Exposure to maternal obesity or a maternal diet rich in fat during development may have adverse outcomes in offspring, such as the development of obesity and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (m-HFD) on offspring blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, responses to stress, and sensitivity to central administration of leptin and ghrelin. Offspring of New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13% HFD were slightly heavier than offspring from mothers fed a 4% maternal normal fat diet (P,0.05) but had 64% greater fat pad mass (P=0.015). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity at 4 months of age were 7%, 7%, and 24% greater, respectively (P,0.001), in m-HFD compared with maternal normal fat diet rabbits, and the renal sympathetic nerve activity response to airjet stress was enhanced in the m-HFD group. m-HFD offspring had markedly elevated pressor and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular ...
Backgrounds: Efferent sympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic renal failure possibly through the mechanisms of excitatory sympathetic afferents from the damaged kidney. We examined whether renal insufficiency (RI) contributes to elevated sympathetic activity in patients with heart failure.. Methods: We determined resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 87 patients with heart failure (ejection fraction (EF) , 0.45). Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) , 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were determined using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to identify RI.. Results: Forty-three percent of the patients had RI (n=37). Mean age, gender and body mass index did not significantly differ between the RI group and no RI one. However, specific activity scale and ejection fraction were lower, usages of diuretics, beta-blockers and statins were more frequent among RI group compared with no RI one. MSNA values were significantly higher in RI group (burst ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Both central command and exercise pressor reflex activate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in decerebrate cats. AU - Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu. AU - Hayes, Shawn G.. AU - McCord, Jennifer L.. AU - Kaufman, Marc P. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - Both static and dynamic exercise are known to increase cardiac pump function as well as arterial blood pressure. Feedforward control by central command and feedback control by the exercise pressor reflex are thought to be the neural mechanisms causing these effects during exercise. It remains unknown as to how each mechanism activates cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) during exercise, especially at its onset. Thus we examined the response of CSNA to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR, i.e., central command) and to static muscle contraction of the triceps surae muscles or stretch of the calcaneal tendon in decerebrate cats. We found that MLR stimulation immediately increased CSNA, which was followed by a gradual ...
Leptin binds to receptors in multiple hypothalamic nuclei to increase sympathetic nerve activity; however, the neurocircuitry is unclear. Here, using anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, we investigated the role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intracerebroventricular injection of leptin slowly increased lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and baroreflex control of LSNA and heart rate. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus with muscimol completely reversed leptins effects. Blockade of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 or ionotropic glutamate receptors with kynurenate, alone or together, each partially reversed the effects of leptin, implicating increased activation of glutamate and melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Conversely, although blockade of neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus increased LSNA, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, these responses were prevented by ...
We studied the effects of intense sympathetic stimulation on the chronotropic responses of the heart to subsequent test stimulations of the cardiac autonomic nerves in dogs anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Such intense sympathetic stimulations (which we refer to as "release stimulations") are known to release neuropeptide Y as well as norepinephrine. The changes in cardiac cycle length evoked by vagal and sympathetic test stimulations were progressively more attenuated as we increased the frequency and duration of the antecedent sympathetic release stimulations. We found that 2.5 minutes after a maximal release stimulation (30 Hz for 5 minutes), the mean +/- SEM chronotropic responses to the vagal and sympathetic test stimulations were diminished to 36.5 +/- 1.6% and 54.7 +/- 1.3% respectively, of the prestimulation responses. The mean times for the chronotropic responses to the vagal and sympathetic test stimulations to recover to their control values were 52.0 +/- 1.3 and 63.2 +/- 2.9 ...
Intoduction: Sympathetic activation contributes to both the initiation and progression of heart failure. The role of anemia in determining sympathetic overactivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that, in CHF patients, anemia could lead to increased sympathetic activity through tonic activation of excitatory chemoreceptor afferents.. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study to examine the effect of chemoreflex deactivation on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with and without anemia. We compared the effect of breathing 100%; oxygen for 15 minutes in 18 stable CHF patients with anemia and 18 control CHF patients matched for age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index.. Results: Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity was significantly elevated in CHF patients with anemia compared with patients with CHF alone (56.0+/−3.2 versus 45.5+/−3.1 bursts per minute; P,0.0237). Administration of 100%; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic exercise reduces sympathetic nerve activity in rabbits with pacing-induced heart failure. T2 - A role for angiotensin II. AU - Liu, Jun Li. AU - Irvine, Scott. AU - Reid, Ian A.. AU - Patel, Kaushik P. AU - Zucker, Irving H. PY - 2000/10/10. Y1 - 2000/10/10. N2 - Background - Chronic exercise (EX) improves the quality of life and increases the survival of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Because sympathetic nerve activity is elevated in the CHF state, it is possible that EX is beneficial in this disease due to a decrease in sympathetic outflow. Methods and Results - We evaluated arterial baroreflex function and resting renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in EX normal and CHF rabbits before and after angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade. Four groups of rabbits were studied: a normal non-EX group, a normal EX group, a CHF non-EX group, and a CHF EX group. EX lowered resting RSNA in rabbits with CHF but not in normal rabbits. In addition, EX increased ...
The body has defensive responses to correct low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). A vital component of this response is release of glucagon and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which provides the means for raising blood glucose levels towards normal. We can measure circulating hormones indicating the level of these responses, but additionally, sympathetic nervous system responses can be measured directly. We can measure the sympathetic nerve activity that controls blood flow to muscles (MSNA) and blood flow and sweating to skin (SSNA). The purpose of this study is to determine if either hypoglycemia or exercise cause differential responses in muscle and skin sympathetic nerve activity. We would also like to determine what the sympathetic response is to cycling exercise with insulin and normal blood sugar. Therefore, we would like to test the sympathetic responses to insulin with normal blood glucose, hypoglycemia, and during exercise bouts and normal blood glucose, with or without insulin ...
Mechanical and metabolic signals arising during skeletal muscle contraction reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure (i.e., the exercise pressor reflex). In a rat model of simulated peripheral artery disease (PAD) in which a femoral artery is chronically (~72 hours) ligated, the mechanically-sensitive component of the exercise pressor reflex during 1 Hz dynamic contraction is exaggerated compared to that found in normal rats. Whether this is due to an enhanced acute sensitization of mechanoreceptors by metabolites produced during contraction or involves a chronic sensitization of mechanoreceptors is unknown. To investigate this issue, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats we tested the hypothesis that the increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) during 1 Hz dynamic stretch are larger when evoked from a previously "ligated" hindlimb compared to those evoked from the contralateral "freely perfused" hindlimb. Dynamic stretch ...
MURRAY ESLER; Neurochemical quantification of human organ-specific sympathetic nervous system activity. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 November 2000; 99 (5): 349-350. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs0990349. Download citation file:. ...
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
There is strong evidence that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). This elevated risk is independent of standard risk factors such as smoking, obesity, high cholesterol, diabetes, and high blood pressure. The relative risk of developing CHD is proportional to the severity of depression (the more severe the depression, the more likely the development of CHD).. The sympathetic nervous system (the part of your nervous system that makes your heart beat harder and faster) is responsible for our flight and fight response to a threatening situation. It has been determined that increased sympathetic nervous system activation occurs in approximately one in three untreated patients with MDD (with no underlying CHD). There is growing evidence linking elevated sympathetic activity to early stages of kidney dysfunction and an increased incidence of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease development (eg, heart attacks). ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the development of obesity and is a significant contributor to chronic liver, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently shown that hepatic sympathetic nerve activity is significantly elevated in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD; 33±2 vs. 63±5 spikes/s, normal chow vs. HFD; p|0.05), although the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to NAFLD pathology remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sympathetic overactivity contributes to NAFLD during diet-induced obesity. Male C57B1/6 mice were fed a HFD (60% fat) or normal chow (5% fat) for 15 weeks. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 150 mg/kg i.p.) was then administered to selectively destroy sympathetic nerves, or vehicle control (n=4/group), and mice were sacrificed 3 days later. 6-OHDA treatment did not influence body weight (e.g. 41±3 vs. 40±2 g; HFD-vehicle vs. HFD-OHDA; p|0.05) or visceral adipose tissue mass in normal chow or HFD fed animals. However, HFD
There is no question that environmental stress and even personal stress can negatively affect the appearance of your skin. The human body is continually making changes to maintain a constant balance inside the body and in relationship to external factors. The catch is that our bodies are having more difficulty adjusting themselves to modern stressors such as those of hypertension, smoking, diabetes, poor nutritional habits, pollution, heavy drinking, insufficient sleep, emotional exhaustion, etc., that can cause continual sympathetic nervous system activation with very little opportunity for the parasympathetic nervous system to activate and cope with the burdens we impose on our body or from demands from our environment ...
The unique osmotic push-pull delivery system of Adalat GITS allows controlled, consistent drug release over 24 hours with once-daily dosing.18-20 Adalat GITS has a superior pharmacokinetic profile compared to generic nifedipine formulations.19-22 In addition, Adalat GITS has a low degree of sympathetic nervous system activation with minimal effects on heart rate while showing similar BP reductions compared to amplodipine.23. ...
1. Local regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in the forearm was studied in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe-washout technique.. 2. Plasma concentrations of noradrenaline and adrenaline were increased on day 1, suggesting an increase in sympathetic neuronal activity, but gradually returned to normal thereafter.. 3. Subcutaneous blood flow on day 1 was far below normal (38%) and steadily increased to reach normal at day 7 after coronary occlusion. The sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity that caused the initial reduction in flow could be blocked by proximal nervous blockade, increasing the subcutaneous blood flow by 130, 63 and 14% on days 1, 3 and 7 respectively after coronary occlusion. A normal response to decrease in arterial perfusion pressure was observed, suggesting that intrinsic vascular reactions responsible for autoregulation of blood flow were not affected by the increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. The vasoconstrictor ...
The increase in total integrated voltage of renal sympathetic nerve activity that occurs with peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (heat) decreases renal blood flow, and the renal vasoconstriction is prevented by prior renal denervation (34). As it was this stimulus that identified a unique subset of single renal sympathetic nerve fibers, we sought to determine quantitative aspects of the renal sympathetic neural discharge seen in multifiber recordings that were produced by peripheral thermal receptor stimulation. Postganglionic multifiber renal sympathetic nerve activity occurs in synchronized sympathetic discharges (bursts, peaks) with distinct coupling to the cardiac cycle. These synchronized renal sympathetic peaks may be characterized by their amplitude, duration, and frequency. Total integrated voltage encompasses the product of voltage under the curve of each peak (governed largely by peak amplitude as peak duration changes little) and peak frequency. Therefore, changes in total ...
Because ANP has an inhibitory effect on sympathetic nerve activity (14), we hypothesized that the indexes of sympathetic nerve activity were different during infusion periods between the two groups. However, there was no difference of plasma norepinephrine or heart rates, which was probably because of the relatively small dose of ANP or GTN and the slight reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure in this study.. In our study, the plasma levels of ALD, Ang II and ET-1 were significantly suppressed in the ANP group compared with the GTN group. Especially, the plasma ALD level was significantly decreased after 1 h and suppressed during the infusion of ANP. Aldosterone levels have been found to be increased in patients with AMI, and aldosterone shows both myocardial and renal effects that may have profound implications for LV remodeling (15,16). We recently reported that plasma ALD is extracted through the heart in patients with heart failure, and that a positive correlation exists between the ...
The effects of a stressful environmental stimulus (air stress) on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and renal function were studied in conscious deoxycorticosterone acetate-sodium chloride (DOCA-NaCl) hypertensive rats, sham DOCA-NaCl normotensive rats, and DOCA-NaCl rats with renal denervation. In conscious DOCA-NaCl hypertensive rats, air stress decreased urine flow rate [36% from 17.9 +/- 3.0 microliter X min-1 X 100 g body wt-1 (BW)], urinary sodium excretion (39% from 3.1 +/- 0.5 microeq X min-1 X 100 g BW-1), fractional water excretion (24% from 4.72 +/- 1.00%), and fractional sodium excretion (28% from 5.72 +/- 1.08%) and increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (94% from 8.3 +/- 0.6 integrator resets/min), but no changes occurred in glomerular filtration rate (-15% from 0.40 +/- 0.06 ml X min-1 X 100 g BW-1) or effective renal plasma flow (-7% from 2.50 +/- 0.53 ml X min-1 X 100 g BW-1). Air stress had no effect on these measures in conscious sham ...
The important demonstration here is that the efficiency of fat deposition, and not total body fat or elevated circulating FFAs, is the primary predictor of plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio after the glucose load. Because (as discussed above) the higher energetic efficiencies (hence the rate) of fat deposition in RF groups is the result of suppressed thermogenesis, the implication of these findings is that the suppression of thermogenesis favoring catch-up fat, rather than total body fat or elevated circulating FFAs, is the prime early determinant of the hyperinsulinemic and insulin-resistant state of catch-up growth.. The other neurohormonal systems that are implicated in the regulation of catch-up fat are still unclear. A role for diminished sympathetic nervous system activity in the suppression of thermogenesis during refeeding is, however, unlikely. This is because the well-known reduction in sympathetic nervous system activity during starvation is rapidly restored to fed levels ...
Briant, L. J. B., Zhang, Q., Vergari, E., Kellard, J. A., Rodriguez, B., Ashcroft, F. M. and Rorsman, P. (2017). Functional identification of islet cell types by electrophysiological fingerprinting. J. R. Soc. Interface, 2017 14. Briant, L. J. B., OCallaghan, E. L., Champneys, A. R., and Paton, J. F. (2015). Respiratory modulated sympathetic activity: a putative mechanism for developing vascular resistance? J. Physiol. (Lond.), 593(24):5341-5360. Briant, L. J. B., Paton, J. F., Pickering, A. E., and Champneys, A. R. (2015). Modelling the vascular response to sympathetic postganglionic nerve activity. J. Theor. Biol., 371:102-116. Briant, L. J. B., Stalbovskiy, A. O., Nolan, M. F., Champneys, A. R., and Pickering, A. E. (2014). Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats. J. Neurophysiol., 112(11):2756-2778. ...
Objective: To investigate the causes of Peripheral Sympathetic Nerve Dysfunction in girls immunized with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.
BACKGROUND: The adipose afferent reflex (AAR), a sympatho-excitatory reflex, can promote the elevation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP). Inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) involves sympathetic abnormality in some cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. This study was designed to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the PVN on the AAR and SNA in rats with obesity-related hypertension (OH) induced by a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. METHODS: Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were continuously recorded in anesthetized rats, and their responses to capsaicin (CAP) stimulation of the right inguinal white adipose tissue were used to evaluate the AAR. RESULTS: Compared to the control rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma norepinephrine (NE, indicating SNA) and TNFα levels, TNFα mRNA and protein levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and NADPH oxidase activity in the PVN were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A heart-brain-kidney network controls adaptation to cardiac stress through tissue macrophage activation. AU - Fujiu, Katsuhito. AU - Shibata, Munehiko. AU - Nakayama, Yukiteru. AU - Ogata, Fusa. AU - Matsumoto, Sahohime. AU - Noshita, Koji. AU - Iwami, Shingo. AU - Nakae, Susumu. AU - Komuro, Issei. AU - Nagai, Ryozo. AU - Manabe, Ichiro. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by insufficient cardiac function. In addition to abnormalities intrinsic to the heart, dysfunction of other organs and dysregulation of systemic factors greatly affect the development and consequences of heart failure. Here we show that the heart and kidneys function cooperatively in generating an adaptive response to cardiac pressure overload. In mice subjected to pressure overload in the heart, sympathetic nerve activation led to activation of renal collecting-duct (CD) epithelial cells. Cell-cell interactions among activated CD cells, tissue ...
The primary novel finding of the present study is that sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone of the lower limb (i.e., leg) is augmented in old compared with young women. Specifically, young women exhibit no detectable sympathetic vasoconstriction in their leg vasculature at rest. Conversely, there appears to be robust vasoconstriction in the resting lower limbs of older women. Collectively, these findings suggest that with advanced age there is an "emergence" of a sympathetic neural influence on leg vascular tone in women. These conclusions are based on the observation that acute sympathetic inhibition via carotid artery baroreceptor loading increased femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC; Fig. 1) ~21% in old women, whereas FVC was unchanged in the younger women with the same intervention.. It is well established that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is augmented with age in women (Ng et al. 1993; Matsukawa et al. 1998; Moreau et al. 2003; Narkiewicz et al. 2005; Hart et al. 2011; Barnes ...
This study is investigating the effect of Azilsartan on sympathetic nerve activity in sleep disordered breathing with hypertension.
冠動脈疾患患者の交感神経活動におよぼす喫煙の影響 Effects of cigarette smoking on sympathetic nerve activity in patients with coronary artery disease. ...
A part of our nervous system called the autonomic nervous system is devoted to automatic reactions or involuntary things like breathing, sweating, and sleeping. Within the autonomic nervous system, there are two opposing sub-systems that work together: sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic nervous system has many roles, one of which is kicking us into gear when our brain perceives something dangerous or stressful. A series of chemical reactions occur, which prepare the body for action. Involuntary reactions occur including increased blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils and increased energy. This reaction is commonly referred to as the fight or flight response. The response is the body s way of preparing for an effective and immediate response.. ...
... - the division of the nervous system responsible for non-voluntary functions, such as circulation, respiration, digestion. There is no
The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the human body and examines how it can be easily upset by high levels of stress, lack of exercise and poor diet
Enhanced sympathetic activity at the ventricular myocardium can destabilize repolarization, increasing the risk of death. Sympathetic activity is known to cluster in low-frequency bursts; therefore, we hypothesized that sympathetic activity induces periodic low-frequency changes of repolarization. We developed a technique to assess the sympathetic effect on repolarization and identified periodic components in the low-frequency spectral range (≤0.1 Hz), which we termed periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD). ...
As a prototypical member of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) plays a central role in sympathetic regulation of cardiac function.1,2 Stimulation of βAR by catecholamines induces robust chronotropic, inotropic, and relaxant effects via the Gs-adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway.3,4 This signaling pathway is also thought to be responsible for other functions of βAR, such as regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell growth, and apoptosis.2 However, sustained βAR activation under pathological conditions such as hypertension and congestive heart failure will result in downregulation and desensitization of βAR attributable to the negative feedback of this pathway.5-7. Recent studies have revealed unanticipated complexity of βAR signal transduction. For β2AR subtype stimulation in the heart, a parallel activation of Gi protein counterbalances Gs-mediated contractile response. Whereas β1AR stimulated contractile response is ...
金 秀吉 , 河南 洋 , 林田 嘉朗 , 中村 正 , 東野 英明 , 山下 博 産業医科大学雑誌 11, 361-370, 1989 医中誌Web 被引用文献1件 ...
... The sympathetic nervous system extends from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and has connections with the
There may be some truth in the saying no pain, no gain. Pain is a friendly signal alerting us that something is dangerous or abnormal. Pain is not a disease but a symptom.
Can you name the Sympathetic Innervations of the Abdomen? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ezhang
Leptins are thought to increase the sympathetic nervous activity and can lead to hypertension. This study looked at leptin levels as a function of HRV, HR and blood pressure
Hey first of all just want to say that Im new to the site, so Hi. Anyway, I have a question (which Im posting in the neck/spine are also just in case Ive got the wrong forum) which relates to ner...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
The Premium Package includes all the benefits of the Deluxe Package plus your choice of a voucher with five RSNA Bistro tickets, a 25% discount on RSNA Shop purchases, priority taxi boarding and more or a six-month trial RSNA Membership (if eligible), which includes:. ...
The profound reduction in heart rate variability (HRV) that occurs during exercise is thought to be, at least in part, the result of sympathetic nervous system activation. Moxonidine is a centrally acting anti-sympathetic drug, which suppresses sympathetic nervous system outflow by stimulation of central imidazoline receptors located in the rostral ventro-lateral medulla. This study was designed to investigate the combined effects of central sympathetic inhibition with moxonidine and steady-state dynamic exercise on HRV. Ten normal males participated in a double-blind cross-over study, taking either placebo or 0·4 mg of moxonidine. The subjects were studied at rest and during steady-state exercise. HRV was measured considering both time and frequency domain parameters. As a non-linear measure, the Poincaré scatter-plot was measured and analysed quantitatively. Ventilation and gas exchange were also measured during exercise. In addition, plasma catecholamines were measured at rest and during ...
Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity is a complex process under the best of conditions in human patients, and further complicated in disease states. In our podcast about the work by Limberg et al, Associate Editor Dr. Irving Zucker interviews lead author Jerome Dempsey (University of Wisconsin - Madison) and expert Harold Schultz (University of Nebraska Medical Center) to dig deeper into the question: Does breathing have the same marked modulatory effect on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in steady state activity - bursts per minute - as it does within the breath itself? Using previous studies with inconsistent results as a springboard for their own research, Dempsey and colleagues studied MSNA in human patients within breath and at steady state. What were their results? Listen in and find out. Jacqueline K. Limberg, Barbara J. Morgan, William G. Schrage, and Jerome A. Dempsey Respiratory influences on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and vascular conductance in the steady state Am ...
Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity is a complex process under the best of conditions in human patients, and further complicated in disease states. In our podcast about the work by Limberg et al, Associate Editor Dr. Irving Zucker interviews lead author Jerome Dempsey (University of Wisconsin - Madison) and expert Harold Schultz (University of Nebraska Medical Center) to dig deeper into the question: Does breathing have the same marked modulatory effect on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in steady state activity - bursts per minute - as it does within the breath itself? Using previous studies with inconsistent results as a springboard for their own research, Dempsey and colleagues studied MSNA in human patients within breath and at steady state. What were their results? Listen in and find out. Jacqueline K. Limberg, Barbara J. Morgan, William G. Schrage, and Jerome A. Dempsey Respiratory influences on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and vascular conductance in the steady state Am ...
Posted on May 11, 2015 By Ilia Elenkov Neuroendocrine Immunology News. A recent study published in Hypertension demonstrates that cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α acting at the level of the subfornical organ induce the expression of inflammatory and excitatory mediators that subsequently drive sympathetic nervous system activation. The subfornical organ (SFO), a highly vascularized structure is a circumventricular organ that lacks […] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fish oil and neurovascular control in humans. AU - Carter, Jason R.. AU - Schwartz, Christopher E.. AU - Yang, Huan. AU - Joyner, Michael Joseph. PY - 2012/8/15. Y1 - 2012/8/15. N2 - The antihypertensive influence of fish oil is controversial, and the mechanisms remain unclear. Because the inverse relation between fish oil and hypertension appears to be partially dependent on the degree of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that fish oil would elicit more dramatic reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in prehypertensive (PHT) compared with normotensive (NT) subjects. Resting MAP, MSNA, and heart rate (HR) were examined before and after 8 wk of fish oil (9 g/day; 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive oil; 9 g/day) in 38 NT (19 fish oil; 19 placebo) and 29 PHT (15 fish oil; 14 placebo) volunteers. Fish oil did not alter resting MAP, MSNA, or HR in either NT (80 ± 1 to 80± 1 mmHg; 11 ± 2 ...
This can temporarily relieve symptoms, and sometimes relieve them long term. A sympathetic nerve block involves injecting this material around the sympathetic nerves.. If the initial block is successful in relieving pain for longer than the duration of the local anaesthetic (which generally helps for only a few hours), then additional blocks may be repeated in 7 -14 days, and again later if there is some success.. Sympathetic nerve blocks are designed to produce temporary or permanent interruption of activity in the sympathetic nervous system, particularly the efferent sympathetic pathways (efferent nerves transmit information from the central nervous system out to the muscles or glands). In some cases, blocks can temporarily or permanently interrupt activity of the accompanying afferent nerves (the nerves that carry information from the nerve receptors into the brain or spinal cord).. Alteration in sympathetic nervous system activity can be associated with, or be a cause of pain. Its often ...
Dr. Knights research program aims to investigate biological risk and interventions - both pharmacologic and behavioral - for social health disparities in cancer, specifically among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) and cellular therapy recipients. Our lab does this by investigating how variations in immune function based on socioeconomic status (SES) - among other social health variables including depression, stress, sleep quality, and anxiety - contribute to differential patient responses and outcomes following HCT and cellular therapy. Reciprocally, we also investigate how these cancer therapies affect central nervous system function.. To accomplish these goals, we study biobehavioral mechanisms of cancer progression. Candidate mechanisms include the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) transcriptome profile and associated molecular changes, inflammation, sympathetic nervous system activation, neurotoxic metabolites, and the endocannabinoid system, among others. These ...
In the present study, we attempted to unravel the physiological implications of circadian oscillators in response to sympathetic nervous system activation in osteoblasts. Our results suggest that β-AR signaling increases the expression of Nfil3 and, consequently, its binding to the Ptgs2 promoter, which in turn inhibits Ptgs2 expression in osteoblasts (supplementary material Fig. S2).. Recent studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that treatments with Iso or Dex induce circadian expression of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Per3 and Bmal1 in human osteoblasts. On the one hand, Iso induced oscillations in the osteoblast-related gene Col1a1, but not in ALP or osteocalcin (Komoto et al., 2012). On the other hand, we did not observe any significant effects of Iso in osteoclasts, which indicates that Dex rather than Iso signaling governs the transcriptional rhythmicity of the molecular clock in osteoclasts (Fujihara et al., 2014). These findings suggest that the Iso-mediated effects on Per2 ...
To verify response mechanisms and the feasibility of clinical models of pain research, the effect of laser phototherapy on neurophysiological pain mechanisms needs to be determined first in the absence of pathology. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated measures study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) following laser irradiation. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in a study that consisted of 5 treatments to the right posterior neck region at a dose of 4.0 J/cm2, using 820 nm laser. Each subject received active laser, placebo laser and a control condition over a three-day period, with a minimum of one day between sessions. Heart rate, blood pressure, bilateral skin temperature and skin conductance were measured distally. Results indicated that there was no alteration in sympathetic outflow, with no change in any of the outcome variables. It was concluded that in the laser phototherapy strategy used in this study, ...