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296001088 - EP 0984903 A1 2000-03-15 - REMOVAL OF TECHNETIUM IMPURITIES FROM URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE - [origin: US5826163A] Processes for the removal of technetium from contaminated uranium hexafluoride containing technetium, typically as technetium-99 (99Tc) in nominal chemical forms are provided. The processes involve contacting the contaminated liquefied uranium hexafluoride with a metal fluoride, typically magnesium fluoride (MgF2), for a period of time sufficient for the technetium to become adsorbed onto the metal fluoride thereby producing a purified uranium hexafluoride liquid; and removing the purified uranium hexafluoride liquid from the metal fluoride having adsorbed technetium.[origin: US5826163A] Processes for the removal of technetium from contaminated uranium hexafluoride containing technetium, typically as technetium-99 (99Tc) in nominal chemical forms are provided. The processes involve contacting the contaminated liquefied uranium hexafluoride with a metal fluoride, typically magnesium
Use of 25% sulfur hexafluoride gas mixture may minimize short-term postoperative hypotony in sutureless 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy surgery Yoreh Barak, James W Heroman, Shlomit SchaalDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative intraocular pressures and percentage of vitreous cavity gas fill one day following 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with 20% versus 25% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas fill.Methods: This was a retrospective review of 187 consecutive cases of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with complete fluid/gas exchange. The main outcome measures included percentage of gas fill of the vitreous cavity and intraocular pressure on postoperative day one.Results: Fifty eyes underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with 20% SF6 tamponade and 137 with 25% SF6 tamponade. On postoperative day one in the 20% SF6 group, there were five (10%) patients with hypotony (intraocular pressure ≤ 5
Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare sulfur hexafluoride microbubble (SonoVue)-enhanced myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to coronary angiography (CA) for assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Small-scale studies have shown that myocardial perfusion assessed by SonoVue-enhanced MCE is a viable alternative to SPECT for CAD assessment. However, large multicenter studies are lacking. Methods Patients referred for myocardial ischemia testing at 34 centers underwent rest/vasodilator SonoVue-enhanced flash-replenishment MCE, standard Tc-99m-labeled electrocardiography-gated SPECT, and quantitative CA within 1 month. Myocardial ischemia assessments by 3 independent, blinded readers for MCE and 3 readers for SPECT were collapsed into 1 diagnosis per patient per technique and were compared to CA (reference standard) read by 1 independent blinded reader. Results Of 628 enrolled patients who received ...
Everyone here knows what happens when someone inhales helium right? Since helium is 6 times less dense than air, sounds go through it much faster, making people who inhale it sound like chipmunks. But do you know what happens when sulfur hexafluoride is enhaled?? Watch the following video to find out.. ...
Browse Sulfur Hexafluoride Analyzers (SF6) in the Nova Analytical Systems catalog including Portable Process Sulfur Hexaflouride Gas Analyzer - 337 Series,Portable Methane Leak Detector- 339 Series,Continuous Process Analyzer for Binary Ga
The artificial tracer sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) has been used to study the density-driven deep water exchange between two sill-separated basins of Lake Lucerne, Gersauersee and Urnersee. The sources of the density gradients between the two basins are (1) salinity differences between the major inlets due to the different geology of their drainage areas, and (2) temperature differences due to spatial variation of wind forcing. Wind speeds are generally larger in Urnersee, especially in spring during the so-called Fohn events, when winds blow from the south. In contrast, Gersauersee is protected form these winds. In spring 1989, a total of 630 g of SF6 was released at 80 to 120 m depth in the small Treib Basin located between Urnersee and Gersauersee. During about 100 days the distribution of SF6 in the lake was determined by gaschromatography. Two models are used to quantify the exchange flow (1) a one-box mass balance model for SF6 in the deep part of Treib Basin, and (2) a one-dimensional diffusion
Aluminum and aluminum alloy melts are purified by removing entrained gaseous impurities and solid particulate impurities, primarily aluminum oxides, by bubbling a non-corrosive intimate mixture of sulfur hexafluoride in an inert gas. Magnesium levels, if present, are not significantly reduced. The process is reliable and the gas mixture safe for aluminum purifying operations and procedures.
The products are summed up: The LW8A-40.5 type outdoor high-pressure sulfur hexafluoride router is 50 hertzs of outdoor high-pressure electrical apparatus three-phase alternating currents; Suitable fo
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Objective. We aimed to determine whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on breast cancer.. Methods. The clinical responses of 63 consecutive patients with breast cancer (T1-4, N0-1, M0) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy between October 2012 and May 2015 were assessed using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Perfusion parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were created from time-intensity curves based on enhancement intensity and temporal changes to objectively evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography to predict a pathological complete response were compared after confirming the pathological findings of surgical specimens.. Results. Twenty-three (36.5%) of the 63 patients ...
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Gas type available: chemical, paint, explosive, alcohols, disinfectant, biocide, embalming agent, manufacturing, textile industry, resins, EPA, OSHA, TWA, STEL, NIOSH, gas detector, gas sensor, gas analyser, gas detection system, gas sensor transmitter, gas transmitter, automobile, nuclear, continuous monitoring, coal mines, food processing, bakery, oil & gas, toxic gas, combustible gas sensor, combustible gas detector, battery room, ripening chamber, cold room, building ventilation, parking ventilation, pharmaceutical, labs, clean rooms, filter monitoring, mine ventilation, bottling plant, gas reticulation, hospitals, steel, rolling mills, paint booth, level monitoring, leakage monitor, tunnel ventilation.. ...
0100]A clathrate-forming gas, e.g., sulfur hexafluoride and/or xenon, may be used to reversibly hypothermically preserve whole organs or parts of organs from animals. For example, a clathrate inducing gas under pressure, e.g., a mixture of sulfur hexafluoride at a partial pressure of about 90 pounds per square inch and oxygen at a partial pressure of about 10 pounds per square inch (for a total pressure of 100 pounds per square inch) or a mixture of xenon at a partial pressure of about 90 pounds per square inch and oxygen at a partial pressure of about 10 pounds per square inch (for a total pressure of 100 pounds per square inch), may be imposed on an organ such as a heart, kidney, or liver. The high-pressure chamber with the organ may be cooled on ice for about 1 hour, say, to a temperature approaching 0° C. The high-pressure chamber with the organ can then be cooled to a temperature of about -20° C., the pressure of the clathrate inducing gas may be released, and the organism, e.g., ...
EXTRACT: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), which can be collectively described as Kyoto Protocol synthetic GHGs (KP-SGGs). HFCs are used extensively in Australia, largely in air conditioning and refrigeration, initially as ozone-friendly replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Minor uses of HFCs in Australia are as aerosol propellants, including metered dose inhalers (MDIs), as foam blowing agents and in fire extinguishers. PFCs are a by-product of the production of aluminium in Australia and overseas and, in addition, are used overseas in the electronics industry during the manufacture of integrated circuits and plasma screens. Refrigeration represents a very minor use of PFCs in Australia and overseas. Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in the electricity distribution industry, both in Australia and overseas, for dielectric insulation ...
Modelling new particle formation from Jülich plant atmosphere chamber and CERN CLOUD chamber measurements. Liao, Li; Boy, Michael; Mogensen, Ditte; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Franchin, Alessandro; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kleist, Einhard; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kulmala, Markku; dal Maso, Miikka // AIP Conference Proceedings;May2013, Vol. 1527 Issue 1, p173 An MALTE-BOX model is used to study the effects of oxidation of SO2 and BVOCs to new particle formation from Ju¨lich Plant Atmosphere Chamber and CERN CLOUD chamber measurements. Several days of continuously measurements were chosen for the simulation. Our preliminary results show that H2SO4... ...
The EPA will maintain greenhouse gas thresholds that target the nations largest emitters, which account for nearly 70 percent of pollution from stationary sources. The final rule will shield smaller emitters from permitting requirements, and establishes a provision that allows companies to set plant-wide emissions limits, known as Plantwide Applicability Limitations, … Read more ». ...
As the global climate emergency continues to loom over human civilization, feverish work is underway around the world to find technical and political solutions to the problem. Much has been gained in recent years, but as global emissions continue to increase, there remains much left to do to stave off the most catastrophic effects of climate change.. Renewable energy has led the charge, allowing humanity to continue to enjoy the wonders of electricity with a reduced environmental impact. The future looks promising, with renewable sources becoming cheaper than traditional fossil fuel energy plants in many cases, both in the US and abroad. At the same time, the rise of renewable technologies has brought new and varied challenges to the fore, which must be dealt with in kind. Take wind energy, for instance. Continue reading "What Will We Do With The Turbine Blades?" →. ...
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What did you do?. 25 children (between 4 and 16 years) with CF performed lung function before and after inhalation of salbutamol/atrovent/saline and chest physiotherapy. Lung function consisted of lung function tests (spirometry) and gas washout tests. For gas washout tests subjects breathed 100% oxygen or a mixture of two gases (sulfur hexafluoride and helium) during one normal breath. The shape of the graph of the results of the measurement of these gases reflects how well the gas is mixed in the small airways of the lung, a very sensitive marker of CF lung disease severity.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measuring tumor perfusion in control and treated murine tumors. T2 - Correlation of microbubble contrast-enhanced sonography to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. AU - Niermann, Kenneth J.. AU - Fleischer, Arthur C.. AU - Huamani, Jessica. AU - Yankeelov, Thomas E.. AU - Kim, Dong W.. AU - Wilson, Wendy D.. AU - Hallahan, Dennis E.. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of dynamic microbubble contrast-enhanced sonography (MCES), in comparison with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), to quantitatively characterize tumor perfusion in implanted murine tumors before and after treatment with a variety of regimens. Methods. Seventeen mice with Lewis lung carcinoma implants were categorized to control, radiation therapy alone, antiangiogenic chemotherapy alone, and ...
The sensitivity can be enhanced using intravenous contrast media, such as Sonovue (sulphur hexafluoride with phospholipid gel). A bolus of 2.4mL is injected intravenously. Such enhancement is especially helpful in detecting metastases smaller than 10 mm. Melanoma metastases tend to be hypervascular so that they are hyper-reflective compared to the surrounding liver in the arterial phase, becoming relatively hyporeflective later in the scan. With contrast, ultrasonography is reported to be as sensitive as computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As with standard ultrasonography, ultrasound with contrast depends on the skill of the examiner and is less sensitive in obese patients ...
The Bureau of Mines used sulfur hexafluoride (sf6) tracer gas to evaluate the effectiveness of gob ventilation and/or sealing practices at three coal mines, each having different problems associated with their mined-out areas. The purpose of these ventilation studies was to better understand whether current techniques employed for ventilation or sealing are successful at minimizing the potential for gob fires and explosions. The work performed at each mine is discussed: one is a longwall operation that uses ventilation to carry off hazardous gases, and two are room-and-pillar operations, each with far different concerns, that seal off the gobs to isolate them from the main mine ventilation. In all cases, employment of the Bureaus sf6 tracer gas technique resulted in answers to questions raised by the mine operators concerning the effectiveness of their gob ventilation or sealing practices in preventing mine fires.. ...
As with all gases, the density of SF6 affects the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract, thus changing drastically the vocal sound qualities, or timbre, of those who inhale it. On the other hand, it does not affect the vibrations of the vocal folds. The density of sulfur hexafluoride is relatively high at room temperature and pressure due to the gass large molar mass. Unlike helium, which has a molar mass of about 4 grams/mol and gives the voice a childish and "Donald Duck" quality, SF6 has a molar mass of about 146 g/mol, and the velocity of sound through the gas is 0.44 times the speed of sound in air due to the large inertia of a SF6 molecule. For comparison, the molar mass of air, which is about 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen, is approximately 30 g/mol. Inhalation of SF6 causes a lowering of the timbre, or frequency of the formants, of the vocal tract, by contrast with inhalation of helium, which raises it. ...
Previous studies have shown that rain significantly enhances the rate of air-water gas exchange. However, even though an empirical correlation between the rain rate or kinetic energy flux (KEF) delivered to the water surface by rain and the gas transfer velocity has been established, the physical mechanisms underlying the gas exchange enhancement remain unexamined. During a series of experiments, the processes behind rain-induced air-water gas exchange were examined at NASAs Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF). Gas transfer velocities for helium (He), nitrous oxide (N2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were determined for 22 rain rates (13.6 to 115.2 mm h(-1)) and three drop sizes (2.3, 2.8, 4.2 mm). Bubbles generated by the raindrops were characterized using a video-microscope technique, and surface waves were characterized by a capacitance probe. Additionally, rain-generated turbulence was inferred from friction velocities u(*w) calculated from KEF. Together, these data suggest that ...
Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas - one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being ...
Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas - one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being ...
Background: Lung clearance index (LCI) is a sensitive marker of early lung disease in children, but has not been assessed in adults. Measurement is hindered by the complexity of the equipment required. The aims of this study were to assess performance of a novel gas analyser (InnocorTM), and to use it as a clinical tool for the measurement of LCI in cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: LCI was measured in 48 healthy adults, 12 healthy school-age children, and 33 adults with CF, by performing an inert gas washout from 0.2% sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 signal:noise ratio and 10-90% rise time of Innocor were compared to a mass spectrometer used in similar studies in children. Results: Compared to the mass spectrometer, Innocor has a superior signal:noise ratio, but a slower rise time (150 ms v 60 ms) which may limit its use in very young children. Mean (SD) LCI in healthy adults was significantly different from that in CF patients: 6.7 (0.4) v 13.1 (3.8), p,0.0001. Ten of the CF patients had ...
Transient tracers are substances that have a time-dependent concentration that can be explored to learn about circulation and ventilation time-scales. Our working group is mainly working with the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds 12 and 11, and the compound sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). These compounds are released to the atmosphere and enter the ocean through air-sea exchange. Accurate measurements of these compounds in the ocean interior is the focus of our practical work, and we use this information to calculate properties like the mean age of a water mass, or the concentration of anthropogenic CO2. In addition to measuring transient tracers, we are conducting deliberately released tracer experiments. This means that we inject an artificial tracer (CF3SF5) on a well-defined density layer in the interior ocean. By measuring the dispersion of the tracer over time we can draw conclusions on the lateral and vertical mixing rates, as well as the large scale transport (advection) of the tracer. We ...
Chemical and isotopic data were obtained from ground water and surface water throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB), New Mexico, and supplemented with selected data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and City of Albuquerque water-quality database in an effort to refine the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the basin. The ground-water data collected as part of this study include major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water, carbon-13 content and carbon-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfur-34 content of dissolved sulfate, tritium, and dissolved atmospheric gases including nitrogen, argon, helium, chlorofluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride from 288 wells and springs in parts of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. The surface-water data collected as part of this study include monthly measurements of major- and minor-element chemistry (30 elements), oxygen-18 and deuterium content of water,
Abstract. High-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) from Darjeeling, India are presented from December 2011 (CH4)/March 2012 (N2O and SF6) through February 2013. These measurements were made on a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and electron capture detector, and were calibrated on the Tohoku University, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)-98 and SIO-2005 scales for CH4, N2O and SF6, respectively. The observations show large variability and frequent pollution events in CH4 and N2O mole fractions, suggesting significant sources in the regions sampled by Darjeeling throughout the year. By contrast, SF6 mole fractions show little variability and only occasional pollution episodes, likely due to weak sources in the region. Simulations using the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) particle dispersion model suggest that many of the enhancements in the three gases result from ...
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGvHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is characterized by impairment of the small airways. Assessment of lung clearance index (LCI) gained from multiple breath washout (MBW) is more sensitive than spirometry in detection of small airways disease. The aim of this study was to describe the development of LCI during the first year after pediatric HSCT and how LCI relates to other pulmonary function parameters and cGvHD.. METHODS: This prospective, longitudinal study included 28 pediatric HSCT-recipients. Spirometry, Sulfur hexafluoride MBW and diffusion capacity of the lungs were performed before and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after HSCT. Respiratory symptoms and signs of cGvHD were recorded at each visit.. RESULTS: Before HSCT, 47.8% had abnormal LCI and 12.5% had abnormal forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ). Patients with persisting respiratory symptoms 12 months post-HSCT had higher median LCI (factor 5.7, P = ...
Usun N2/Ar/CH4/He/Sf6/H2/O2/N2o/CO2 Gas Transfer and…Booster Pump Air Separation Unit Air Compressor PumpVacuum pump SF6 Gas recovery Discharging Injection…sulfur hexafluoride disposal pinggao electricSf6 Gas…which re-use henan. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Venous admixture (Qva/Q) and true shunt (Qs/Qt) in ARF patients. T2 - Effects of PEEP at constant FIO2. AU - Pesenti, A.. AU - Riboni, A.. AU - Marcolin, R.. AU - Gattinoni, L.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Venous admixture (Qva/Q) in ARF patients is due to both true right to left shunt (Qs/Qt: perfusion of truly unventilated areas) and to maldistribution ((Qva-Qs)/Qt: effects of unevenness of ventilation/perfusion ratio). Using the retention rate of sulphur hexafluoride we determined the effects of PEEP on Qs/Qt and (Qva-Qs)/Qt at a constant FIO2 for each patient (0.57±0.19 SD, range 0.4-0.95). Eleven patients with ARF (treated either by CPPV or CPAP) were studied on 16 occasions. Each measurement was repeated at two levels of PEEP, 5 cm H2O below and 5 cm H2O above the patients clinically determined PEEP level. The increase in PEEP resulted in: - a decrease in Qva/Q (from 0.37±0.13 to 0.27±0.12, pIO2: (Qva-Qs)/Qva=0.75-0.86 FIO2 (r=0.74, pIO2 (0.4-0.6).. AB - Venous admixture ...
A plasma process apparatus having a plasma chamber with in situ monitoring, a monitoring method, and a method for in situ cleaning a plasma chamber. The apparatus includes a sampling manifold which induces flow of a sample gas from a plasma chamber through the manifold. A gas analyzer analyzes the sample gas flowing through the sampling manifold. The in situ monitoring method monitors an initial gas to establish background levels, and bakes the apparatus to reduce contaminants, if necessary. The monitoring method then monitors a process reaction and, after unloading a wafer and discharging a waste gas, monitors an in situ cleaning reaction. Monitoring involves inducing flow of a gas from the plasma chamber through the sampling manifold, and then analyzing the gas in the manifold with a gas analyzer. The cleaning method includes using a mixture of sulfur hexafluoride and chlorine to clean the plasma chamber after etching a polysilicon layer.
A method for a multiple-stage microwave plasma cleaning technique for efficiently cleaning a substrate processing chamber. In a specific embodiment, a two-stage cleaning process is described. The first stage begins by flowing a reactive gas from a gas source into a processing chamber where microwaves ignite and maintain a plasma from the reactive gas. Reactive radicals generated which react with residues on the interior surfaces of the processing chamber. In the second stage, an inert gas is flowed into the processing chamber in addition to the reactive gas. Microwaves then ignite and maintain a plasma from the reactive gas and optionally, the inert gas as well. Optionally, an inert gas can be flowed into the processing chamber prior to the first stage to remove loose particles from the processing chamber. The reactive gas in such embodiments is preferably NF 3 , but other fluorine-containing gases such as carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) may also be used. Moreover,
ORNL DAAC: This data set contains measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) collected from December 2000-November 2005 as vertical profiles above three sites in Brazil: Fortaleza, Santarem, and Manaus. At Santarem, ascending profiles were made above the Tapajos National Forest, near the km 67 Tower Site. At Manaus, ascending profiles were made above the K34 flux tower (aka, ZF2 km 34 tower) to the northwest of the city of Manaus. Descending profiles were flown nearby, but at locations upwind of population centers to avoid possible pollution. Fortaleza samples were collected off the coast, over the Atlantic Ocean to sample background air before it flows over the Amazon Basin. Air samples were collected as discrete samples aboard light aircraft and shipped to laboratories for analysis relative to internationally accepted calibration standards. There are three comma-delimited (.csv) data
ORNL DAAC: This data set provides atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, molecular hydrogen, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, and other trace gas mole fractions (i.e.
FLIR optical gas imaging (OGI) cameras can help you detect methane, sulfur hexafluoride, and hundreds of other industrial gases quickly, accurately, and safely - without shutting down systems.
The SF6 Emission Reduction Partnership for Electric Power Systems is a collaborative effort between EPA and the electric power industry to identify and implement cost-effective solutions to reduce sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions. SF6 is a highly potent greenhouse gas used in the industry for insulation and current interruption in electric transmission and distribution equipment. Currently 81 utilities participate in this voluntary program. ...
At Jay Leno a couple of months ago, Josh Duhamel demonstrated the behaviour of a different gas heavier than the components of air. He described it as "anti-helium", the correct name is SF 6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride). This is a nice demonstration at science shows. The gas is harmless to people (in moderate doses), but harms the ozone layer. So please consider the risks for the environment if you wish to use this demo ...
Chemists use nomenclature rules to clearly name compounds. Ionic and molecular compounds are named using somewhat-different methods. Binary ionic compounds typically consist of a metal and a nonmetal. The name of the metal is written first, followed by the name of the nonmetal with its ending changed to -ide. For example, K2O is called potassium oxide. If the metal can form ions with different charges, a Roman numeral in parentheses follows the name of the metal to specify its charge. Thus, FeCl2 is iron(II) chloride and FeCl3 is iron(III) chloride. Some compounds contain polyatomic ions; the names of common polyatomic ions should be memorized. Molecular compounds can form compounds with different ratios of their elements, so prefixes are used to specify the numbers of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. Examples include SF6, sulfur hexafluoride, and N2O4, dinitrogen tetroxide. Acids are an important class of compounds containing hydrogen and having special nomenclature rules. ...
Organofluorine chemistry began in the 1800s with the development of organic chemistry.[17] [36] The first organofluorine compounds were prepared using antimony trifluoride as the F− source. The nonflammability and nontoxicity of the chlorofluorocarbons CCl3F and CCl2F2 attracted industrial attention in the 1920s. on April 6, 1938, Roy J. Plunkett a young research chemist who worked at DuPonts Jackson Laboratory in Deepwater, New Jersey, accidentally discovered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).[37]discovered polytetrafluoroethylene.[38][39] Subsequent major developments, especially in the US, benefited from expertise gained in the production of uranium hexafluoride.[5] Starting in the late 1940s, a series of electrophilic fluorinating methodologies were introduced, beginning with CoF3. Electrochemical fluorination ("electrofluorination") was announced, which Joseph H. Simons had developed in the 1930s to generate highly stable perfluorinated materials compatible with uranium hexafluoride.[14] ...
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BK Medical offers the 8824, a transducer that provides CEUS - contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging, to aid in the detection of lesions and the evaluation of vascularity. Compared with traditional B-mode ultrasound imaging, CEUS can provide the surgeon with additional information that is crucial to accurate diagnosis and the verification of treatment. It is also introducing of a compact surgical transducer with selectable, perpendicular arrays engineered to make it easier for surgeons to access difficult-to-reach sections of the abdominal cavity. The 8824 I- and T-shaped intraoperative transducer measures only about the length of a matchstick. The small and thin proportions allow access to difficult-to-access and tight areas, while still providing clear, detailed ultrasound images of the liver, pancreas, or kidney. The 8824 allows the surgeon to follow the path of a needle on the ultrasound image when taking free-hand biopsies from the front, back, left, or right of the transducer. The 8824 ...
Imaging of growing vasculature and quantitative measurement of perfusion are very important in the assessment of clinical efficacy of angiogenic therapies. Strong vascular growth during therapeutic angiogenesis by overexpression of VEGF family members involving abundant capillary enlargement leading to capillary arterialization (6) and increased vascular permeability interferes with many current vascular imaging and perfusion measurement techniques. We found in this study that real-time CPS ultrasound imaging is a feasible and accurate perfusion measurement method after GT for therapeutic vascular growth in peripheral muscles of small and large experimental animals.. None of the current noninvasive perfusion measurement techniques, such as DCE-MRI, CT, SPECT, PET, laser Doppler, optical imaging methods, and previous ultrasound techniques, can provide simultaneous capillary level imaging at a high frame-rate, good penetration, efficient contrast agent separation from background tissue, and a ...
Bracco Diagnostics Inc., the U.S. subsidiary of Bracco Imaging S.p.A., one of the worlds leading companies in the diagnostic imaging business, announced today that the labeling of its contrast agent MultiHance® has obtained FDA approval for an extension to include MRI of the CNS in pediatric patients younger than 2 years of age (including term neonates), to visualize lesions with abnormal blood-brain barrier or abnormal vascularity of the brain, spine, and associated tissues.
The Department of Energy is providing advance notice of its intent to prepare an environmental impact statement pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The environmental impact statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of alternative strategies for the...
Browse structures of molecules and ions that have names beginning with the letter X, including xenon hexafluoride and xanthophyll.
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