PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047780. Epub 2012 Oct 22. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
AbstractThe dependence of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) activity on potassium-chloride cotransporter (KCC) isoform expression was characterized in corneal epithelial cells (CEC). During exposure to a 50% hypotonic challenge, the RVD response was larger in SV40-immortalized human CEC (HCEC) than i
Authors: Fiona C Brown, Ashlee J Conway, Loretta Cerruti, Janelle E Collinge, Catriona McLean, James S Wiley, Ben T Kile, Stephen M Jane, David J Curtis
The strategic localization of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2), a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter, to the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the kidney and choroid plexus suggests that it plays an important role in the disposition of peptides/mimetics in the body. Therefore, the in vivo significance of PEPT2 was investigated in wild-type and PEPT2 null mice following an i.v. bolus dose (0.05 μmol/g body weight) of [14C]glycylsarcosine (GlySar). In PEPT2 null mice, the clearance (total and renal) of GlySar was markedly increased (2-fold), resulting in concomitantly lower systemic concentrations. In addition, renal reabsorption was almost abolished, and GlySar was eliminated by glomerular filtration. Of the 46% of GlySar reabsorbed in wild-type mice, PEPT2 accounted for 86% and PEPT1 accounted for 14% of reabsorbed substrate. Analysis of GlySar uptake in kidney sections revealed that PEPT2 was primarily localized in the outer medullary region. Wild-type mice also had greater choroid ...
The potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 might seem an unlikely target for the next generation of pain medications. The humble protein, found on neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and throughout the central nervous system, serves the mundane task of pumping chloride out of cells. But KCC2 has recently emerged as a key regulator of neuronal signaling.
The chloride concentration in neurons is in general established by the precise functional expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter one (NKCC1) and the potassium-chloride cotransporter two (KCC2). NKCC1 raises the intracellular chloride concentration, while KCC2 extrudes chloride. The intracellular chloride concentration determines the strength and direction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated transmission. In general, the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons is low and causes GABA-mediated inhibition. However, the intracellular chloride concentration in immature neurons is high leading to GABAergic depolarization, which can cause excitation. The effects of excitatory GABA signaling in early development is still unclear. It has been speculated that excitatory GABA, causing general depolarization in neurons, has profound effects on neuronal activity and neuronal maturation. Therefore, I studied in collaboration with Carsten Pfeffer the development of the ...
By forming signaling complexes through specific interactions with other proteins, G-protein-coupled receptors convert extracellular signals into diverse neuronal responses. In the case of GABABRs, this includes G-proteins that are required for their "classic" signaling, but also interactions with auxiliary proteins that modulate the kinetics of receptor signaling (Schwenk et al., 2010), desensitization (Pontier et al., 2006), subunit dimerization (Couve et al., 2001), and regulate the localization of the receptor or other proteins within cells (White et al., 2000; Boyer et al., 2009). Here we have identified a novel association between the GABABR and the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. This association was discovered in an unbiased screen for proteins present within GABABR complexes at the neuronal membrane, was confirmed by biochemical experiments in hippocampal brain slices and heterologous cells, and was shown to be mediated via the transmembrane region of KCC2. Agonist activation of ...
Sulfate is essential for normal physiology. The kidney plays a major role in sulfate homeostasis. Sulfate is freely filtered and strongly reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The apical membrane Na+-sulfate cotransporter NaS1 (SLC13A1) mediates sulfate (re)absorption across renal proximal tubule and small intestinal epithelia. NaS1 encodes a 595-amino acid (≈66 kDa) protein with 13 putative transmembrane domains. Its substrate preferences are sodium and sulfate, thiosulfate, and selenate, and its activity is inhibited by molybdate, selenate, tungstate, thiosulfate, succinate, and citrate. NaS1 is primarily expressed in the kidney (proximal tubule) and intestine (duodenum to colon). NaS1 expression is down-regulated in the renal cortex by high sulfate diet, hypothyroidism, vitamin D depletion, glucocorticoids, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and NSAIDs and up-regulated by low sulfate diet, thyroid hormone, vitamin D supplementation, growth hormone, chronic renal failure, and during post-natal ...
Methods-Rats were randomized as follows: control (n=15), SHAM (n=9), middle cerebral artery occlusion (n=13), middle cerebral artery occlusion at day 1 (n=7), MOD (n=13), and HIT (n=13). Incremental tests were performed at day 1 (D1) and 14 (D14) to identify the running speed associated with the lactate threshold (SLT) and the maximal speed (Smax). Functional tests were performed at D1, D7, and D14. Microglia form, cytokines, p75NTR (pan-neurotrophin receptor p75), potassium-chloride cotransporter type 2, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter type 1 expression were made at D15. ...
Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 115 verschiedene SLC12A5 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
The understanding of the mechanisms through which NIS expression is repressed in thyroid tumors is of importance because it could open new possibilities of improvement of 131 Iodide delivery to tumors with low or no radioiodide uptake activity. It is now well documented that NIS expression is primarily regulated at the level of transcription. The mechanisms of regulation operating on the transcription of the NIS gene are likely more complex than those governing transcription of other thyroid-specific genes (Tg, TPO, -). Factors interacting directly or indirectly with the most important regulatory region of the NIS gene named NUE (for NIS Upstream Enhancer) are only partially known. Pax-8 is probably the crucial regulatory factor that binds to NUE but its expression and function does not seem to be altered in thyroid carcinomas. The present article examines the involvement of two candidate proteins known to down regulate NIS expression: PTTG and PBF.. PTTG, initially found expressed in pituitary ...
April 20, 2017. Its a cruel conundrum: States that could use drugs to save lives are instead using them to kill. In the…. Read more ...
Members of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) family are responsible for transporting small peptides across the cell membrane. The mammalian PepT1 and PepT2 transporters play a key role in this process for dietary peptide uptake in the small intestine and peptide retention in kidney, respectively, and are capable of recognizing and transporting a diverse library (~8000 combinations) of di- and tri-peptides. Recently, PepT1 has also been shown to transport drugs with peptide-like structures, such as β-lactam antibiotics. This makes PepT1 and PepT2 attractive targets to improve drug uptake and bioavailability within the body.. My work focuses on the functional dynamics of PepTso, a bacterial homologue of PepT1. Given the high substrate promiscuity of these peptide transporters, the binding site must be incredibly accommodating and flexible in order to recognize and transport various substrates. Using solid-state NMR, electron spin resonance, and other biophysical techniques, I will ...
Natrium Iodide Symporter is a plasma membrane glycoprotein. It transports two ions of sodium (Na+) and one of iodide (I-) and maintained by Na+/K+ ATPase [1], [2], [3]. In thyroid cells, NIS plays a pivotal role to accumulate iodine. Additionally, NIS is also expressed in breast cancer tissue and has been considered as a potential target for radioiodine therapy. However, NIS expression in breast cancer tissues had been reported to be varied between studies.. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of NIS expression in breast cancer remains unclear [4]. Interestingly, it has been reported that NIS is highly expressed in invasive breast cancer tissues. A study by Tazebay et al. reported that indeed, there is a correlation between NIS expression and malignant transformation of human breast tissue [5], [6].. Other than the variation of NIS expression level between molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the location of NIS expression is another factor that may influence the uptake of radioiodine by breast ...
Natrium Iodide Symporter is a plasma membrane glycoprotein. It transports two ions of sodium (Na+) and one of iodide (I-) and maintained by Na+/K+ ATPase [1], [2], [3]. In thyroid cells, NIS plays a pivotal role to accumulate iodine. Additionally, NIS is also expressed in breast cancer tissue and has been considered as a potential target for radioiodine therapy. However, NIS expression in breast cancer tissues had been reported to be varied between studies.. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of NIS expression in breast cancer remains unclear [4]. Interestingly, it has been reported that NIS is highly expressed in invasive breast cancer tissues. A study by Tazebay et al. reported that indeed, there is a correlation between NIS expression and malignant transformation of human breast tissue [5], [6].. Other than the variation of NIS expression level between molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the location of NIS expression is another factor that may influence the uptake of radioiodine by breast ...
Tracking dendritic cell migration into lymph nodes by using a novel PET probe 18F-tetrafluoroborate for sodium-iodide symporter. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
First, a number of transcripts had distinct transcriptional activity between the two lines of mice at all time points. For example, FVB mice had consistently four- to eight-fold higher expression of the adenosine A2B receptor gene (Adora2b).. Second, a group of genes, although consistently overexpressed in FVB mice compared to SW mice, also exhibited different expression as a function of time during infection. The Sorting nexin gene (Snx6; overexpressed in FVB mice by 16- to 31-fold compared with SW mice) had increased expression at 4 dpi by approximately 2-fold in both lines of mice. However, at 9 dpi, expression of Snx6 remained elevated in FVB mice, but returned to normal in SW mice. Another example was proton-dependent high affinity oligopeptide transporter Pept2 (Slc15a2), which was overexpressed in FVB mice by 15- to 51-fold. Slc15a2 was upregulated in infected SW mice by 2-fold at 4 dpi and downregulated by 4-fold at 9 dpi, whereas in infected FVB mice its expression decreased by 11-fold ...
Plasmid KCC4_HUMAN_D0 from Dr. John Choderas lab contains the insert KCC4 and is published in Biochemistry. 2018 Jul 13. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b01081. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsUnknown substrateMFS transporter, metabolite:H+ symporter (MHS) family protein (TIGR00883; HMM-score: 13.5) ...
KCC2兔多克隆抗体(ab99129)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
KCC2兔多克隆抗体(ab49917)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 鸡, 狗样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用并得到4个独立的用户反馈。
Human SMVT protein is glycosylated, and that glycosylation is important for its function. The study also shows a role for the putative PKC-phosphorylation site Thr(286) of hSMVT in the PKC-mediated regulation of biotin uptake ...
Genes encoding for intracellular enzymes or transmembrane proteins are suitable as reporters, but may differ in terms of applicability for cardiac imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the hum
TY - JOUR. T1 - FTF and LRH-1, two related but different transcription factors in human Caco-2 cells. T2 - Their different roles in the regulation of bile acid transport. AU - Pan, Debra H.. AU - Chen, Frank. AU - Neimark, Ezequiel. AU - Li, Xiaoping. AU - Shneider, Benjamin L.. PY - 2005/12/30. Y1 - 2005/12/30. N2 - The apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mediates ileal bile acid reabsorption. The transcription factors, liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1:mouse) and fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF:human), are presumably orthologues. Bile-acid induced negative feedback regulation of mouse (m) and human (h) ASBT occurs via LRH-1 and RAR/RXR, respectively. hASBT has a potential FTF cis-element, although its functional role is unknown. hASBT and mASBT promoter constructs and an FTF cis-element mutated hASBT (hASBT/FTFμ) were assessed in human Caco-2 cells treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and/or co-transfected with hFTF, mLRH-1, or specific small interfering FTF or ...
Animal studies allow for greater understanding of kinetics because more tissues can be sampled and environmental and genetic cialis 20mg factors can be controlled. Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is responsible for the absorption of bile acids from the intestine. Poly-L-arginine (10(-11) to 10(-7) M) induced concentration-dependent endothelium-dependent relaxation in segments of canine coronary arteries incubated with indomethacin.. Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the nervous buy cialis system and its activated receptors possess excitatory and inhibitory forms in muscle fibers of invertebrates. Although many small-molecule HDM2 inhibitors have shown potent in vitro activity, only a limited number of compounds have displayed acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for in vivo evaluation.. Widely known as a severe pathogen of bean plants, the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) has been reported to infect soybeans only sporadically and the involved strains were all found in ...
Cell-attached and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done at 32°C from visually identified CA1 pyramidal neurons using an EPC 10 amplifier and Pulse software (HEKA). Patch pipettes were fabricated from borosilicate glass (Harvard Apparatus), and their resistance ranged from 4.5 to 6.5 MΩ. The pipette solution consisted of (in mm): 30 N-methyl-d-glucamine-HCl, 95 K-gluconate, 1 EGTA, 5 HEPES, 10 d-glucose, 2 Mg-ATP, 20 sucrose, 0.1 Alexa Fluor 488, 2 NaOH, and 5.4 KOH, pH 7.3. For recordings, slices were positioned in a submerged-type recording chamber and continuously perfused at a rate of 3.5 ml/min with extracellular solution containing (in mm): 124 NaCl, 3.5 KCl, 2 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 1.1 NaH2PO4, 2 MgSO4, and 10 d-glucose, equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7.4. Membrane potential values were corrected for calculated liquid junction potentials (Barry, 1994). Interictal-like activity was induced by omitting Mg2+ from the extracellular solution after recovery and during the recordings ...
The following proteins are candidates for maintaining biotin homeostasis in humans: the biotin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) and monocarboxylate transporter 1, the biotinyl-protein ligase holocarboxylase synthetase (HC
A Phase 2 Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Dose-finding Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Volixibat Potassium, an Apical Sodium-Dependent Bile Acid Transporter Inhibitor (ASBTi) in Adults with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
假阳性131I摄取在胸腺的发生率较低,主要表现为纵隔部位弥漫性、哑铃状或箭头状放射性摄取;131I SPECT/CT融合显像提示浓聚灶的位置位于胸腺;CT以胸腺增大为主要表现。特点:蓄积部位在纵隔;多数系在服用治疗剂量131I后出现;随治疗次数的增加胸腺蓄积也越明显。这与纵隔转移灶不同,纵隔转移灶随治疗次数的增加,病变部位摄取131I的能力逐渐减低[6]。131I在胸腺浓聚的生理机制:有研究者认为,在细胞水平上,131I能积聚于胸腺小体(Hassall小体)退化所形成的滤泡样结构中[7],这点已被放射自显影技术证实;在分子水平上,发现胸腺组织中有与NIS蛋白相似的人钠碘共聚体(human sodium iodide symporter,hNIS)蛋白,只是hNIS对131I的亲和力较低,所以胸腺摄取往往发生在131I治疗后全身显像后3 ...
Aim: We assessed the feasibility and usefulness of reporter gene imaging for PET and iron labeling for MRI to monitor transplanted cells.. Methods and results: Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were transduced with both human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene using a retroviral vector and labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxides. Nude rats received an intramyocardial injection of 4 million EPC (control:n =6, labeled:n = 10). MRI and I-124 PET were performed at day1 (n = 10), 3 (4) and 7 (7) after cell transplantation. The cell injection site was visualized as a signal void by MRI and a focal I-124 accumulation by PET at day1. The normalized signal contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio; CNR) (0.8 ± 0.2 vs -0.3 ± 0.1, p,0.001) and percentage of tracer injected dose by PET (4.1 ± 1.0 vs -0.2 ± 0.4, p,0.001) were significantly higher in labeled than in non-labeled EPC. CNR remained unchanged at day3 (3.9+/-0.6) and day7 (4.4 ± 1.3). In contrast, I-124 uptake disappeared at 3d (0.42 ± ...
Intestinal protein digestion generates a massive variety and quantity of short chain peptides that are later absorbed into small intestinal epithelial cells by the di/tri-peptide transporter (PEPT1) on the apical membrane of enterocytes. PEPT1 functions as an electrogenic proton/peptide symporter with the ability to transport most di- and tripeptide arising from food digestion. It also has significance in its ability to transport pharmacologically active drugs. Due to its uniquely broad substrate specificity and high capacity, hPEPT1 has been suggested to be relevant drug targets at the level of drug transport. Substrate docking studies to identify specific interactions between the substrate and transporter would be facilitated by crystallization of hPEPT1; however, crystallization of hPEPT1 protein is currently unapproachable due to the size of the protein and the requirement of a lipid membrane to retain tertiary. My research built on the rudimentary computer model of hPEPT1 generated by Dr. ...
NIS is up-regulated in breast cancer and attention has recently focused on the potential application of radioiodine in the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer. Several studies have detected NIS immunohistochemically in 30-90% of primary and metastatic breast carcinomas, with variable degrees of intracellular and plasma membrane staining (Tazebay et al, 2000; Wapnir et al, 2003; Wapnir et al., 2004; Beyer et al., 2008; Renier et al., 2009). Estimates of NIS expression in breast cancer, however, may be overestimated due to non-specific binding of some anti-NIS antibodies resulting in a diffuse intracellular staining. One study failed to detect significant NIS immunostaining in 30 cases of primary breast cancer (Peyrottes et al., 2009). In vivo scintigraphic imaging detected 123I or 99mTcO4 uptake in up to 25% of NIS-expressing breast tumors, suggesting that the expression of functional NIS in breast cancer is low (Moon et al., 2001; Wapnir et al., 2004). Current research is aimed at identifying ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
integral component of plasma membrane, oligopeptide transporter activity, transmembrane transporter activity, oligopeptide transport
The SLC12A6 gene provides instructions for making a protein called a K-Cl cotransporter. This protein is involved in moving charged atoms (ions) of potassium (K) and chlorine (Cl) across the cell membrane. The positively charged potassium ions and negatively charged chlorine ions are moved together (cotransported), so that the charges inside and outside the cell membrane are unchanged (electroneutral).. Electroneutral cotransport of ions across cell membranes is involved in many functions of the body. While the specific function of the K-Cl cotransporter produced from the SLC12A6 gene is unknown, it seems to be critical for the development and maintenance of nerve tissue. It may be involved in regulating the amounts of potassium, chlorine, or water in cells and intercellular spaces. The K-Cl cotransporter protein may also help regulate the activity of other proteins that are sensitive to ion concentrations. ...
Lactic acid and pyruvate transport across plasma membranes is catalyzed by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family, which has been designated solute carrier family-16. Each MCT appears to have slightly different substrate and inhibitor specificities and transport kinetics, which are related to the metabolic requirements of the tissues in which it is found. The MCTs, which include MCT1 (SLC16A1; MIM 600682) and MCT2 (SLC16A7; MIM 603654), are characterized by 12 predicted transmembrane domains (Price et al., 1998 [PubMed 9425115]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
1. We report observations on transport of the hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide glycylsarcosine by rings of everted hamster jejunum in vitro in the presence and absence of Na+, using several substituents for Na+: Li+, K+, Cs+, Tris, choline and mannitol.. 2. At most concentrations, mediated influx of glycylsarcosine was depressed by Li+, K+, Cs+ and Tris, though not abolished. At high concentrations, it was moderately increased by choline and mannitol. Under conditions in which the tissue could concentrate the peptide in the presence of Na+, uptake was greatly depressed by all the substituents and the ability to concentrate was abolished.. 3. The Kt of mediated influx was affected in different ways according to the substituent used. Kt was reduced by Li+ replacement of Na+ and increased by choline replacement. Vmax. was greatly reduced by all metallic substituents but not by non-metallic substituents.. 4. Though the results cannot yet be satisfactorily interpreted, they suggest possible reasons for ...
... transporters in charge of bulk uptake of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides an essential process employed across species ranging from bacteria to humans. crystal structure of the peptide transporter PepTso identifies Glu56 and Arg305 as potential periplasmic gating residues. In addition to providing new insights into transport by users of the PTR family these mutants provide valuable tools for further study of the mechanism of peptide transport. PTR protein YdgR also called DtpA is one of the few prokaryotic PTR users to have been characterized and shows substrate selectivity comparable to that of PEPT1 (13 14 Recently the crystal structure of another prokaryotic PTR family member from gene was amplified from genomic DNA and cloned into the pCS19 vector (kind gift from Michael Ehrmann (19)) using the NcoI and BglII restriction sites. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed as explained in Ref. 20. ...
Smith, Neil C. E., and Roberto Levi. "LLC-PK1 Cells Stably Expressing the Human Norepinephrine Transporter: A Functional Model of Carrier-Mediated Norepinephrine Release in Protracted Myocardial Ischemia ." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 291.2 (1999): 456-463. Web. 12 Dec. 2019. ...
Peptide Transporter 1, 978-613-8-76321-5, Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT 1) also known as solute carrier family 15 member 1 (SLC15A1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by SLC15A1 gene.SLC15A1is localized to the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium and mediates the uptake of di- and tripeptides from the lumen into the enterocytes. This protein plays an important role in the uptake and digestion of dietary proteins. This protein also facilitates the absorption of numerous peptidomimetic drugs.
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate (By similarity ...
AR-C155858 is a potent inhibitor of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 that binds to an intracellular site involving transmembrane helices 7-10.
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ulrike Lingner, Steffen Münch, Björn Sode, Holger B Deising, Norbert Sauer].
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Lenti ORF particles, SCN3B (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human sodium channel, voltage-gated, type III, beta (SCN3B), transcript variant 2 , 200ul, >10^7 TU/mL ...
Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: glucose + H+ = glucose + H+. This activity is constitutive and therefore always present, regardless of demand. Symporter activity enables …
Has anyone attended KCCs LPN to RN program? Or anyone planning to apply? I am an LPN looking to get my RN. Just wanted to see everyones stats and how competitive it is to get into that specific program.
The ability of the cell to tightly regulate the temporal and spatial movement of molecules across membranes is central to its survival. This movement has to be...