The theoretical basis of surface engineering for improvement of biocontact properties of polymeric biomaterials as well as the current state-of-the-art of the surface engineering of polymeric biomaterials are presented. The book also includes information on the most used conventional and advanced surface engineering methods.
The theoretical basis of surface engineering for improvement of biocontact properties of polymeric biomaterials as well as the current state-of-the-art of the surface engineering of polymeric biomaterials are presented. The book also includes information on the most used conventional and advanced surface engineering methods.
2M-S3, IKI, Oct C. dUston : Laser methods for planetary surface composition 3 In situ surface analysis goals To explore the planetary environments To gain knowledge of the geological history -To provide identification and characterisation of minerals and biomarkers. -general mineralogical information for igneous, metamorphous, and sedimentary processes, especially water-related geo-processes. To investigate the relationship between water and climate change. To identify organic compounds and search for life
0083] 10 relief plate [0084] 20 top surface [0085] 40 relief print [0086] 50 printed dot [0087] 60 relief plate [0088] 70 top surface [0089] 80 relief print [0090] 90 printed dot [0091] 100 relief plate [0092] 110 top surface [0093] 112 hole [0094] 120 relief print [0095] 130 printed ink [0096] 132 printed hole [0097] 210 relief plate with surface pattern [0098] 220 top patterned surface [0099] 240 relief print [0100] 250 printed dot [0101] 260 relief plate with surface pattern [0102] 270 top patterned surface [0103] 280 relief print [0104] 290 printed dot [0105] 300 relief plate with surface pattern [0106] 310 top patterned surface [0107] 312 hole [0108] 320 relief print [0109] 332 hole [0110] 330 printed ink [0111] 400 relief plate with surface pattern [0112] 410 top patterned surface [0113] 420 bottom of surface pattern [0114] 430 relief plate [0115] 440a halftone dots with second surface pattern [0116] 440b halftone dots with second surface pattern [0117] 440c halftone dots with second ...
BACKGROUND: We present the synthesis, characterization and initial structure-function analysis of a new class of bioactive agent that allows the application of techniques from colloid science to biological surfaces. Stable colloidal suspensions can be generated by immobilizing a dense brush of soluble polymer at the colloidal surface, creating a zone protected against the adhesion of approaching particles, a phenomenon termed polymeric steric stabilization. This is often accomplished for aqueous colloidal dispersions using adsorbing block copolymers. We demonstrate that water-soluble block copolymers can be designed to adsorb onto heterogeneous biological surfaces and block cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion, using polymer compositions and architectures that are quite different from surfactants used for stabilizing nonbiological colloidal dispersions. RESULTS: Comb copolymers were synthesized having polycationic backbones (poly-L-lysine, PLL), serving as the anchor for binding to the net ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Laser Surface Engineering of Polymeric Materials for Enhanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion and Growth. AU - Waugh, David. AU - Cosgrove, Daniel. AU - Hussain, Issam. AU - Lawrence, Jonathan. PY - 2019/5/3. Y1 - 2019/5/3. N2 - Owing to them being relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate, polymers are becoming more widely used within the biomedical industry for several different applications. As an example, because of its high wear resistance, low moisture absorption and high chemical resistance, poly(ether ether ketone) is commonly used as a biomaterial in the healthcare and biomedical industries. However, poly(ether ether ketone) surface properties are not optimum for efficient or enhanced bio-functionality, leading it to have somewhat inferior wettability and adhesion characteristics. On account of this, many researchers are now looking to employ surface engineering techniques to improve and enhance the surface properties of poly(ether ether ketone), enhancing its ...
Title:Surface Engineering of Fenofibrate Nanocrystals Using Nano-by-Design Multivariate Integration: A Biopharmaceutical and Pharmacokinetic Perspective. VOLUME: 18 Author(s):Sandip Gite, Pratik Kakade and Vandana Patravale*. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019. Keywords:Nano-by-Design, fenofibrate, nanosuspension, media milling, nanocrystals, dissolution.. Abstract:Introduction: Surface engineering of nanocrystals for improving the biopharmaceutical features is a multivariate process involving numerous formulation and process variables, thus making it a complicated process to get the desired biopharmaceutical quality profile. Nano-by-design is hereby ...
Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surface is widely investigated due to its combination of fast water nucleation and efficient droplet departure, which are important factors to lower interfacial thermal resistance and then enhancing water harvesting efficiency. Preparation methods used nowadays are photolithography, inkjet printing, sol-gel and so on, which either involves complicated and non-scalable procedures or is not able to prepare well-defined patterns. This work demonstrates a facile surface engineering method to prepare superhydrophilic patterns on superhydrophobic substrate which is grown with closely packed TiO2 nanorods. The pattern size can be well controlled by using different masks under UV shinning. With different UV irradiation time, patterns with microscale and nanoscale sizes are able to prepare. The relationship between pattern size and its water harvesting efficiency is studied. Preliminary result shows that the water collection rate of biphilic patterned surface ...
The surface parts of an image which is stored in the form of a bit-representation in a raster image memory may be filled with a surface pattern using the following steps: generating a bit-representation of the surface pattern defined uniformly over the entire image surface; generating a mask function, which gives a specific logic value to those raster points which are situated within the boundaries of the surface parts; generating a filling pattern by performing a logic operation on the bit-representation of the surface pattern and the mask function; and transferring the filling pattern to the raster image memory.
The Surface Engineering Group carries out research on the use of plasma and other surface treatments to modify the properties of polymers, ceramics and metals. Using plasmas the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of these materials can be modified at the nm and micron level. Coatings can be deposited which can enhance surface properties, for example, to tailor wettability, cell/protein adhesion, tribological properties as well as enhancing the adhesive bond strength. The depositon of functional coatings can also be used to achieve enhanced biocompatibility or to improve anti-bacterial performance. The group has a range of equipment for the deposition of coatings/layers including ...
Ubiquinone and plastoquinone are two of the main electron and proton shuttle molecules in biological systems, and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is the most abundant lipid in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Saturated MGDG, ubiquinone-10 (UQ) and MGDG:UQ mixed monolayers at the air/water interface have been studied using surface pressure-area isotherms and Brewster Angle Microscopy. Moreover, the transferred Langmuir-Blodgett films have been observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. The results show that MGDG:UQ mixtures present more fluid phase than pure MGDG, indicating a higher order degree for the later. It is also observed an important influence of UQ on the MGDG matrix before UQ collapse pressure and a low influence after this event, due to UQ expulsion from the MGDG matrix. This expulsion leads to a similar remaining UQ content for all the tested mixtures, indicating a limiting content of this molecule in the MGDG matrix at high surface pressures. The thermodynamic studies confirm ...
Flagellate grazing on bacteria with different surface properties.The present study demonstrated that three common species of freshwater nanoflagellates fed on bacteria having very different physicochemical surface properties at comparable rates. Differences in the electrostatic surface charges of the bacteria did not influence the flagellate feeding rates. Moreover, we found no evidence that less hydrophobic bacteria are less vunerable to ingestion by flagellates. The twofold variation in the feeding rates for each flagellate species was related neither to CSH values measured by the BATH assay nor to the HIC index. Bacterial cell size did not influence the outcome.. Zeta potentials revealed that all of the test bacteria had negative net charges, and the values were within the range of values found for other bacterial isolates (13, 52). Lower ingestion rates for highly negatively charged particles were not observed. To date, this phenomenon has been described only by Hammer et al. (23), who ...
The effect of surface roughness on capillary imbibition. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cycle-dependent Changes of the Negative Surface Charges in L929 Cells. AU - Doi, Akitaka. AU - Tokuda, Masaaki. AU - Itano, Toshifumi. AU - Matsui, Hideki. AU - Ohmura, Yoshiaki. AU - Hatase, Osamu. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The negative charges of cell surface were studied by the adsorption method of methylene blue in the synchronized cultures of L929 cells and its spontaneously transformed cell strain.The negative surface charges of the transformed cells were twice those of the original cells through all cell cycle phases.The surface charges cell-cycle-dependently changed in both cell systems and there were two maximum peaks at early Gx and S phase.. AB - The negative charges of cell surface were studied by the adsorption method of methylene blue in the synchronized cultures of L929 cells and its spontaneously transformed cell strain.The negative surface charges of the transformed cells were twice those of the original cells through all cell cycle phases.The ...
Two-dimensional microarrays have proven useful for a wide range of applications, from ELISA microarrays to basic protein research. However, attaching an antibody, enzyme, or other protein to a functionalized surface is not without its problems. Antibodies are costly and time-consuming to produce and screen, and the process of attaching a protein often alters its conformation. Thus, there is a need for a simple, rapid and inexpensive method to produce a surface with a high density of binding sites, and which orients and binds the protein in its native form (or other desired conformation). Researchers at Arizona State University have developed a novel, automated method to identify short polypeptides which bind the protein of interest, and then quickly and inexpensively produce a surface functionalized with such polypeptides. This surface binds the molecule of interest non-covalently, additionally allowing control of the molecular orientation. This method does not require antibodies, biotin or his ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An investigation of the surface properties of atomized FexSi powders. AU - Williams, Richard Andrew. AU - Kelsall, Geoffrey Howard. PY - 1989/10/1. Y1 - 1989/10/1. N2 - The results of XPS and electrokinetic measurements on spherical ferrosilicide particles (15 wt% Si) produced by atomization show that the surface consists of a mixed silica and Fe(II, III) oxide layer of at least 50 nm thickness. Although the surface is dominated by the silica phase (up to 70 at %), the electrophoretic mobility response in aqueous KCl electrolytes is complex and exhibits three points of charge reversal over the pH range 3-11. These phenomena correspond to an apparent point of zero charge of the surface at about pH 5 (which varies with surface composition), a point of charge reversal (which is independent of surface composition) at pH 7 due to the adsorption of FeOH+ ions originating from the substrate, and an isoelectric point at pH 7.6 due to transformation of an essentially siliceous surface to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of BSA on highly carboxylated microspheres - Quantitative effects of surface functional groups and interaction forces. AU - Yoon, Jeong Yeol. AU - Park, Ham Yong. AU - Kim, Jung-Hyun. AU - Kim, Woo Sik. PY - 1996/2/10. Y1 - 1996/2/10. N2 - In order to elucidate the relations between the amount of surface functional groups and interaction forces, BSA adsorption experiments were performed, using highly carboxylated PS/PMAA microspheres as well as conventional ones. Two kinds of interaction forces were considered in this study, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, while ionic interactions were assumed to be small or constant. Hydrophobic interactions were dominant in the low Nc (number density of surface carboxyl groups) region, below 1 carboxyl group nm-2, and were relatively sensitive to pH, while hydrogen bonding was dominant in the high Nc region, above 2 carboxyl groups nm-2, irrespective of pH. The transition region between these two interaction forces was ...
Chemical surface treatment machine : Comparison and purchase of Chemical surface treatment machine in the section Production equipment and quote requests online.
1. Introduction/Overview 2. Surface Structure Analysis 2.1. 2D Crystallography & Reciprocal Space 2.2. Real Space (STM, Microscopy) 3. Electron Spectroscopy 3.1. for Surface Chemistry Analysis 3.2. for Electronic Structure 4. Ion Scattering 5. Elementary Processes at Surfaces 5.1. Vibrational Properties & Excitations 5.2. Adsorption/Desorption: Binding and Release from Atoms & Molecules at Surfaces 5.3. Surface Diffusion & Mass Transport: Mobility on a 2D Crystal Lattice 5.4. Surface Chemical Reactions & Heterogeneous Catalysis 5.5. Magnetism at Interfaces/Spintronics/Nanomagnetism/Molecular Magnets 5.6. Interaction with Light/Plasmonics 6. Biological Molecules & Self-Assembly at Surfaces 7. Nanostructures/Thin Film Epitaxy/Self-Organized Growth 8. Atomic/Molecular Manipulation and Quantum Confinement 9. Electron Transport in Nanosized Objects 10. Molecular ...
Surface Modification on Ti-30Ta Alloy for Biomedical Application. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Objective: This study aimed to establish a predictive model for the presence of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification stage B or stage C4 (BCLC B/C) and further verify its accuracy, enabling clinicians to accurately predict the efficacy of TACE and propose individualized therapy to further optimize multidisciplinary team plans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective database review was performed, including 191 patients (39 females and 152 males; aged 50-76 years with a mean age of 55 ± 10 years) who received three consecutive TACE sessions for treating HCC (BCLC B/C) in 1 month apart, for a total of 3 months. After three TACE treatments, a total of 95 patients among the 191 patients showed TACE resistance, 112 cases were randomly selected to build the modeling group, and the remaining 79 cases formed a verification group. Some prognostic risk factors were obtained through clinical observation. ...
A new method is provided for the creation of interconnect lines. Fine line interconnects are provided in a first layer of dielectric overlying semiconductor circuits that have been created in or on the surface of a substrate. A layer of passivation is deposited over the layer of dielectric, a thick second layer of dielectric is created over the surface of the layer of passivation. Thick and wide interconnect lines are created in the thick second layer of dielectric. The first layer of dielectric may also be eliminated, creating the wide thick interconnect network on the surface of the layer of passivation that has been deposited over the surface of a substrate.
A new method is provided for the creation of interconnect lines. Fine line interconnects are provided in a first layer of dielectric overlying semiconductor circuits that have been created in or on the surface of a substrate. A layer of passivation is deposited over the layer of dielectric, a thick second layer of dielectric is created over the surface of the layer of passivation. Thick and wide interconnect lines are created in the thick second layer of dielectric. The first layer of dielectric may also be eliminated, creating the wide thick interconnect network on the surface of the layer of passivation that has been deposited over the surface of a substrate.
A new method is provided for the creation of interconnect lines. Fine line interconnects are provided in a first layer of dielectric overlying semiconductor circuits that have been created in or on the surface of a substrate. A layer of passivation is deposited over the layer of dielectric, a thick second layer of dielectric is created over the surface of the layer of passivation. Thick and wide interconnect lines are created in the thick second layer of dielectric. The first layer of dielectric may also be eliminated, creating the wide thick interconnect network on the surface of the layer of passivation that has been deposited over the surface of a substrate.
System and method for coating a medical appliance are provided. In accord with one embodiment, a system for applying a coating to a medical appliance having accessible patterned surfaces is provided. The system may include: a processor, an appliance support, and a solenoid type fluid dispensing head having an electromagnetically controlled valve. In the system, the appliance support may be adapted to hold the medical appliance and to provide direct access for a coating to contact the exposed external patterned surfaces of the medical appliance. The solenoid type fluid dispensing head in this system may move with respect to the medical appliance and may be in communication with a source of coating and with the processor. The processor in this system may contain commands that instruct the solenoid type fluid dispensing head to force coating onto the accessible patterned surfaces of the medical appliance in a pattern that correlates with the accessible patterned surfaces of the medical appliance.
Stock Photo of Orca at surface. High Quality Orca Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. These patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biofilm formation affects surface properties of novel bioactive glass-containing composites. AU - Hyun, Hong Keun. AU - Salehi, Satin. AU - Ferracane, Jack. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Objectives This study investigated the effects of bacterial biofilm on the surface properties of novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing composites of different initial surface roughness. Methods BAG (65 mol% Si; 4% P; 31% Ca) and BAG-F (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and micronized (size ∼0.1-10 μm). Composites with 72 wt% total filler load were prepared by replacing 15% of the silanized Sr glass with BAG, BAG-F, or silanized silica. Specimens (n = 10/group) were light-cured and divided into 4 subgroups of different surface roughness by wet polishing with 600 and then up to 1200, 2400, or 4000 grit SiC. Surface roughness (SR), gloss, and Knoop microhardness were measured before and after incubating in media with or without a Streptococcus mutans ...
Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a powerful bimodal separation scheme [1] based on fluid flow through regular obstacle arrays that in its basic embodiment sends suspended particles in two different directions as a function of size. We show that without the need to seal devices and without the need for fluidic connections or pumps, particle separation can be achieved by the passive flow of a sample over a patterned surface. Risk of clogging is minimized by the movement of large particles above the obstacle array. Suitable application areas include blood fractionation and analysis of drinking water. 0. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of Cu2+ and SO4 2- from aqueous solutions on surface functionalized dehydrated carbon from date palm leaflets. AU - El-Shafey, El Said I. AU - Al-Busafi, Saleh. AU - Al-Lawati, Hiader A J. AU - Al-Shibli, Aisha S.. PY - 2015/12/14. Y1 - 2015/12/14. N2 - Dehydrated carbon (DC) was prepared from date palm leaflets via sulfuric acid dehydration at 200°C. DC surface was functionalized using ethylene diamine via amide coupling to produce basic dehydrated carbon (BDC). DC possesses high content of carboxylic groups acting as cation exchanger, however, BDC possesses amine and amide groups that are capable of chelating Cu2+. However, when protonated, the amine group acts as anion exchanger for SO4 2-. ∼81% of the carboxylic groups on DC were successfully functionalized to amide-amine groups on BDC surface. Sorption of Cu2+ and SO4 2- was investigated at different initial pH, contact time and ion concentration. Initial pH values for maximum sorption were found to be 5 and 2 for ...
Surface energy is a measure of disruption of chemical bonds that occurs when a surface is created. Most of the hydrophobic surfaces are known to show low surface energy values. It is also well known that hydrophobicity has a role in cell attachment to the surface and biofilm formation. As the biofilm progresses the adhesion is higher and chemical bonding is more hence lower the surface energy. Few studies were carried out on adhesion of biological systems such as proteins, microbes, algae and invertebrates. They all show minimal long-term adhesion associated with surfaces having low energy surfaces. However, all surfaces rapidly become modified on immersion in natural waters through the adsorption of conditioning films, which may influence subsequent adhesive events associated with the permanent attachment of organisms. The results show that surface energy can elicit different responses in different organisms. For most organisms, minimal adhesion is associated with low surface energy. According ...
We have employed molecular dynamics simulations to systematically investigate the effects of nanoparticles structural and chemical properties on
The aim of the course is to improve knowledge of PhD students about structure and properties of material surfaces. The attention is paid to processes taking place at surfaces, interfaces and in thin layers. The special attention is paid to modern technologies of surface engineering, especilly plasma technologies and thermal coatings. Applications of the most important technologies are demonstrated on practical examples. Basic techniques of structure and property characterisation of material surfaces are discussed ...
UNIQUE AQUARIUM BACTERIA Blend: Aquatic Experts specially designed aquarium biological cleaner help to make aquarium maintenance a lot more manageable. Through their metabolic activities, these beneficial bacteria either convert toxins into less harmful substances or remove them by taking them into their bodies. Which
Lectures: · Surfaces and interfaces of condensed matter. Utility properties of solids dependent on the surface. Professional discipline dealing with the study, assessment and surface treatment. Damage to solids / metals processes induced effect of stressful events / stressors on the surface. · Surface structure of solids / metals. Important surface properties of solid substances. Geometric, physical, chemical surface properties. Interface Chemistry in solids. · Happens at the interface solid - liquid. Sorption happening. Interaction surface gases, oxygen, hydrogen. The consequences of the interaction metal - oxygen, metal - hydrogen thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the process, their impact on properties metal surfaces to damage the metal. Erosion, cavitation. · Happens at the interface solid / metal - electrolyte. Double layer. Electrically charged interface. Electrochemical properties of electron-conductive materials, especially metals. Thermodynamic description of processes at the ...
Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including stenosis. However, in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, and delayed re-endothelialization represent challenges for their clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate a novel work to overcome these limitations through surface modification technology. The cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) surface was modified with antioxidants such as gallic acid (GA) and rutin (Ru) and the corresponding persulfates derivatives (i.e., GAS, and RuS) through a simple conjugation procedure. Various analyses tools such as ATR-FTIR, XPS, water contact angle, SEM, and AFM characterized the functionalized surface. The surface characterization confirmed that the antioxidant and the additional persulfates were successfully bonded to the Co-Cr surface. The results of in vitro endothelial cells proved that the persulfates derivatives showed the highest tendency to get rapid re-endothelialization especially RuS. In addition, it showed inhibition ...
Thallus: foliose, single lobed attached by a single umbilicus and with 14-60 mm wide lobes upper surface: gray, with epinecral layer consisting of air filled hyphae upper cortex: 130-240 µm thick with the outermost 10-20 µm brown medulla: 180-350 µm thick lower cortex: 90-110 µm thick with the outermost 15-40 µm brown, the lower cortex cells are angular and in distinct vertical columns, uneven lower surface were 2-4 cell rows thick outgrowths cause the farinose lower surface of the species lower surface: brown, farinose and often reticulate, occasionally with rhizinomorphs Perithecia: obpyriform to almost globose, 200-530 x 170-440 µm, primarily with a hyaline exciple that is light brown to brown in the uppermost part, rarely hyaline throughout asci: clavate or cylindrical, 8spored ascospores: simple, hyaline, 12-17 x 5-9 µm Pycnidia: not found in Sonoran material, elsewhere immersed, ostiolum similar to that of the perithecium conidia: bacilliform, 4-6 x 1 µm Spot tests: all negative ...
Activation energy of time-dependent martensite formation in steel. / Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Martensitic Transformations (ICOMAT 2017). ed. / Aaron Stebner; Greg Olson; Valery Levitas; Emmanuel De Moo; Othmane Benafan; Ibrahim Karaman; Mohsen Asle Zaeem; Peter Anderson; David Rowenhorst; Avadh Saxena; Reginald Hamilton; Alan Pelton; Peter Müllner; Michael Mills; Ricardo Komai. 2018.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings - Annual report year: 2018 ...
The technological evolution of ceramics and polymers during the last three decades makes it possible to apply these materials to medical devices; in fact, many metal devices have been replaced with those made of ceramics and polymers. In spite of this event, over 70 per cent of implant devices still consist of metals because of their high strength, toughness and durability. At present, it is difficult to replace the metals in medical devices with ceramics or polymers.. A disadvantage of using metals as biomaterials is that they are typically artificial materials and have no biofunction. To add biofunction to metals, surface modification is necessary because biofunction cannot be added during manufacturing processes such as melting, casting, forging and heat treatment. Surface modification is a process that changes a materials surface composition, structure and morphology, leaving the bulk mechanical properties intact. With surface modification, the tissue compatibility of the surface layer can ...
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Bionanoprobes were created using cytochromes c isolated from horse heart (HCc) or yeast (YCc); and citrate-stabilized AuNPs. The two cytochromes c generated bionanoprobes with remarkably distinct surface properties. The combination of spectrophotometric pH-titrations and circular dichroism spectroscopy provided information on the protein layer of the bionanoprobes, revealing distinct protonation patterns for the two systems as reflected by its pH-induced aggregation. The YCc bionanoprobe revealed changes in the secondary structure of its protein layer that were practically absent in the protein layer of the HCc bionanoprobes. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering and determination of -potencial, provided insights on the layer structure and surface coverage and potential. These techniques confirmed a thick protein layer for the YCc bionanoprobe of ca. 4 nm whereas the HCc bionanoprobe presented a protein layer with ca. 2 nm that can be removed by sample drying. The surface potential of
Considering the added cost for impact modification and cast formed sheet the vast majority of acrylic glazed skylights utilize general purpose extruded acrylic.. Specify surface finish. Surface finish may be smooth. Textured finishes have very little effect on the mechanical and thermal properties of the acrylic however surface finish may have a significant impact on optical properties. The most common texture utilized by skylight manufacturers is prismatic. The prismatic texture on a clear acrylic will produce a 95% to 100% haze/diffusion. Whereas a smooth surface on a clear acrylic will have 0% to 3% haze/diffusion. Medium white smooth acrylic and medium white prismatic acrylic are very similar in their haze/diffusion of 95%.. Specify color. Color has no affect on mechanical or thermal properties but it will affect the optical properties of light transmission and haze/diffusion as previously noted.. Many colors are available however white, bronze and gray are the most common with white the ...
A free-base porphyrin dye, 4-(5-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tritolylporphyrin (TTPa) formed well-behaved monomolecular films at the air-water interface. The carboxylic acid was the hydrophilic portion, and became ionized at subphase pH | 7.3.;The presence of two or more two-dimensional crystalline phases in these films on the aqueous surface under certain conditions was inferred from the observation of visible, inhomogeneous specular reflection from the films.;A spectroscopic study of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers indicated three different species existed in the films as a function of the pH to which the subphase was buffered. One species was assigned as the monomer; the others as aggregates. One of the aggregates exhibited an unusual absorption spectrum and was postulated to exist in an environment where motion was restricted.;Langmuir-Blodgett films transferred from buffer-free water underwent a rapid reorganization; after 24 hours the absorption spectrum resembled that of a thin sublimed film. These
Nanoparticles are ubiquitously used for signal enhancement in (bio)sensors, but their true possible performance is typically hampered by non-specific binding. A better understanding of the nature and the prevention of non-specific binding through surface engineering of the particles and sensor surfaces is ne
The strength degrading effects of sharp-contact damage are examined for Y-TZP ceramic plates bonded to a plastic substrate. Contacts are made with Vickers and Berkovich diamond indenters at low loads (0.1 N to 100 N) in the ceramic lower surfaces prior to bonding to the substrates. The indentations remain in the subthreshold region, that is, without visible corner radial cracks, over the lower region (| 10 N) of the load range. A concentrated load is then applied sinusoidally to the ceramic upper surface, with the loading axis centered on the subsurface indentation flaw, thereby subjecting the flaw to cyclic tension. Relative to polished surfaces, the indentations diminish the single-cycle strength by an amount that increases with increasing indentation load. The critical number of cycles required to cause failure from the indentation flaws is then measured at specified maximum lower surface tensile stresses. At each indentation load, the strength of the ceramic plates diminishes with increased cycling.
Li C. Surface Phase Transformation of TiO2 and its Photocatalytic Significance Studied by UV Raman Spectroscopy[C]. 见:III International Conference Catalysis:Fundimentals and Application. Russia. 2007-7-4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of combinatorially designed polyarylates by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. AU - Belu, Anna M.. AU - Brocchini, Stephen. AU - Kohn, Joachim. AU - Ratner, Buddy D.. PY - 2000/4/6. Y1 - 2000/4/6. N2 - A series of 16 polyarylates, with well-controlled and systematically varying chemistry, has been characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The polymers are structurally identical except for the incremental additions of C2H4 units to the backbone and sidechain. From the spectra, peaks characteristic of all polyarylates are identified. Furthermore, evaluation of the spectra and identification of unique signals allow classification of the polyarylates according to sidechain and backbone chemistry. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.. AB - A series of 16 polyarylates, with well-controlled and systematically varying chemistry, has been characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The polymers ...
Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOFSIMS) provides elemental, chemical state and molecular information from surfaces of solid materials. TOF-SIMS is accomplished by exciting a samples surface with a finely focused ion beam which causes secondary ions and ion clusters to be emitted from the samples surface. A time-of-flight analyzer is used to measure the exact mass of the emitted ions and clusters. From the exact mass and intensity of the SIMS peak, the identity of an element or molecular fragments can be determined.. ToF-SIMS instruments typically include the following components: - An ultrahigh vacuum system, which is needed to increase the mean free path of ions liberated in the flight path; - A particle gun, that typically uses a Ga or Cs source; - The flight path, - The mass detector system.. The average depth of analysis for a TOF-SIMS measurement is approximately 1 nm. The ultimate spatial resolution can reach around 0.1 µm. Spatial distribution information is obtained by ...
Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is a very sensitive surface analytical technique, well established for many industrial and research applications. TOF-SIMS is an acronym for the combination of the analytical technique SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) with Time-of-Flight mass analysis (TOF).
Single cell imaging mass spectrometry opens up a complete new perspective for strategies in toxicological risk assessment and drug discovery. In particular, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with its high spatial and depth resolution is becoming part of the imaging mass spectrometry toolbox used for single cell analysis. Recent instrumentation advancements in combination with newly developed cluster ion guns allow 3-dimensional reconstruction of single cells together with a spatially resolved compound location and quantification on nanoscale depth level. The exact location and quantification of a single compound or even of a set of compounds is no longer restricted to the two dimensional space within single cells, but is available for voxels, a cube-sized 3-dimensional space, rather than pixels. The information gathered from one voxel is further analysed using multivariate statistical methodology like maximum autocorrelation factors to co-locate the compounds of interest within
Polystyrene thin film surfaces are commonly used to study the interactions of macromolecules, such as proteins, with surfaces. Polystyrene films oxidized in UV light become more hydrophilic, however these surfaces have a limited shelf life because they are reduced over time. Experiments were performed to determine the effect of radiation duration and exposure time on the surface composition of photo-oxidized polystyrene thin films. Polystyrene (2 wt%) in toluene was spin-coated onto 1-cm² monocrystalline silicon squares, and annealed at 70 °C for 18 hours. Three sets of triplicate samples were irradiated in a UV-ozone cleaner for 0, 3, and 9 minutes. Film surface compositions were analyzed via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 6 hours after irradiation and after one week of air exposure. Overall oxidation level decreased after one week, and the oxidation structure varied with irradiation time. It is speculated that decreases in oxidation level were due to surface contamination and reduction ...
The use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanocarriers presents several major challenges, including their synthetic hydrophobic surface, low transfection efficiency, short circulation half-life, and nonspecific tissue distribution. Numerous engineering strategies have been employed to overcome these problems, with lipid-based surface functionalization of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) showing promising results in the development of PLGA-based clinical nanomedicines. Surface engineering with different lipids enhances the target specificity of the carrier and improves its physicochemical properties as well as NP-cell associations, such as cellular membrane permeability, immune responses, and long circulation half-life in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the lipid-based surface engineering of PLGA NPs for drug and gene delivery applications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatial Distributions of Lipids in Atherosclerosis of Human Coronary Arteries Studied by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. AU - Lehti, Satu. AU - Sjovall, Peter. AU - Kakela, Reijo. AU - Mayranpaa, Mikko I.. AU - Kovanen, Petri T.. AU - Öörni, Katariina. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. KW - LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN. KW - TRIGLYCERIDE-RICH LIPOPROTEINS. KW - AMERICAN-HEART-ASSOCIATION. KW - TO-RETENTION HYPOTHESIS. KW - HUMAN AORTA. KW - ATHEROGENIC LIPOPROTEINS. KW - UNESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL. KW - ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY. KW - BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES. KW - MACROPHAGE UPTAKE. KW - 3111 Biomedicine. U2 - 10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.01.026. DO - 10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.01.026. M3 - Article. VL - 185. SP - 1216. EP - 1233. JO - The American Journal of Pathology. JF - The American Journal of Pathology. SN - 0002-9440. IS - 5. ER - ...
Static SIMS uses a pulsed primary ion beam to sputter-remove material from the top monolayer of a sample. Secondary ions are collected and focused into a reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The combination of low primary-ion density (low surface damage) and high transmission of the TOF analyzer (high sensitivity) makes the technique extremely useful for studying the top monolayer of a surface. The large mass range of the TOF analyzer makes the instrument well suited for detecting trace levels of organic contaminants on surfaces. Depth profiling is also possible in combination with high-current, low-energy cesium and argon sputter sources. Information on chemical structure is especially useful when combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein Adsorption on Grafted Zwitterionic Polymers Depends on Chain Density and Molecular Weight. AU - Ahmed, Syeda Tajin. AU - Leckband, Deborah E.. PY - 2020/7/1. Y1 - 2020/7/1. N2 - This study demonstrates that protein adsorption on end-grafted, zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) (pSBMA) thin films depends on the grafting density, molecular weight, and ionic strength. Zwitterionic polymers exhibit ultralow nonspecific fouling (protein adsorption) and excellent biocompatibility. This picture contrasts with a recent report that soluble pSBMA chains bind proteins and alter the protein folding stability. To address this apparent contradiction, the dependence of protein adsorption on the chain grafting parameters is investigated: namely, the grafting density, molecular weight, and ionic strength. Studies compared the adsorption of phosphoglycerate kinase and positively charged lysozyme versus the scaled grafting parameter s/2RF, where s is the distance between grafting sites and RF ...
Two Postdoctoral Research Positions in Nanoparticle Surface Engineering, Protein Conjugation, Cell Targeting, and Controlled Drug Release Applications are invited for two postdoctoral research positions in nanotechnology, biomaterials, surface chemistry, biochemistry and bioengineering in Department of Mateirals Science and Engineering, University of Washington. The research involves development of nanoparticles and their conjugates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and controlled drug release. Applicants must hold a Ph.D. degree in materials science, chemistry, biochemistry, bioengineering, or a related field. The successful candidates should have a strong background and demonstrated research ability in surface chemistry, biomolecule-material interactions, development of nanostructured materials, or cell targeting. Interested individuals should send a curriculum vita with a list publications and the names, email and postal addresses of at least three references to: Dr. Miqin Zhang, 302L ...
Radioactive hot particles that occur in the environment present specific challenges for health and environmental regulators as often their small size makes them difficult to detect, and they are easily dispersed and accidentally ingested or inhaled by members of the public. This study of nine hot particles recovered from the beach at Dalgety Bay, UK, uses a combination of gamma spectrometry, imaging microscopy and SEM-EDX in order to characterise their morphology and surface composition, thereby helping to identify their origin and source characteristics. The nine particles analysed showed great heterogeneity in their activities, physical form and elemental composition. The particle activities were dominated by (226)Ra and its daughters. Three distinct grouping of particles were identified based on their morphology (artefact, glassy and metal-rich), whilst four distinct groupings (artefact, glassy, angular and porphyric, rounded and highly porous) were identified based on morphology and ...
The reorientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod placed at the air/phospholipid interface is used to calculate the surface viscosity of spread monolayers of phospholipids, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DMPE). While surface viscosity was found to depend on the surface pressure in both lipids, we detect an order of magnitude higher surface viscosity for DMPE films even in the so called liquid coexistence region. This difference is higher than that reported at higher surface pressures and is attributed to the smaller headgroup size of DMPE. The smaller size of the PE head group increases the ability of the lipid molecules to pack into more organized domains at all surface pressures. The minute changes in the morphology of the lipid film are more significant at the lower surface pressures, which contributes to a higher surface viscosity difference. Thus microrheology presents an insight into the degree of lipid organization at the air/water ...
Diociaiuti M, Bordi F, Motta A, Carosi A, Ercolini E, Arancia G, Cametti C, Coluzza C. Gramicidin A aggregation in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodget monolayers: an atomic force microscopy study. In: 12. European Congress on Electron Microscopy. Proceedings ; July 9-14, 2000; Brno. 2000. p.B535-B536 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BV-2 microglial cells sense micro-nanotextured silicon surface topology. AU - Persheyev, Saydulla. AU - Fan, Yongchang. AU - Irving, Andrew. AU - Rose, Mervyn J.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Artificial biomimetic substrates provide useful models for studying cell adhesion, signaling, and differentiation. This article describes biological interactions with a new type of tunable, micro-nanotextured silicon substrate, generated by irradiation of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a large beam, excimer laser (248 nm). In this study, we demonstrate that BV-2 microglial cells can sense differences in laser processed silicon surface topology over the range of 30 nm to 2 mu m, where they undergo marked morphogenic changes with increasing feature size. The cells adopt a more elongated shape in the presence of the modified surface structure and exhibit increased levels of actin-rich microdomains, suggesting enhanced adhesion. The excimer laser modification of hydrogenated ...
Global XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) market is expected to reach USD 712.4 million by 2022, according to a new study by Grand View Research Inc. Growing application of XPS technology in different industries such as healthcare, semi conductors, aerospace, automotives, and electronics along with rising demand for research and development across all these industries is expected to drive the XPS market over the forecast period. In addition, rising popularity of hyphenated technologies and other technological advancements such as hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has prompted the growth of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy market. The ability of XPS to accurately identify contamination in the provided sample is also expected to contribute towards boosting usage rates. Rising demand for XPS technique for drug safety and medical research is expected to serve the market as a future growth opportunity. Presence of supportive government initiatives such as the Safe Use ...
In this thesis methods for investigation of orientation and conformation of individual macromolecules on surfaces are presented as well as novel methods for functionalization of silicon chips with the possibility to get an ordered immobilization of antibodies. Two novel methods are presented which makes it possible to investigate the orientation of individual macromolecules on different kinds of surfaces with AFM. One is based on threshold patterning where, depending on substrate, side- and end-on adsorbed immunoglobulin molecules could be detected. The other method is using the principle of site-specific ligands where the orientation of proteins adsorbed to various surfaces was evaluated. By measuring the increase in protein volume of the formed protein-ligand complexes with AFM, the amount of protein having an orientation that allows binding can be estimated. The influence of surface chemistry on protein structure was examined using human serum fibronectin adsorbed to hydrophilic and ...
The European X-ray Free Electron Laser has recently started with operation for users. An approximately 3 m long ultra high vacuum laser heater section is implemented to overcome possible electron bunch instabilities. We describe the process of determining the oxide layer thickness and surface roughness on test samples of the internal surface material in the laser heater vacuum chambers using elastic recoil detection analysis and optical surface profiling. The results are compared to specified values and show that surface roughness on the samples is larger than the requested maximum, with RMS deviations from a mean plane of up to 1.76 μm for 0.60 × 0.45 square millimeter scans. The maximum oxide layer thickness is 5.5 nm on non-electropolished surfaces assuming cuprous oxide with density 6.0 g per cubic centimeter and 4.0 nm on electropolished surfaces.. ...
We studied fluid flow at the stem-cement interface of bonded and debonded, polished and rough model femoral components. In a first series of experiments, fluid flow along the interface between bone cement and well-fixed model femoral components, differing in surface finish, and in shape, was measured. Fluid migration along the bone-cement interface of rough stems (Ra 3 microm) was greater than that on polished stems (p | 0.001). This was true of cylindrical and conical tapered stems. On stems with the same surface finish, shape did not influence fluid migration. In a second series of experiments, fluid flow along the stem-cement interface of 5 highly polished and 10 rough-finished (5 of Ra approximately 1.5 microm and 5 of Ra approximately 3 microm), debonded, tapered circular stems was measured. None of the rough stems could prevent fluid flow along the stem-cement interface. Polished tapered stems sealed the interface and, after 48 hrs of continuous pressure, no fluid flow was observed. This
This article reports the effects of nanometer surface roughness on the magnetic properties of CoFeHfO thin films, as deposited on Si (100) substrates. The surface roughness was controlled via the working pressure during the sputtering time. When the working pressure increases from 0.5 to 3 mT, the surface roughness (R) of CoFeHfO thin films, formed by islands with the average high R, increases from 0.25 nm to 4.66 nm, respectively. At surface roughness (R) = 4.66 nm, coercivity (H c) reaches the highest value of 0.42 Oe and magnetic anisotropy (H k) drops to the lowest value of 33 Oe. This suggests that the quality of the soft magnetic properties of thin film decrease due to the increase in surface roughness. However, at very low working pressure, thin films become a homogeneous structure which also exhibits poor soft magnetic properties. The optimum value, with H c of 0.10 Oe and H k of 50 Oe, were obtained at 1.5 mT of working pressure. The model of the roughness effect on the magnetic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction of hydrophilic surfaces with poly(vinyl ether)s and their interfacial properties in water. AU - Oda, Yukari. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Abstract: We studied the effect of polymer design on the interfacial structure and physical properties of polymer films in water based on a poly(vinyl ether) platform with hydrophilic side-chains to construct bioinert interfaces. Initially, we explored how to prepare hydrophilic surfaces using poly(vinyl ether)s, utilizing the preferential segregation of a rubbery component in a diblock copolymer film with a glassy component, crosslinking a hydrophilic polymer, and designing an interfacial modifier with a special architecture. Characterizing the interfacial structure and physical properties of the obtained polymer films in water revealed that a small difference in the side-chain structure significantly impacts the resultant interfacial properties of the polymers, leading to excellent blood compatibility. Furthermore, we ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Wood and Fiber-Based Composites. T2 - Surface Properties and Adhesion. AU - Gardner, Douglas. AU - Oporto, Gloria. AU - Tze, William. PY - 2016/5/17. Y1 - 2016/5/17. N2 - Summary: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale Wood Bonding Considerations Wood and Fiber Surface Properties Wood Surface Modification Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface Properties. AB - Summary: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale Wood Bonding Considerations Wood and Fiber Surface Properties Wood Surface Modification Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface ...
  The high demand for light metals as engineering materials lies in their high strength - to - weight ratio with good corrosion resistance in diverse environments. Passivation phenomena in these materials especially Al - based binary alloys have well been documented. However, the present study which aims at using model equations to investigate the passivation trend in various compositions of duplex Al - Zn alloy systems subjected to different concentrations of brine is totally new. The comparative plots of the generated values from the model equations with experimental data show that it correlated well with experimental observations.   Key words: Model equations, correlation, passivation, Duplex alloy systems.
Table 4.1. Water contact angles for self assembled monolayer surfaces on Au. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. A value of 0 indicates a low and ill defined angle. Samples of 180 and 181 used for these experiments were prepared using the method described in section 3.1.6.. The values for modified surfaces are significantly different from the bare gold samples indicating that SAM formation was successful. The observed angles fall into classes which parallel the gross structure of the molecules comprising the SAM. The amine and pyridine functionalized surfaces, 180, 181 and 184, exhibit lower advancing contact angles than the porphyrin monolayers. Monolayers terminated by polar functional groups have previously been reported to give rise to low qa.19 The mono- and di-thiol porphyrins, 227 - 229 and 223 - 225, all display qa in the range 102 - 108 consistent with a relatively hydrophobic surface, a result unsurprising given the alkyl substituents at the porphyrin periphery. qa of the ...
The sticking of product material to injection molding tools is a serious problem, which reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing alloy nitride coatings (TiN, ZrN, CrN, and TiAlCrN) using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating and electrodeposition of chromium, and characterizing their surface free energies in the temperature range 20-120°C have led to the development of a non-sticking (with a low surface free energy) coating system for semiconductor IC packaging molding dies. The contact angles of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperatures in the range 20-120°C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness of these coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings were measured using direct tensile ...
The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface and optical properties of Langmuir and LB films of a crown-ether C60 derivative. AU - Wang, Shaopeng. AU - Leblanc, Roger. AU - Arias, Francisco. AU - Echegoyen, Luis. PY - 1997/3/19. Y1 - 1997/3/19. N2 - The Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a benzo-18-crown-6-methanofullerene (1) were studied by spectrophotometry and Brëwster angle microscopy. The surface pressure-area isotherm of the C60 derivative (1) was obtained, and the compressibility of the isotherms was calculated. The addition of KCl to the water subphase stabilized the monolayer and increased the limiting area per molecule from 84 to 101 Å, which is near the theoretical value. The changes of the Langmuir monolayer UV-vis spectra as a function of time are considered to be due to fullerene aggregation. Polymerization was not detected upon UV irradiation, in contrast to what has been reported in the literature. Brëwster angle microscopy shows different aggregation properties of the ...
Calculation of surface free energy (SFE) from contact angle results, measurement of contact angles on solids yields data that reflect the thermodynamics of a liquid/solid interaction.
In the development of bioactive coatings on biomaterials, it is essential to characterize the successful fabrication and the uniformity of intended coatings by sensitive surface analytical techniques, so as to ensure reliable interpretation of observed biointerfacial responses. This can, however, be challenging when small bioactive molecules are grafted onto biomaterials surfaces at sub- and near-monolayer densities. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) provides the required sensitivity, but ion signals from small grafted molecules may still be dominated by fragment ions from the underlying polymer. In such cases, multivariate analysis provides valuable enhancement of spectral data, as illustrated here by examples comprising the surface grafting of bioactive serrulatane molecules, the peptide GRGDSP, the oligonucleotide 15-thymidine, and the antifungal compound Amphotericin B. The authors also show how ToF-SIMS plus principal component analysis can distinguish between ...
commit 9c3d34ca4db43e65b51407450b01d934df0821c2 Author: Stefan Schmidt ,[email protected], Date: Tue Apr 26 10:30:50 2016 +0200 docs: evas: description for various surface classes Describing surfaces classes for Wayland, TBM and X11. --- src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo , 2 ++ src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_wayland.eo , 2 ++ src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_x11.eo , 2 ++ 3 files changed, 6 insertions(+) diff --git a/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo b/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo index 9d16dc8..546cb21 100644 --- a/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo +++ b/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo @@ -1,5 +1,7 @@ class Efl.Canvas.Surface_Tbm (Efl.Canvas.Surface) { + [[Native Tizen Buffer Manager surface for Efl canvas]] + legacy_prefix: null; implements { Eo.Base.constructor; diff --git a/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_wayland.eo b/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_wayland.eo index 9cf9114..4734ef0 100644 --- ...
In this paper, the modified Euler-Bernoulli beam model is presented to examine the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface tension on the critical force of axial buckling of nanotubes in the presence of rotary inertia. An explicit solution is derived for the buckling loads of microscaled Euler beams considering surface effects. The size-dependent buckling behavior of the nanotube due to surface effects is well elucidated in the obtained solutions. The critical forces are evaluated for axial buckling of cantilever beams. The results are compared with those corresponding to the classical beam model. The influences of the surface effects on the critical forces are discussed in detail.
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local, regional, and global scales. Surface properties control the partitioning of energy within the surface energy budget to fluxes of shortwave and longwave radiation, sensible and latent heat, and ground heat storage. Changes in surface energy fluxes can impact the atmosphere across scales through changes in temperature, cloud cover, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. We test the sensitivity of the atmosphere to global changes in three land surface properties: albedo, evaporative resistance, and surface roughness. We show the impact of changing these surface properties differs drastically between simulations run with an offline land model, compared to coupled land-atmosphere simulations which allow for atmospheric feedbacks associated with land-atmosphere coupling. Atmospheric feedbacks play a critical role in defining the temperature response to changes in albedo and evaporative resistance, particularly in the extra-tropics. More than 50% of the surface temperature response to changing ...
The effect of surface topography on the long-term development (≈10 weeks) of biofilms has been investigated using a monitoring technique based on images produced by a flat-bed scanner and initially developed for flat surfaces. The biofilm response to rotation speed changes in lab-scale rotating biological contactors (RBCs) has been studied. Two RBCs, each containing five discs (two with flat surfaces and three with rough surfaces) were run initially at two different rotation speeds: 4 rpm for reactor I and 40 rpm for reactor II. After 47 days, the rotation speed was increased in reactor I to 40 rpm and decreased in reactor II to 4 rpm. Prior to the rotation speed change, the biofilm on the flat discs underwent large detachments in both reactors, but the biofilm on rough discs was less extensively damaged. The increase in rotation speed induced large detachments of the biofilm in reactor I on all discs, but the biofilm on the rough discs recovered more effectively with faster regrowth. In reactor II,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface characteristics and wetting properties of sol-gel coated base paper. AU - Wang, S.. AU - Mahlberg, Riitta. AU - Nikkola, Juha. AU - Mannila, Juha. AU - Jämsä, Saila. AU - Ritschkoff, Anne. AU - Peltonen, J.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Two hybrid coatings synthesized by using alkoxysilanes as precursors in a sol-gel process, differing from each other in terms of the organic components in alkoxysilanes, have been developed to improve the water repellent properties of base paper. The sol-gel‐coated base paper samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and contact angle measurements. The sol-gel coatings were found to clearly change the surface properties of base paper. Thin coating layers were formed on base paper surfaces. The topographical data indicated the formation of discontinuous thin films; the ...
Classical methods to analyze the surface composition of atmosphereless planetary objects from an orbiter are IR and gamma ray spectroscopy and neutron backscatter measurements. The idea to analyze surface properties with an in-situ instrument has been proposed by Johnson et al. (1998). There, it was suggested to analyze Europas thin atmosphere with an ion and neutral gas spectrometer. Since the atmospheric components are released by sputtering of the moons surface, they provide a link to surface composition. Here we present an improved, complementary method to analyze rocky or icy dust particles as samples of planetary objects from which they were ejected. Such particles, generated by the ambient meteoroid bombardment that erodes the surface, are naturally present on all atmosphereless moons and planets. The planetary bodies are enshrouded in clouds of ballistic dust particles, which are characteristic samples of their surfaces. In situ mass spectroscopic analysis of these dust particles ...
Silver nanoparticles (SNP) are the subject of worldwide commercialization because of their antimicrobial effects. Yet only little data on their mode of action exist. Further, only few techniques allow for visualization and quantification of unlabeled nanoparticles inside cells. To study SNP of different sizes and coatings within human macrophages, we introduce a novel laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) approach and prove this method superior to the widely applied confocal Raman and transmission electron microscopy. With time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) we further demonstrate characteristic fingerprints in the lipid pattern of the cellular membrane indicative of oxidative stress and membrane fluidity changes. Increases of protein carbonyl and heme oxygenase-1 levels in treated cells confirm the presence of oxidative stress biochemically. Intriguingly, affected phagocytosis reveals as highly sensitive end point of SNP-mediated adversity ...
inbook{5875afa7-6468-4741-88b2-bd174329b39d, abstract = {,p,This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection. In vitro model systems incorporating biological components from the host and taking into account the host environment of the infectious site are not well described. In a series of publications, we have shown that S. pneumoniae form complex biofilms in the nasopharynx of mice and have devised methodology to ...
In addition to the integration of implants with tissues via contact with other cells and extracellular matrix, another important factor regulating implant integration and the lifetime of the implant is the amount of contact it has with commensials and pathogenic microbes, in particular bacteria. Diagnostics of peri-implant infections is usually based on the bacterial culture, neutrophil infiltrates and other methods. Nonetheless, the current methods are not reliable enough. In the final part of this thesis, two methods that could potentially be utilised to diagnose implant infections were evaluated. It was found that time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is a potential tool for differentiating of acellular bacterial from eukaryotic footprints (i.e. extracellular polymeric substance and extracellular matrix produced by the respective cells) and may have potential for the post-hoc diagnosis of colonisation, biofilm formation and implant-related infections even in culture negative cases ...
An abrasive article is provided which comprises a backing; and at least one three-dimensional abrasive coating comprising diamond particles dispersed within a binder bonded to a surface of the backing, the binder comprising a cured binder precursor including a urethane acrylate oligomer. The abrasive article is capable of rapid glass stock removal coupled with reducing the surface finish as indicated by reduced Ra values using an RPP test procedure.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) and Poisson statistic were used to analyze the detachment work recorded during the removal of gold-covered microspheres from cardiac fibroblasts. The effect of Cytochalasin D, a disruptor of the actin cytoskeleton, on cell adhesion was also tested. The adhesion workwas assessed using a Poisson analysis also derived fromsingle-cell force spectroscopy retracting curves. The use of Poisson analysis to get adhesionwork fromAFM curves is quite a novel method, and in this case, proved to be effective to study the short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work. This method avoids the difficult identification of minor peaks in the AFMretracting curves by creating what can be considered an average adhesionwork. Even though the effect of actin depolymerisation iswell documented, its use revealed that control cardiac fibroblasts (CT) exhibit a work of adhesion at least 5 times higher than that of the Cytochalasin treated ...
Quality Alumina Ceramic Metal Bonding Metallization Tube With Surface Finish Ra0.4 Sim Ra0.8 Mum - Ceramic Metal Bonding on sale from aluminumoxideceramic.
Read New Perspectives on Surface Passivation: Understanding the Si-Al2O3 Interface by Lachlan E. Black with Rakuten Kobo. The book addresses the problem of passivation at the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells. More specifically, it r...
Nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) basically consists in a network of silicon nanocrystals with high specific surface. Its intrinsic high surface reactivity makes nanoPS a very suitable material for the development of biosensors. In this work, the surface of nanoPS was functionalized by the use of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane solutions in toluene. Escherichia coli (E. coli) antibodies were subsequently immobilized on the functionalized surfaces. Finally, fragments of this bacterium, which are specifically recognized by the antibodies, were immobilized. Moreover, devices with a metal/nanoPS/semiconductor/metal structure were fabricated aiming at the electrical biosensing of E. Coli bacterium. The experimental results showed a strong variation of the current as a function of the presence/ absence of bacterium E. Coli and surface concentration ...
Foerster, A, Holowacz, I, Kumar, GBS, Anandakumar, S, Wall, JG, Wawrzynska, M, Paprocka, M, Kantor, A, Kraskiewicz, H, Olsztynska-Janus, S et al, Hinder, SJ, Bialy, D, Podbielska, H and Kopaczynska, M. (2016) Stainless steel surface functionalization for immobilization of antibody fragments for cardiovascular applications ...
LOAD INTRODUCING ELEMENT - A load introducing element for a control surface of an aircraft or a spacecraft comprises at least one first component, one second component and one first flange. At least one surface area of the first component is adapted to conform to the inner contour of the control surface. The second component has at least one eye for receiving bearing means for mounting the control surface. A cross sectional profile of the first component has two or more essentially straight legs, which are connected together on their upper side by an upper edge which is adapted to an upper contour of the control surface. The load introducing element is formed by a fiber reinforced composite material having an integral type of construction in which all of the components are jointly infiltrated and cured. The invention also provides a method for producing such a load introducing element, a drive armature and an aircraft that includes such a load bearing element ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ERYTHROCYTE AND GRANULOCYTE INTERACTIONS WITH ENDOTHELIALIZED POLYMER SURFACES.. AU - Hawthorn, L. A.. AU - Williams, A.. AU - Haywood, S.. AU - Absolom, D. R.. PY - 1987/7/1. Y1 - 1987/7/1. N2 - In this paper the authors have examined the influence of substrate surface properties on the extent of endothelialization of polymer materials. For this purpose a number of substrates with a wide range of surface tensions have been employed. The authors also have investigated the interaction of suspensions of granulocytes (PMNs) and erythrocytes (RBCs) from homologous species with the endothelialized surfaces. This part of the study was undertaken to evaluate whether the adherent endothelial cells behaved in a manner consistent with the natural intima and to determine the influence (if any) of the underlying substrate material on PMN and RBC adhesion.. AB - In this paper the authors have examined the influence of substrate surface properties on the extent of endothelialization of polymer ...
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Y-TZP zirconia specimens in three experimental groups were subjected to Y-TZP particle deposition via dipping into the milling residue suspension at different times prior to the sintering process. The dipping procedure was repeated twice for each specimen in group B, six times in group C, and ten times in group D. The specimens subjected to airborne-particle abrasion (110 μm Al2 O3, Rocatec Pre) acted as the control group (group A). All of the specimens were then bonded using adhesive resin cement (RelyX Ultimate). A μ-PO test was used to determine the bond strength values. One-way ANOVA at a 5% confidence level was performed for data analysis. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the failure modes and surface structure ...
Passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) dosing was studied on the clean Ge(100) surface at the atomic level using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Chemical analysis of the surface was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while the bonding of the precursors to the substrate was modeled with density functional theory (DFT). At room temperature, a saturation dose of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) produces a monolayer of a mixture of -OH or -O species bonded to the surface. STS confirms that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) dosing eliminates half-filled dangling bonds on the clean Ge(100) surface. Saturation of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) dosed Ge(100) surface with TMA followed by a 200 °C anneal produces an ordered monolayer of thermally stable Ge-O-Al bonds. DFT models and STM simulations provide a consistent model of the bonding configuration of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(g) and TMA dosed ...
One of the most important purposes of surface treatment is to alter surface properties according to the requirement of specific applications. For example, hydrophobic coating has been utilized on windshield and eyeglasses. Gold atom monolayer on substrate has become a popular surface bioconjugation strategy. At Matexcel, with our strong experience in surface chemical treatment, various custom coating services are provided, including hydrophobic, hydrophilic and oleophobic treatments, as well as single atom and organic layer bonding on the surfaces. Polymers have been used in the modification of various surfaces to control and modify surface properties. Substrates with controlled polymer brush thickness are utilized in both research studies and industrial applications. A variety of advanced properties like physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, mechanical, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant properties at substrate surfaces can be altered by surface modification of polymers. For ...
By Wileen Wong Kromhout. Bacteria use various appendages to move across surfaces prior to forming multicellular bacterial biofilms. Some species display a particularly jerky form of movement known as twitching motility, which is made possible by hairlike structures on their surface called type IV pili, or TFP.. TFP act like Batmans grappling hooks, said Gerard Wong, a professor of bioengineering and of chemistry and biochemistry at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science and the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) at UCLA. These grappling hooks can extend and bind to a surface and retract and pull the cell along.. In a study to be published online this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Wong and his colleagues at UCLA Engineering identify the complex sequence of movements that make up this twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a biofilm-forming pathogen partly responsible for the deadly infections seen in cystic fibrosis.. During ...