forces often change with time.5,8 In traditional QI of mechanical processes, measurements are often at the level of an individual step. Ideally, it is more appropriate to measure complex adaptive systems at the level of the final outcome of interest.5. Which is not to suggest that all aspects of a complex adaptive system are completely unmeasurable. Parts of a primary care practice may be fairly linear and simple, others might best be imagined as a complicated set of linear processes, and other parts reflect an adaptive system.36 At the macro level, decades of research show that ...
von Bertallanfy [1968] General System Theory. Foundations, Development, Applications, New York 1968. Cariani, Peter [1989]. On The Design of Devices With Emergent Semantic Functions. PhD Dissertation. State University of New York at Binghamton.. Conrad, Michael [1983]. Adaptability. Plenum Press.. Kauffman, S. [1993]. The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford university Press.. Klir, George, J. [1991]. Facets of Systems Science. Plenum Press.. Mesarovic, MD: (1968) Auxiliary Functions and Constructive Specification of Gen. Sys., Mathematical Systems Theory, v. 2:3. Pattee, Howard H. [1973].The physical basis and origin of control. In: Hierarchy Theory: The Challenge of Complex Systems. H.H. Pattee (Ed.). George Braziller, pp.71-108.. Pattee, Howard H. [1978].The complementary principle in biological and social structures. Journal of Social and Biological Structures. Vol. 1, pp. 191-200.. Pattee, Howard H. [1982].Cell psychology: an evolutionary approach to ...
Traditionally, epidemiologic methodologies have focused on measurement of exposures, outcomes, and program impact through reductionistic, yet complex statistical modeling. Although not new to the field of epidemiology, two frameworks that provide epidemiologists with a foundation for understanding the complex contexts in which programs and policies are implemented were presented to maternal and child health (MCH) professionals at the 2012 co-hosted 18th Annual MCH Epidemiology Conference and 22nd CityMatCH Urban Leadership Conference. The complex systems approach offers researchers in MCH the opportunity to understand the functioning of social, medical, environmental, and behavioral factors within the context of implemented public health programs. Implementation science provides researchers with a framework to translate the evidence-based program interventions into practices and policies that impact health outcomes. Both approaches offer MCH epidemiologists conceptual frameworks with which to ...
Engels biopsychosocial model is the current paradigm for psychiatric diagnosis, case formulation and treatment planning. The biopsychosocial psychiatrist understands that family is the earliest and most immediate social milieu. Family psychiatry provides the ideal bridge between the biomedical and psychosocial worlds. Family Systems Theory adds consideration of family and individual life cycles to the integration of biomedical, psychosocial, and behavioral dimensions. Application of family systems theory and therapy helps optimize the treatment and rehabilitation of individuals with severe and persistent psychiatric illnesses. In the family systems model poorly differentiated relationship patterns characterized by high anxiety and emotional reactivity impair optimal functioning. Therapeutic interventions are focused on direct assessment and change of counterproductive family relationship patterns that maintain symptomatic behavior. Reciprocal influences between biology, individuals, their ...
INTRODUCTION: This paper presents a system dynamics computer simulation model to illustrate unintended consequences of apparently rational allocations to curative and preventive services. METHODS: A modeled population is subject to only two diseases. Disease A is a curable disease that can be shortened by curative care. Disease B is an instantly fatal but preventable disease. Curative care workers are financed by public spending and private fees to cure disease A. Non-personal, preventive services are delivered by public health workers supported solely by public spending to prevent disease B. Each type of worker tries to tilt the balance of government spending towards their interests. Their influence on the government is proportional to their accumulated revenue. RESULTS: The model demonstrates effects on lost disability-adjusted life years and costs over the course of several epidemics of each disease. Policy interventions are tested including: i) an outside donor rationally donates extra money ...
Monash Health Community supports individuals and communities to maintain health, independence, and wellbeing through quality, patient centred health care that meets the needs of our diverse community.. Over the past four years, the Health Promotion Team have been on a journey. Inspired by the shift in health promotion bought on by Healthy Together Victoria, we wanted change. We were determined to work in a way that reflects the community, the complex nature of prevention and we want efforts to lead to long-term sustainable change that improves the health experienced by our community. We work across Cardinia Shire, City of Casey and City of Greater Dandenong.. Our health promotion practice merges place-based approaches, complex systems thinking and developmental evaluation in health promotion. Complex systems thinking gives us the opportunity to view prevention, places and issues as dynamic and non-linear. It allows interventions to grow, adapt and react to systems shifts and gives us the freedom ...
The second subject that my mothers group asked that we discuss is that of habits. When I use the word habit, I mean a pattern of behavior that is hard to break even when you try very hard. We usually refer to the patterns we want to break as bad habits, but of course there are good habits, too. I like to use the principles of nonlinear systems theory to understand the establishment and maintenance of habits. That is not as complicated as it might sound.. Nonlinear systems theory says that organization, or patterns, emerge from the interactions of the component parts of a system (von Bertalanffy, 1968). In a family system, this would mean that when family members (parents, children) interact with one another, they create particular ways of behaving (patterns of behavior) that include characteristics of the individuals involved, their home environment, and the time (of day, month, and year). For example, what Sander calls the infants first organization, the diurnal sleep cycle, is ...
The following competencies are required for this position:. Drive for Results: Ability to manage multiple projects effectively to ensure they are on time and on track and that the outcomes are being achieved. Projects focus on coordination and review of predictive and event based human health risk assessments and the development of evidence based policy from a variety of proponents, scenarios and/or regulators (e.g., Alberta Energy Regulator, Environment and Parks). Systems Thinking: Ability to apply systems thinking to research, analyze and advise internal and external contacts on programs, policies and emerging issues related to complex environmental public health science issues, setting direction and fulfilling the mandate of the department. Ability to synthesize a succinct summary from various sources of information and to provide the best advice to both internal and external stakeholders in a timely fashion.. Develop Networks: Good verbal and written communication skills, including the ...
I am a philosopher of social science with a strong interest in Asia. I have written books on social explanation, Marx, late imperial China, the philosophy of history, and the ethics of economic development. Topics having to do with racial justice in the United States have become increasingly important to me in recent years. All these topics involve the complexities of social life and social change. I have come to see that understanding social processes is in many ways more difficult than understanding the natural world. Take the traditional dichotomy between structure and agency as an example. It turns out that social actions and social structures are reciprocal and inseparable. As Marx believed, people make their own histories, but not in circumstances of their own choosing. So we cannot draw a sharp separation between social structure and social agency. I think philosophers need to interact seriously and extensively with working social researchers and theorists if they are to be able to help ...
In this regard, the news is guardedly optimistic. The art and science of high-performance building is growing. The result is a new generation of buildings that require a fraction of the energy of conventional buildings, use materials screened for environmental effects, minimize water consumption, and are landscaped to promote biological diversity, moderate microclimates, and grow foods. The best of these are highly efficient, powered substantially by sunlight and feature daylight, water recycling, and interior green spaces. They are a finer calibration between our five senses and the built environment and tend to promote higher user satisfaction and productivity. The costs of building green, as it turns out, are not necessarily higher than conventional buildings while having lower operating costs. The goal is to design buildings as whole systems, not as disjointed components. The green building movement is now a worldwide movement and is transforming the practice of architecture, landscape ...
The Neurogenesis Diet & Lifestyle: Recently featured on a Bulletproof Radio Podcast episode, I had to follow up. Two points in the podcast alone had me hooked: (1) serotonin deficiency theory behind depression has been debunked and (2) the mouse experiment demonstrated it wasnt just one thing that had a big positive impact, but a combination of several things. Both points support a systems thinking lens to better health, not an oversimplified problem-solution lens. This is right in line with Dr. Hymans system thinking approach to health with functional medicine. Kudos ...
A 26-year-old woman with a second pregnancy (G2P1) and who had had a previous Caesarean section is admitted after spontaneous rupture of her membranes at term. Her initial examination reveals a cervix at 2 cm dilation. She elects to undergo a vaginal birth. Over the next 6 hours her contractions decrease in regularity with no further progression of her cervical dilation. The bedside nurse calls the obstetrician who asks her to start the oxytocin protocol. The hospital has 2 oxytocin protocols: a low-dose protocol for augmentation of labour, and a high-dose protocol for induction of labour. The nurse and obstetrician do not discuss which protocol to use. The bedside nurse institutes the induction protocol. The obstetrician intended to use the augmentation protocol.. Over the ensuing 3 hours, the nurse regularly increases the infusion rate of the oxytocin. When she reaches the hospital protocols maximal oxytocin dose, the nurse elects to continue to increase the dose because she wants to get ...
Systems Thinking: Its more than you think.SM How to escape the crisis syndrome? add them to a list of pending candidate pro- What is systems thinking? When individuals or organizations act to re-jects. This need not be unpleasant, if donelieve problem symptoms, but fail to addresswithout blame using the ground rules for ef-f ...
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Waddingtons epigenetic landscape, a famous metaphor in developmental biology, depicts how a stem cell progresses from an undifferentiated phenotype to a differentiated one. The concept of
To see the link with the standard DEB model (with which most contributions in this issue deal), it helps to realize that DEB models for dividing unicellular organisms represent both a simplification and an extension. Biomass is (formally) partitioned into one structure and a number of reserves that is typically equal to the types of substrates (CQ nutrients) that are taken up independently from the environment; substrates are converted to reserves and mobilized reserves are used for all other metabolic needs (maintenance, growth, maturation). The metabolic pools (reserves, structure) are supposed to have a constant chemical composition (strong homeostasis). Cells growing in (chemically) constant environments do not change in composition (weak homeostasis). The requirement for weak homeostasis fully specifies the mobilization fluxes (Sousa et al. 2008). After subtraction of the reserve-specific somatic maintenance costs, the remaining fluxes are converted to structure using the merging rules of ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Bowen theory is a natural systems theory distinct from general systems theory, from the individual theories of psychiatry and psychology, and group theories
Speaker - BSSR Lecture Series This symposium will demonstrate how systems science approaches (aka modeling and simulation) can be used to address policy-relevant questions, using childhood obesity as an exemplar. While doing so, it will showcase two mathematical (i.e., System Dynamics) models that are under development as a part of CompMod, the Comparative Modeling for Childhood Obesity Policy Network, which is part of the Envision network of mathematical and statistical modeling teams under NCCOR (the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research).
Abstract: For science, theoretical or applied, to significantly advance, researchers must use the most appropriate mathematical methods. A century and a half elapsed between Newtons development of the calculus and Laplaces development of celestial mechanics. One cannot imagine the latter without the former. Today, more than three-quarters of a century has elapsed since the birth of stochastic systems theory. This article provides a perspective on the utilization of systems theory as the proper vehicle for the development of systems biology and its application to complex regulatory diseases such as cancer. ...
For the purposes of research, IHC is a therapeutic strategy not a single drug intervention. Team-based, patient-centred, integrative approaches to care present a challenge to designing rigorous studies, given IHC is typically used to provide many simultaneous treatments for multiple health concerns [68]. Many efforts have been made to propose frameworks for researching complex healthcare such as IHC [28, 59, 60, 69] calling on program theory [73], whole system theory [69, 72], utilising the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework or employing implementation, process or fidelity evaluation [59]. Research methodology for evaluating IHC probably best involves a combination of understanding the philosophical underpinnings of IHC through whole system theory and examining it within the MRC framework. Whole systems can be defined as approaches to healthcare in which practitioners apply bodies of knowledge and associated practices in order to maximize the patients capacity to achieve mental and ...
The theorem that Parity is not in $\mathsf{AC}^0$ is one of the gemstones of complexity theory. I wonder how many different proofs there are of this result? What constitutes different is also a part of this question. E.g., if you say there are 4 different proofs in your answer, please explain why these 4 are different in your opinion.. I am familiar with two proofs, one based on the switching lemma, and the other based on aprrximation by low-degree polynomials, due to Razborov-Smolensky. I think these proofs are different since they generalise in different ways. E.g., switching lemma proofs give better correlation bounds, while low-degree techniques give lower bounds for $\mathsf{AC}^0$ with mod $p$ gates.. ...
An attempt to formulate common laws that apply to virtually every scientific field, this conceptual approach has had a profound impact on such widely diverse disciplines as biology, economics, psychology, and demography.