TY - JOUR. T1 - Jig prototype for computer-assisted total knee replacement and its flow simulation. AU - Sulong, Abu Bakar. AU - Arifin, Amir. AU - Harun, Zambri. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - This paper discusses the design and development of a prototype of a knee surgery cutting jig, the jig holder, and the jig injection mold by Rapid Prototyping (RP). The aim of this study is to design a jig and a jig holder that allow surgeons to correctly, precisely, and consistently perform knee replacement surgery. The design concept for the surgery jig and jig holder was selected using the Pugh method with medical-grade 316L stainless steel for material fabrication. A rapid prototype model was built directly from its CAD model in stereo lithography (STL) format by using the Fused Deposition Method (FDM). MasterCAM and Moldflow simulation were performed to generated G-codes and a possibility of jig fabrication using Metal Injection Molding (MIM), respectively. The Moldflow result provided an enhanced ...
ResearchMoz presents professional and in-depth study of "Global Surgical Navigation Systems Sales Market Report 2017".In this report, the global Surgical Navigation Systems market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.Geographically, this report split global into several key Regions, with sales (K Units), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of Surgical Navigation Systems for these...
The scope of this report is broad and covers different types of surgical navigation systems applications in different kinds of treatment. The market is broken down by types of surgical navigation systems, applications, end user and regional markets. Revenue forecasts from 2016 to 2021 are given for each major type of surgical navigation system, application, end user and regional market, and the estimated values are derived from the manufacturers total revenues.. The report also includes a discussion of the major players across each of the regional surgical navigation systems markets; it explains the major market drivers of the global surgical navigation systems industry, current trends within the industry, major applications and the regional dynamics of the global surgical navigation systems market.. The report concludes with a special focus on the vendor landscape, which includes detailed profiles of the major vendors in the global surgical navigation systems industry.. ...
Introduction: Diagnosis and Therapy - History, Current Status and Future Direction. Imaging Modalities - Body Imaging. Ultrasound. MRI. CT. Optics. PET/SPECT. Advanced Cardiac Imaging. Interventional Therapy Modalities - Cut and Paste: Scalpels and Sutures. Minimally-Invasive Surgery. X-Rays and Radiation. Radio Frequency Ablation. Microwave Ablation. Laser. Cryotherapy. Gamma Knife. Drug Delivery and Thrombolysis. Hyperthermia. Image-Guided Therapy - Percutaneous Aspirations, Biopsies and Nerve Blocks. Enoscopic, Catheterization and Biopsy Procedures. 3D Visualization, Stereotactic Methods, and Neurosurgery. Automation and Robotics. Modeling of Image-Guided Therapy. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound. Practical Considerations of Image-Guided Therapy - Clinical Perspectives on Image-Guided Therapy. Real Market of Image-Guided Therapy.; To view complete TOC:; Click Google Preview button under book title above, then click on Contents tab.; ...
Augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation systems based on image overlay have been used in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). However, conventional systems still suffer from a limited viewing zone, a shortage of intuitive three-dimensional (3D) image guidance and cant be moved freely. To fuse the 3D overlay image with the patient in situ, it is essential to track the overlay device while it is moving. A direct line-of-sight should be maintained between the optical markers and the tracker camera. We propose a moving-tolerant AR surgical navigation system using autostereoscopic image overlay, which can avoid the use of the optical tracking system during the intraoperative period. The system captures binocular image sequences of environmental change in the operation room to locate the overlay device, rather than tracking the overlay device directly. Therefore, it is no longer required to maintain a direct line-of-sight between the tracker and the tracked devices. The movable range of the system is ...
Global Surgical Navigation Systems Market 2019 Report provides main statistics connected to the overall market and price forecast over a period, from 2019 to 2028. This research report studies surgical navigation systems market definition, types, applications latest trends to identify the revenues and the progress...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-dimensional digital ultrasound imaging system for surgical navigation. AU - Sakuma, Ichiro. AU - Tanaka, Yasuyoshi. AU - Takai, Yuichi. AU - Kobayashi, Etsuko. AU - Dohi, Takeyoshi. AU - Schorr, Oliver. AU - Hata, Nobuhiko. AU - Iseki, Hiroshi. AU - Muragaki, Yoshihiro. AU - Hori, Tomokatsu. AU - Takakura, Kintomo. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - A new three-dimensional (3D) digital ultrasound imaging system for surgical navigation was developed. The system could obtain 3D data within 12 s and show the data about 40 s. Volume rendering of the 3D data could be possible in a practically short time by introducing the volume rendering graphics accelerator. We applied the system in two clinical cases. The system can also register the obtained image to the other 3D data such as MRI and X-ray CT data by incorporating 3D position tracking system on its ultrasound probe.. AB - A new three-dimensional (3D) digital ultrasound imaging system for surgical navigation was developed. ...
A computer-assisted surgery system for guiding an operator in altering a pelvis. A sensing apparatus is provided for tracking a reference tool and a bone altering tool. A position calculator calculates a position and orientation of a pelvic frame of reference as a function of the tracking of the reference tool, and for calculating a position and orientation of the bone altering tool with respect to the frame of reference. A source of posture data and a posture data correction calculator are provided and are operative to provide a display of information allowing an operator to take into consideration the posture data from the source of posture data when altering the pelvis. A display unit is connected to the position calculator and to the posture data correction calculator for displaying the display of information and the bone altering tool with respect to the pelvic frame of reference.
Surgical navigation systems market was valued at $628 million in 2015, and is projected to reach $963 million by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 6.3% from 2016 to 2022, according to a new report published by Allied Market Research. Optical navigation systems segment is expected to grow at the highest growth rate during the…
Global surgical navigation systems market is predicted to progress from US$218.5 mn in 2013 to US$295.5 mn by 2020, expected to expand at a 4.50% CAGR from 2014 to 2020
This invention is a system for use during a medical or surgical procedure on a body. The system generates an image representing the position of one or more body elements (10, 20, 30) using scans generated by a scanner prior or during the procedure. The image data set has reference points (10A)-(30C) for each of the body elements, the reference points of a body element having a fixed spatial relation to the body element. The system includes an apparatus (108) for identifying the relative position of each of the reference points of each of the body elements to be displayed. The system also includes a processor (104) for modifying the image data set according to the identified relative position of each of the reference points during the procedure. Also disclosed are devices for use with a surgical navigation system having a sensor array (110, 112) in communication with the device to identify its position.
In point-based rigid-body registration, target registration error (TRE) is an important measure of the accuracy of the performed registration. The registrations accuracy depends on the fiducial localization error (FLE) which, in turn, is due to the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pin Site Complications Associated With Computer-Assisted Navigation in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty. AU - Kamara, Eli. AU - Berliner, Zachary P.. AU - Hepinstall, Matthew S.. AU - Cooper, H. John. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - Background There has been a great increase in the use of navigation technology in joint arthroplasty. In most types of navigation-assisted surgery, several temporary navigation pins are placed in the patient. Goals of this study are (1) to identify complications and (2) risk factors associated with placement of these pins. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of all navigation-assisted hip and knee arthroplasty performed a single institution over a 3-year period. Records were reviewed and outcome measures were tabulated in a database. Complications included in the database were pin site infection, deep prosthetic joint infection, neurologic injury, vascular injury, and fracture through a pin site. Results A total of 3136 pin sites in 839 patients were ...
The 3rd Annual Meeting of the EAU Section of Urological Imaging (ESUI) in Lisbon, Portugal in November this year will present image-guided therapies for prostate and kidney cancers, complementing the comprehensive scientific programme of the 6th European Multidisciplinary Meeting on Urological Cancers (EMUC).. The ESUI programme will cover in detail the hottest topics in imaging. We will especially address imaging and image-guided therapies, such as focal therapy, for the prostate and small renal masses, said ESUI chairman Dr. Jochen Walz (Marseille, FR). Other aspects of interventional and intraoperative imaging are also important topics. We will also examine the role of PET-CT in managing urological malignancies in a joint meeting with the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM).. The ESUIs meeting on November 13 will precede the 6th EMUC. From November 14 to 16. EMUC will hold 21 sessions in a compact scientific programme that features case discussions, debates, state-of-the-art ...
0068]Once the placement, location, orientation, and shape of the guide 108 and the stop 116 is determined, there are several ways to incorporate them into the cutting guide 100. In one embodiment the contact surface 102, the guide 108 and the stop 116 may be made of the same material. In such an embodiment, the contact surface 102, the guide 108, and the stop 116 may be molded or rapid prototyped as a single unitary structure. In another embodiment, the guide 108 and stop 116 may be integrated into the cutting guide 100. For example, the guide 108 and stop 116 may be machined into the cutting guide 100. However, in a preferred embodiment, the guide 108 and the stop 116 are made from hard materials, such as metal, in order to prevent the surgical instrument from penetrating and degrading the cutting guide 100. In such an embodiment, the guide 108 and stop 116 may be attached to the cutting guide 100 in an appropriate location and orientation. FIG. 1 depicts such an embodiment. The cutting guide ...
The clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the navigation and non-navigation groups. Furthermore, post-operative reorientation of the acetabular fragment was similar between the navigation and non-navigation groups. However, the discrepancy between the pre-operative planning line and post-operative osteotomy line was significantly improved in the navigation group compared with that in the non-navigation group (p < 0.05). Further, the complication rate was significantly improved in the navigation group (p < 0.001). Conclusion The accuracy of the osteotomys position was significantly improved by using the navigation. Therefore, the use of navigation during peri-acetabular osteotomy can avoid complications. ...
Disease, previous surgery, and normal anatomical variations can make it a challenge to perform the safest and most effective endoscopic sinus surgery, even with a detailed knowledge of anatomy and surgical skill. Avoiding orbital injuries, entry into the brain, and the carotid artery are paramount.. Similar to a global positioning system, our Fusion™ image-guided surgery system provides real-time images that can help you navigate in the sinuses for precise removal of diseased tissue while avoiding critical areas.. Image-guided surgery has become an industry standard for many endoscopic sinus surgeries. The American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) endorses the use of image-guided surgery for procedures including:1. ...
Bone tumor near the articular cartilage is hard to remove sufficiently without damaging adjacent joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of navigation-assisted surgery for saving joint in bone tumor resection or curettage. In this study, the investigators hypothesized that computer-assisted surgery is feasible method to get both enough margin and joint salvage. Each of them is important intermediate factor for either oncologic outcome or functional outcome respectively. The investigators designed this study to find what proportion of patients who underwent computer-assisted resection could get enough margins using some criteria obtained by overlapping preoperative and postoperative images. The investigators also evaluated whether computer-assisted surgery can be feasible for joint saving using some criteria including functional outcome ...
Medtronic plc has announced that it has received clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for expanded indications of specific StealthStation electromagnetic surgical navigation system instruments for paediatric and adult cranial and ENT procedures.. The clearance for these StealthStation electromagnetic instruments enables additional neurosurgical applications that can benefit from flexible, tip-tracked instruments for both pinned and pin-less procedures. The navigated instruments can be used with compatible devices to aid in the placement of ventricular catheters for adult and paediatric patients; shunt systems; connection to Ommaya reservoirs; haematoma drainage; external ventricular drainage catheters; neuroendoscope peel-away catheters; and for the placement of depth-electrodes.. ...
Introduction: The ReCap Femoral Resurfacing System has been associated with increased cases of revision surgery when compared to other hip resurfacing systems. However, computer-assisted navigation may have the potential to reduce the risk of post-operative complications by providing more accurate intraoperative measurements for acetabular component positioning. Case Report: The present case describes an active 46-year-old male presenting with severe osteoarthritis of the right hip who elected to undergo a ReCap resurfacing arthroplasty with navigation. Results demonstrated accurate acetabular component position and leg length measurements to within |1° and 1mm of standard radiographic measurements. Conclusion: These findings are the first to describe the use of navigation with the ReCap system and provide encouraging results for further clinical evaluation.
there are questions concerning the influence of computer-assisted surgery and the minimal invasive surgical technique on the outcome of total knee arthroplasty. The authors followed up the rehabilitation of patients during the first postoperative year.
OV3 has a widespread medical application that has covered different kind of surgeries from a simple biopsy to complicated surgery. Surgical navigation system improves the quality and accuracy of the operations, and makes it possible to reach success in complicated and dangerous surgeries, which have had a lot of mortality before. In the field of neurosurgery surgical navigation system has different applications such as deep brain stimulations (DBS) or tumor dissections. The usage of this technology makes it possible for the surgeon to make sure that the tumor dissected completely without damaging the other healthy tissues. Also in other types of neurosurgery procedures , the desired points are identified easily and the exact position of them is specified during the surgery. Furthermore, in the field of ENT, the application of the navigation technology makes invasive surgeries to occur with less invasiveness and the act of difficult and delicate surgeries take place with much more accuracy and ...
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3D, 3D intraoperative, 3D print, 3D printing2, 3D surgical planning, 3D ultrasound, Accuracy3, AiKNOWN system, alignment accuracy, Android, anterior cruciate ligament, app, AR, Arthroplasty, Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality3, bi-cruciate retaining, Bone, Bone Reduction, Bone Segmentation, bone tumor, bony impingement, C-arm2, calibration, caos, CAOS enhanced mechanical instrument system, cartilage degeneration, catastrophe theory, chondromalacia, Clinical case series2, Communication Architecture, Computer Assisted Navigation, Computer Assisted Navigation System, Computer Assisted Orthopedic Surgery., computer navigation2, computer simulation, computer-assisted, Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery4, Computer-assisted technique, Computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty2, conventional, Convolutional Neural Network2, Coronal alignment, Coronal deformation, cortical bone trajectory screw, CT, Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)2, cup alignment accuracy, cup orientation, Cusp Model, deep ...
0003]The location and orientation of a cutting guide instrument can be determined manually, with reference to predetermined anatomical features on the patients bone. For example, in the case of an instrument for determining the location and orientation of the plane for resecting the tibia in a knee replacement procedure, a cutting guide can be mounted on a reference rod which is fastened to the tibia by an ankle clamp to define the axis of the tibia. Such an instrument is available from DePuy Orthopedics Inc under the trade mark Specialist II. Accordingly, such manual instrument sets can include a reference component which is secured by a fixation element to the bone to be resected in a predetermined arrangement. The instrument set can then also include a cutting guide which can be fastened to the reference component and can provide the reference surface. The cutting guide can provide a reference surface which is engaged during the procedure by the cutting tool. The reference surface can be ...
Automated surgical procedures, including procedures carried out in conjunction with image-guided surgical navigation systems, are improved using tools and techniques to refine bone modifications. A system-level embodiment of the invention includes a memory for storing information relating to a desired modification of a bone, a bone-modification tool, and tracking apparatus for determining the position and orientation of the bone and the bone-modification tool to ensure that the modification performed by the tool corresponds to the desired modification. In the preferred embodiment, the bone-modification tool is used to refine a previously resected surface by a few millimeters or a few degrees to achieve the desired modification. A method of preparing a bone to receive a prosthetic implant according to the invention includes the steps of using an image-guided surgical navigation system to surface a bone, determining if the surface is optimized for the prosthetic implant, and if not, using a finishing tool
Medical imaging and informatics research service from the Transformational Health practice highlights the evolving trends and innovations in Image-Guided Therapy (IGT). As the fields of interventional imaging, minimally-invasive interventions, and image-g
Learn more about Azurion 7 B20/12 Biplane image-guided therapy system. View specifications, download support documents and discover related products.
Learn more about Azurion 7 C20 with FlexArm Image-guided therapy system. View specifications, download support documents and discover related products.
Learn more about Azurion 7 B20/12 Biplane image-guided therapy system. View specifications, download support documents and discover related products.
The system consists of four high resolution optical video cameras mounted to in the frame of a motorised ceiling-mounted C-arm flat detector (Allura Clarity FD20, Philips Healthcare). Between eight and 10 markers were placed on the skin around the surgical site on each of four human cadavers for tracking by the system.. Each cadaver was placed in the prone position and opened along the whole dorsal thoracic region, exposing the spine down to the spinous processes and tips of the transverse processes. Pedicle screws were inserted unilaterally using the augmented-reality system, following freehand placement on the contralateral side by a different surgeon.. Postoperative 3D cone beam computed tomography (CT) images were evaluated by two independent neurosurgeons and two radiologists. Using Gertzbein grading, the observers found grade zero placement (without cortical breach) 71% more frequently with the augmented reality system then with placement by freehand method. Significantly (p,0.05) fewer ...
Dental surgery requires highly precise operations, with surgical targets often hidden by surrounding structures that must remain undamaged during the procedure. The use of AR system may provide a solution to address challenges presented in routine surgical practice.. The current study strategically simplified and improved the application of AR in OMS. The study used region-specific 3D-CT images displayed in real space with high accuracy and depth perception by using markerless registration through stereo vision. The study also used 320-row ADCT to provide a larger number of detector rows, and a single rotation of the gantry obtains 320 slices of CT images for a 16 cm volume area without a helical scan. Traditional methods of registration include an external registration frame or marker frames with a screw, [13, 24, 27] which are fraught with errors and also restrict the operating space. Furthermore, registrations for soft tissues are associated with low accuracy [28]. Zhu and colleagues [29] ...
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We introduce an Iterative Closest Point framework for ultrasound calibration based on a hollow-line phantom. The main novelty of our approach is the application of a hollow-tube fiducial made from hyperechoic material, which allows for highly accurate fiducial localization via both manual and automatic segmentation. By reducing fiducial localization error, this framework is able to achieve sub-millimeter target registration error. The calibration phantom introduced can be manufactured inexpensively and precisely. Using aMonte Carlo approach, our calibration framework achieved 0.5mm mean target registration error, with a standard deviation of 0.24 mm, using 12 or more tracked ultrasound images. This suggests that our framework is approaching the accuracy limit imposed by the tracking device used.
An osteotomy cutting guide is disclosed. The cutting guide utilities an angle cutting block which is removably and adjustably attached to a stabilizing base. Also utilized is a distal hole drill block which is removably and adjustably attached to the stabilizing base. The stabilizing base has at least one projecting element which can be inserted into an existing cut. The osteotomy cutting guide allows angled cuts and implant insertions to be performed with accuracy.
Battleships Zenith: WW2 Naval Combat w/Computer Assistance - NWS: Battleships Zenith (1930-1945) a set of naval rules for miniatures or board game hex based tactical naval combat co
A company press release states that CardioProlifics technologies are complementary to Philips portfolio of image-guided therapy devices and to the portfolio of The Spectranetrics Corporation, which Philips recently has also agreed to acquire. The acquisition of CardioProlific underpins Philips aim to develop new solutions for clinicians to decide, guide, treat and confirm the appropriate therapy for cardiac and peripheral vascular disease.. The acquisition of CardioProlific will further strengthen our innovation pipeline of catheter-based therapy devices, said Bert van Meurs, Business Leader Image Guided Therapy at Philips. We are convinced that the development of CardioProlifics differentiated thrombectomy technologies, combined with our suite of image-guided therapy solutions, will help our customers drive the procedure innovation for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease.. Philips image-guided therapy portfolio comprises interventional imaging systems, planning and ...
Press Release issued Dec 7, 2016: Robotic or computer-assisted surgery was primarily developed to help doctors perform minimally invasive surgery - operations carried out through a small incision in the skin and requiring little to no stitches or staples to close. In robotic surgery, doctors precisely manipulate miniature tools attached to a robotic arm using a console and video monitor, instead of directly operating on a patient.
A study conducted by spine surgeons at Vancouver General Hospital found computer-assisted surgery with an intraoperative imaging device and 3D navigation system improves outcomes and delivers economic benefits to the healthcare system.
Hospitals are replacing antiquated surgical spaces with new operating suites to better support outpatient surgery, minimally invasive techniques, and digital and technological innovations. Robotic surgical systems and imaging technologies like surgical navigation systems are projected to become ubiquitous.
A container for holding an article such as food comprises a container main body and a lid. The lid has a laminate structure of an aluminum foil layer exposed upon an outer surface of the lid and a synthetic resin film layer exposed upon an inner surface of the lid. Cutting means is provided for cutting at least part of the lid. The cutting means comprises a pull-tab arranged on the outer surface of the lid, a cutting guide arranged on the inner surface of the lid along at least an outer periphery of a cutting region, and a connecting portion extending through a small hole formed in said lid so as to connect said pull-tab with said cutting guide. The cutting means comprises molded bodies of a synthetic resin which can not be bonded to the aluminum foil layer and which can be bonded to the synthetic resin film layer upon molding process.
Stryker has received 510(k) clearance from the FDA for its ShapeMatch Cutting Guides. The cutting guides are single use devices manufactured specifically f
January 4, 2016, Summit, NJ - Having the right information at the right time and in the right place is critical in todays operating rooms. Thats why Overlook Medical Center and Morristown Medical Center, part of Atlantic Health System, installed the Medtronic O-arm® Intra-operative Imaging System and the StealthStation® Surgical Navigation System, a new technology to enhance outcomes for patients who need spine surgery. The O-arm combines mobility, low-dose x-ray imaging and ultra-fast image processing to provide real-time 3-D navigation during surgery. It enables the surgeon to obtain highly detailed images of the surgical site in seconds, all without moving the patient. The result is more accurate placement of spinal hardware, often with smaller incisions, shorter surgical time and less blood loss, muscle and tissue damage, less pain and faster recovery than is possible with older technologies.The technological advancements we see evolving in everyday life also translate to the surgical ...
Devices and methods provide accurate targeting, placement, and/or stabilization of an electrode or other instrument(s) into the brain or other body organ, such as to treat severe tremor or other neurological disorders. Targeting is performed using any form of image-guidance, including real-time MRI, CT, or frameless surgical navigation systems.
In a medical diagnostic imaging system, a communication protocol for providing bi-directional communication between a medical imaging subsystem and a medical navigational subsystem, the communication protocol including a plurality of navigation subsystem to imaging subsystem messages; and a Begin Imaging and an End Imaging message for synchronizing image acquisition with navigation coordinate determination, the Begin Imaging and End Imaging messages included in imaging subsystem to the navigation subsystem messages.
Smart algorithms are used in Machine vision and Robotics to organize or extract high-level information from the available data. Nowadays, Machine learning is an essential and ubiquitous tool to automate extraction patterns or regularities from data (images in Machine vision; camera, laser, and sonar sensors data in Robotics) in order to solve various subject-oriented tasks such as understanding and classification of images content, navigation of mobile autonomous robot in uncertain environments, robot manipulation in medical robotics and computer-assisted surgery, and other. Usually such data have high dimensionality, however, due to various dependencies between their components and constraints caused by physical reasons, all „feasible and usable data‟ occupy only a very small part in high dimensional „observation space‟ with smaller intrinsic dimensionality. Generally accepted model of such data is manifold model in accordance with which the data lie on or near an unknown manifold ...
... Ziehm Imaging and BrainLAB Improve Intra-Operative Imaging With Navig... for More Gentle Less Invasive Surgery ...NUREMBERG and MUNICH Germany October 6 /- Ziehm Imaging...With the introduction of Ziehm NaviPort 3D Ziehm Imaging has brought...,New,Opportunities,in,X-Ray,Based,Surgical,Navigation,With,Ziehm,NaviPort,3D,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Activities: Computer-Assisted Image Processing, Equipment Design, Software, Computer Systems, Computer-Assisted Surgery, Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computer-Assisted Image ...
A new method for fluoroscopic tracking of a proximal bone fragment in femoral fracture reduction is presented. The proposed method combines 2-D and 3-D image registration from single-view fluoroscopy with tracking of the head center position of the proximal femoral fragment to improve the accuracy of fluoroscopic registration without the need for repeated manual adjustment of the C-arm as required in stereo-view registrations. Kinematic knowledge of the hip joint, which has a positional correspondence with the femoral head center and the pelvis acetabular center, allows the position of the femoral fragment to be determined from pelvis tracking. The stability of the proposed method with respect to fluoroscopic image noise and the desired continuity of the fracture reduction operation is demonstrated, and the accuracy of tracking is shown to be superior to that achievable by single-view image registration, particularly in depth translation.