Scope This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the sulfur content by oxidative microcoulometry of petroleum light and middle distillates with a final boiling point not higher than 400 °C. It is applicable to materials with sulfur contents in the range of 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Products with sulfur contents above 100 mg/kg can be analysed after dilution with a suitable sulfur-free solvent. Products with sulfur contents below 1 mg/kg can also be analysed by a modified technique described in Annex A. The precision quoted only applies to measurements in the 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg range. Nitrogen interferes with the analysis at concentrations above 0,1 % (m/m), and chlorine interferes at concentrations above 1,0 % (m/m), but these interferences are overcome by the addition of sodium azide to the cell electrolyte. Bromine and organometallic compounds also interfere with the analysis at concentrations above approximately 500 mg/kg. NOTE 1 The microcoulometric method is ...
Scope This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the sulfur content by oxidative microcoulometry of petroleum light and middle distillates with a final boiling point not higher than 400 °C. It is applicable to materials with sulfur contents in the range of 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Products with sulfur contents above 100 mg/kg can be analysed after dilution with a suitable sulfur-free solvent. Products with sulfur contents below 1 mg/kg can also be analysed by a modified technique described in Annex A. The precision quoted only applies to measurements in the 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg range. Nitrogen interferes with the analysis at concentrations above 0,1 % (m/m), and chlorine interferes at concentrations above 1,0 % (m/m), but these interferences are overcome by the addition of sodium azide to the cell electrolyte. Bromine and organometallic compounds also interfere with the analysis at concentrations above approximately 500 mg/kg. NOTE 1 The microcoulometric method is ...
This report attempts to show the sulfur content of the coal presently produced in the United States and to assess the remaining reserves of the various ranks of coal in each State, according to sulfur content. In most instances, the analyses used were those of cleaned coals. Coals were arbitrarily separated, according to sulfur content, as follows: Low sulfur--1.0 percent or less; medium sulfur--1.1 through 3.0 percent; and high sulfur--3.1 percent or more.. ...
0009]To attain this goal, the method in accordance with the invention for the determination of the sulfur content in fuels provides for the introduction of a sample of a fuel to be investigated in a combustion chamber, for the sulfur contained in the sample to be oxidized to SO2, for the gas mixture formed in the combustion chamber after the oxidation of the sulfur, or a part thereof, to be conducted to a gas sensor sensitive to SO2 in the gas mixture, for the SO2 fraction of the gas mixture to be ascertained by means of the gas sensor and for the sulfur content of the sample to be determined from the ascertained SO2 fraction of the gas mixture. Preferably, the combustion chamber is miniaturized and/or designed to be in a microstructured form. Thus, a method is described which can be implemented with simple components, wherein a simple management is possible when carrying out the method ...
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D7679 - 16 Standard Test Method for Sulfur Content in Carbon Black Feedstock Oils , carbon black, combustion, feedstock, hydrocarbon oil, sulfur content, x-ray fluorescence,,
101 PURPOSE: To limit the emission of compounds of sulfur from combustion of fuels.. 110 EXEMPTIONS: The provisions of this rule shall not apply to:. 110.1 The burning of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, acid sludge or other sulfur compounds in the manufacturing of sulfur or other sulfur compounds;. 110.2 The incinerating of waste gases provided that the gross heating value of such gases is less than 2.14 kilogram- calories per cubic meter (300 British Thermal Units per cubic foot) at standard conditions and the fuel used to incinerate such waste gases does not contain sulfur or sulfur compounds in excess of the mount specified in this rule;. 110.3 The use of solid fuels in any metallurgical process;. 110.4 The use of fuels where the gaseous products of combustion are used as raw materials for other processes;. 110.5 The use of liquid, or solid fuel, to propel or test any vehicle, aircraft, missile, locomotive, boat or ship;. 110.6 The use of fuel with higher sulfur content where process conditions or ...
A process for reducing sulfur content in a gaseous stream with the production of elemental sulfur by first treating the gaseous steam with hydrogenation and hydrolysis to convert substantially all of the sulfur components therein to hydrogen sulfide. Then reducing the water content of the gaseous stream to optimize chemical equilibrium. Thereafter, the gaseous steam is contacted in an oxidation reactor with an acid catalyst at a temperature of about 150 C. to about 350 C. to convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The product gas leaving the oxidation reactor is cooled to separate elemental sulfur by condensation. The acid catalyst is a shape selective zeolite, a metal-exchanged or impregnated alumina, or a mixture thereof. The alumina is gamma phase alumina impregnated with from about 0.2 wt % to about 2.0 wt % metal.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfur starvation in rice. T2 - the effect on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and oxidative stress protective pathways. AU - Lunde, Christina. AU - Zygadlo, Agnieszka. AU - Simonsen, Henrik Toft. AU - Nielsen, Per Lassen. AU - Blennow, Andreas. AU - Haldrup, Anna. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Sulfur-deficient plants generate a lower yield and have a reduced nutritional value. The process of sulfur acquisition and assimilation play an integral role in plant metabolism, and response to sulfur deficiency involves a large number of plant constituents. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the second most consumed cereal grain, and the effects of sulfur deprivation in rice were analyzed by measuring changes in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and antioxidants. The photosynthetic apparatus was severely affected under sulfur deficiency. The Chl content was reduced by 49% because of a general reduction of PSII and PSI and the associated light-harvesting antenna. The PSII efficiency was ...
10. Eggs promote healthy hair plus nails on account of their high sulphur content plus wide array of vitamins plus minerals. ... 20 Health Benefits of Turmeric - posted in ... Jump to content. Signup Sign in; ... (as of plants) plus all the other sulfur containing plant foods like onions, garlic, kale ...
0042] In reference to FIG. 5, in one embodiment of the invention process 100E, biomass 102 is provided to digestion system 106 that may have one or more digester(s), whereby the biomass is contacted with a digestive solvent. The solvent liquor 110 containing the dissolved nitrogen compounds and dissolved sulfur compounds and at least a portion of the lignin are removed from the treated biomass pulp 120 that contains carbohydrates and having less than 35% of the sulfur content, preferably less than 10% of the sulfur content, and most preferably less than 3% of the sulfur content, and less than 35% of the nitrogen content, preferably less than 10% of the nitrogen content, and most preferably less than 3% of the nitrogen content, based on the nitrogen content or sulfur content, respectively, of the untreated biomass 102 on a dry mass basis. At least a portion of the treated biomass pulp 120 is fed to a first digestive zone of an aqueous reforming system 126A, whereby the treated biomass pulp is ...
This application note describes the analysis of sulfur contents larger than 0.10 wt% in crude oils, according to international standard ISO 8754, using the Epsilon 3X
Article Failure analysis showing the effect of sulphur content in stainless steel on the resistance to stress corrosion cracking in marine environments at ambient temperatures. The risk of environmentally assisted cracking in downhole components is h...
Farmers, loggers, truckers and others may face fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation if they do not meet new national standards for the sulfur content of their off-road diesel fuel. The Environmental Protection Agency regulations will be enacted on October 1.
Farmers, loggers, truckers and others may face fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation if they do not meet new national standards for the sulfur content of their off-road diesel fuel. The Environmental Protection Agency regulations will be enacted on October 1.
Farmers, loggers, truckers and others may face fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation if they do not meet new national standards for the sulfur content of their off-road diesel fuel. The Environmental Protection Agency regulations will be enacted on October 1.
Keywords: Cereals, Grass, Oilseed rape, Sulphur responses, Sulphur fertilisers.. Sulphur (S) deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe since the 1980s. This is due to a massive decrease in the atmospheric deposition of sulphur, a change in the use of fertilisers that contain low sulphur and increased crop yields. This paper reviews crop responses to sulphur in Europe, focusing on oilseed rape, cereals and grass, on which most field trials have been carried out. Multicut grass for silage has been shown to be highly susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and yield responses to sulphur of between 5 and 30% are common in Ireland, the UK and other countries. Oilseed rape is also susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and sulphur fertilisation can produce a dramatic yield response under deficiency conditions. Sulphur deficiency in oilseed rape has been widely reported in France, Germany, Denmark and the UK. Although cereals have a lower requirement for sulphur, responses to sulphur ...
Keywords: Cereals, Grass, Oilseed rape, Sulphur responses, Sulphur fertilisers.. Sulphur (S) deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe since the 1980s. This is due to a massive decrease in the atmospheric deposition of sulphur, a change in the use of fertilisers that contain low sulphur and increased crop yields. This paper reviews crop responses to sulphur in Europe, focusing on oilseed rape, cereals and grass, on which most field trials have been carried out. Multicut grass for silage has been shown to be highly susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and yield responses to sulphur of between 5 and 30% are common in Ireland, the UK and other countries. Oilseed rape is also susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and sulphur fertilisation can produce a dramatic yield response under deficiency conditions. Sulphur deficiency in oilseed rape has been widely reported in France, Germany, Denmark and the UK. Although cereals have a lower requirement for sulphur, responses to sulphur ...
The aim of this paper is to analyze the quantitative impact of fuel sulfur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulfur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulfur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulfur level. The Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC. Conversely, FSC did not have major effects on the soot particle number reduction ...
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As previously communicated, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is implementing new regulations on January 1, 2020, which further reduce sulfur content requirements of marine fuel from 3.5% to 0.5% for vessels operating outside of designated Emission Control Areas (ECAs). Within the North American, Puerto Rico & USVI Emission Control Areas (ECAs), sulfur content will remain at 0.1% as was previous established on January 1, 2015. Additional information regarding these regulations can be found on the IMO website.. To ensure compliance with these new regulations, Crowley will begin sourcing low sulfur fuel in the applicable international theaters effective November 1, 2019. Therefore, with the upcoming review of mid-August to mid-September 2019, Crowley will transition to monitoring the price of low sulfur fuel against the current index. Until compliant 0.5% is available in sufficient quantities and compatibility testing has been confirmed, the low sulfur fuel type monitored and sourced ...
Nitrogen deficiency:. Classic symptom description is yellowing of lower (older) leaves, from the leaf tip to the base down the midrib.. Sulfur deficiency:. Classic symptom description is yellowing of new leaves (in the whorl, sometimes with interveinal striping), with lower (older) leaves remaining uniform green (Figure 1).. However, both N and S are tied together due to several common physiological process, therefore, early growth symptoms can be similar. Examples including overall leaf and plant yellowing, spindly plants, and interveinal striping. These similar symptoms most often occur when plants are small and there is severe deficiency (low soil supply and no fertilization). Also, plant response from fertilizer application can be quite similar for N and S, that is, good growth and green plants with uniform coloration (Figure 2). Sulfur does not move as readily in plants as N, so symptoms should differentiate on different plant parts. However, with young plants, early onset of symptoms, and ...
Sulphur deficiency resembles nitrogen deficiency, but at the top of the plant. Because sulphur is not mobile, the deficiency is first observed in the younger leaves. These turn pale green, while the petioles get a strong purple tint. The leaf tips can curl up. If several leaves start to fade, the colour changes from li
Combustion of sulfur components of fossil fuels such as oil causes the emission of SO2 in the atmosphere and lead to the formation of acidic rain in the environment. The conventional approach for desulfurization of fossil fuels is the chemical procedure of hydrodesulfurization (HDS). However, this method has low efficiency for desulfurization of ring components of sulfur such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) that include a significant percentage of the total sulfur content of fossil fuel. biodesulfurization (BDS), is a biological method proposed for desulfurization of ring components of sulfur which is a non-destructive pathway to remove sulfur from hydrocarbons of petroleum in the mild conditions which potentially used as complementary with HDS. For industrial application of BDS, the approach needs the new challenge to enhance desulfurization activity by genetic engineering methods and bioreactor development to achieve from a fantasy technique to an industrial and reality method for reduction of sulfur
Sulfur is an essential element for growth and physiological functioning of plants. However, its content strongly varies between plant species and it ranges from 0.1 to 6% of the plants dry weight. Sulfates taken up by the roots are the major sulfur source for growth, though it has to be reduced to sulfide before it is further metabolized. Root plastids contain all sulfate reduction enzymes, but the reduction of sulfate to sulfide and its subsequent incorporation into cysteine predominantly takes place in the shoot, in the chloroplasts. Cysteine is the precursor or reduced sulfur donor of most other organic sulfur compounds in plants. The predominant proportion of the organic sulfur is present in the protein fraction (up to 70% of total sulfur), as cysteine and methionine (two amino acids) residues. Cysteine and methionine are highly significant in the structure, conformation and function of proteins. Plants contain a large variety of other organic sulfur compounds, as thiols (glutathione), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen Bond Interactions with Sulfur Donors. AU - Sherry, A. D.. AU - Purcell, K. F.. PY - 1972/3/1. Y1 - 1972/3/1. N2 - Calorimetric enthalpy data are reported for the reactions of the acids, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, with six sulfur donors in CCl4 solution and four donors in hexane solution. Frequency shift data are also reported for the same two acids reacting with eight sulfur donors. Measurement of the heats of solution of each sulfur donor in both CCl4 and hexane allows us to estimate hexane enthalpies for the two donors whose enthalpies could not be measured directly in hexane. A comparison of oxygen and sulfur donor ΔH vs. ΔH and Δv vs. Δv equations reveals the greater importance of van der Waals repulsions in the sulfur donor reactions. The change in relative slopes of these equations may also be related to the greater importance of covalent contributions (CaCb term) to hydrogen bond formation with sulfur donors. The data adhere ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improved sulfur nutrition provides the basis for enhanced production of sulfur-containing defense compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana upon inoculation with Alternaria brassicicola. AU - Kruse, C.. AU - Haas, F.H.. AU - Jost, Ricarda. AU - Reiser, B.. AU - Reichelt, M.. AU - Wirtz, M.. AU - Gershenzon, J.. AU - Schnug, E.. AU - Hell, R.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.017. DO - 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.017. M3 - Article. C2 - 22342657. VL - 169. SP - 740. EP - 743. JO - Journal of Plant Physiology. JF - Journal of Plant Physiology. SN - 0176-1617. ER - ...
Bitumen is a common associate of carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits. On the Pine Point lead-zinc property, Northwest Territories, Canada, there are two forms of bitumen. Unaltered bitumens have atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios of about 1.4, sulfur contents of about 7.8 percent, and sulfur isotope ratios (§34S) of approximately +4.6 per mil. Altered bitumens occur in proximity to sulfide ore bodies and white sparry dolomite. Their hydrogen/carbon ratios are about 1.02, the sulfur contents average 22 percent, and the §34S values are about +12.4 per mil. These data indicate that some bitumen has participated in the thermochemical reduction of sulfate to produce hydrogen sulfide required to precipitate the ores. Mass balance considerations show that the amount and degree of alteration of bitumen is more than adequate to account for the reduced sulfur species (lead, zinc, and iron sulfides) deposited at Pine Point. These reactions may provide an important means of generating the large volumes of ...
The 2018 results generally showed that irrigation in the early growing season had a negative effect on leaf color and plant growth, possibly due to lower soil temperatures caused by irrigated water. Delaying application to the pod development stage caused light leaf color during the early growing season, but increased the use efficiency of the applied sulfur fertilizer. Seed yields were lower under the fertigated sulfur treatments (treatments 5 and 6). All five test conditions resulted in increased seed sulfur concentration on fields with low sulfur fertility. Residual soil sulfur level was higher under higher sulfur application rates (20 and 30 lb./acre) relative to zero sulfur after harvest.. In terms of seed quality, 20 pounds sulfur/acre applied via fertigation at R3 (treatment 6) resulted in higher protein levels than other treatments at Milan, which suggests that only sulfur application in late growing season is beneficial for protein. At Jackson, protein levels did not change.. The ...
A major change in the iron industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of wood and other bio-fuels with coal. For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal,[42] and coal was much more abundant than wood, supplies of which were becoming scarce before the enormous increase in iron production that took place in the late 18th century.[1][41]:122 By 1750 coke had generally replaced charcoal in smelting of copper and lead and was in widespread use in making glass. In the smelting and refining of iron, coal and coke produced inferior iron to that made with charcoal because of the coals sulfur content. Low sulfur coals were known, but they still contained harmful amounts. Conversion of coal to coke only slightly reduces the sulfur content.[41]:122-125 A minority of coals are coking.. Another factor limiting the iron industry before the Industrial Revolution was the scarcity of water power to power blast ...
D6122 Standard Practice for Validation of the Performance of Multivariate Online, At-Line, and Laboratory Infrared Spectrophotometer Based Analyzer Systems. D6299 Standard Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance. D6621 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Process Analyzers for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Materials. D6624 Standard Practice for Determining a Flow-Proportioned Average Property Value (FPAPV) for a Collected Batch of Process Stream Material Using Stream Analyzer Data. D7164 Standard Practice for On-line/At-line Heating Value Determination of Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography. D7165 Standard Practice for Gas Chromatograph Based On-line/At-line Analysis for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels. D7166 Standard Practice for Total Sulfur Analyzer Based On-line/At-line for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels. D7235 Standard Guide for Establishing a Linear Correlation Relationship Between Analyzer ...
The first component, and the one most closely related to the visible smoke often associated with diesel exhaust, is the carbonaceous material. This material is composed of sub-micron sized carbon particles which are formed during the diesel combustion process. It is especially prevalent under conditions when the fuel-air ratio is overly rich, such as full acceleration, maximum power or on start up. The second component is hydrocarbon material which is absorbed on the carbon particles, commonly referred to as the soluble fraction. A portion of this material results from incomplete combustion of the fuel and the remainder is derived from engine lube oil that passes by the piston oil rings. The third particulate component is comprised of sulphates and bound water, with the amount of material being directly related to the fuels sulphur content. The US has comparably high sulphur content in most of its petrochemical diesel fuels, so diesel engine use in America is more affected by this problem than ...
Putu iron ore project is part of a 425 square kilometre exploration tenement ... at a grade of 37.8% iron, 0.5% aluminium oxide, 40.8% sulphur dioxide and 0.18 ... it fully, samples at 2.0m intervals returned a nominal iron content of 42.7% iron. ... Mwana Africa said it plans to commence a share sale to raise $35m in a bid. ...
Todays Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) is not the same old diesel fuel anymore. It poses a greater static-ignition hazard than earlier diesel formation with higher sulfur content. The following tips will help you better understand the risks and ensure your fueling systems are properly functioning and maintained to handle ULSD.
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Total sulfur data of various agricultural and food items from the lab of the author, have been compiled to develop an understanding of sulfur levels and ecological cycling in Austria. As sulfur level is not an included factor among the quality criteria of soil and fertilizer composition, the database is rather small. Problems in analytical determinations of total sulfur, in particular digestions, are outlined. As a protein component, sulfur is enriched in matrices of animal origin, in particular in egg white. There is substantial excretion from animals and man via urine. Organic fertilizers (manures, composts) might contribute significantly to the sulfur budget of soils, which is important for organic farming of crops with high sulfur needs. For soils, drainage is a main route of loss of soluble sulfate, thus pot experiments may yield unrealistic sulfur budgets.
Sulphur salesSulphur Sales Shell established a dedicated sulphur business over 50 years ago to manage the complete value chain of sulphur Shell Sulphur Solutions is committed to delivering world class marketing of elemental sulphur and the development of value added applications for sulphur.Malaysian Sulphur ManufacturersMalaysian manufacturers and suppliers of sulphur from around the world Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of Malaysian sulphur.Sulfur Powder Suppliers & Exporters in PhilippinesTradeFord is a growing Manufacturer Directory and B2B Marketplace connecting Global Sulfur Powder Importers, Exporters, Suppliers, Traders and Manufacturers at a reliable, common platform.SulfurSulfur (in non scientific British use also sulphur) is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16 It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S 8 Elemental ...
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table ...
This paper addresses a problem common to many government agencies--trying to specify a regulatory policy that is in some sense best for a given situation. Such questions demand the consideration of multiple conflicting objectives, non-repeatable uncertainties, costs and benefits accruing to various individuals, businesses, and organizations, and effects which extend far into the future. Here a systematic approach--known as decision analysis--appropriate for analyzing such problems, is illustrated. The specific problem involves determining the maximum legal sulfur content of fuels burned in New York City. From the point of view of a city administrator, seven major objectives are identified for this problem. These include physical and psychological health effects on residents, economic consequences to both residents and the City, and political implications. Measures of effectiveness are specified for each objective, and the possible consequences of lowering the legal sulfur content of fuels from ...
The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources. Most of the sulfur released from lunar soil during higher-temperature thermal treatment is trapped by the LSCS at lower temperatures on iron oxides present in lunar soil. As needed, small amounts of polishing sorbents are used to reduce equilibrium sulfur concentrations to the low ppm level. After sorbents become saturated, sulfur compounds are desorbed and converted to useful sulfur products. Sulfur is present in concentrations of about 0.1 percent in lunar soils and can be recovered by the LSCS as a useful product from in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSCS can capture and recover sulfur from lunar soil as a primary product during thermal desorption of volatile compounds or during thermal reduction ISRU processes used for oxygen production. Removal of sulfur compounds is required during ISRU to prevent electrolyzer damage, ...
18 January 2002 Rising risk of sulphur deficiencyANY grower who still believes the need for sulphur on modern crops is being over-hyped should think again,
Sulfur is an abundant, tasteless, odorless, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Sulfur is an essential component of all living cells. Sulfur may also serve as chemical food source for some primitive organisms: some forms of bacteria use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the place of water as the electron donor in a primitive photosynthesis-like process. Sulfur is absorbed by plants via the roots from soil as the sulfate ion and reduced to sulfide before it is incorporated into cysteine and other organic sulfur compounds (sulfur assimilation). In plants and animals the amino acids cysteine and methionine contain sulfur, as do all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes which contain these amino acids. Glutathione is an important sulfur-containing tripeptide which plays a role in cells as a ...
effect of sulphur on gold ore_Sulfur WikipediaSulfur or sulphur (see spelling and etymology) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16 It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic 201778Sulphur (S) Chemica
This report presents as input data estimates of delivered coal prices to Ohio by sulfur content, expecially the estimated price premium for low sulfur over high sulfur coal. Described are recent coal price trends in terms of appropriateness for the regulatory compliance by Ohio coal users.. ...
Inorganic sulfate is taken up through plant roots and, via cysteine biosynthesis, incorporated as organic sulfur. Our investigations focus on fundamental questions about cysteine (cys) and methionine (met) biosynthesis and on the possibility of engineering crop plants enriched in these sulfur-containing amino acids. Methionine is essential for non-ruminant mammals (including man) and uptake of cysteine reduces the methionine requirement. We have used transgenic strategies to generate many plant lines affected in cysteine and methionine biosynthesis, and subjected them to detailed molecular and biochemical analyses. Recently, we embarked on a course to study sulfur metabolism in a holistic way, rather than focusing on single pathways as such. By applying functional genomic tools like transcript, metabolite, and protein profiling in our analysis of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) and of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we are heading for a better understanding of the sulfur metabolism ...
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
This paper reports the facile synthesis of a unique interleaved expanded graphite-embedded sulphur nanocomposite (S-EG) by melt-diffusion strategy. The SEM images of the S-EG materials indicate the nanocomposites consist of nanosheets with a layer-by-layer structure. Electrochemical tests reveal that the nanocomposite with a sulphur content of 60% (0.6S-EG) can deliver the highest discharge capacity of 1210.4 mAh g−1 at a charge-discharge rate of 280 mA g−1 in the first cycle, the discharge capacity of the 0.6S-EG remains as high as 957.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles of charge-discharge. Furthermore, at a much higher charge-discharge rate of 28 A g−1, the 0.6S-EG cathode can still deliver a high reversible capacity of 337.5 mAh g−1. The high sulphur utilization, excellent rate capability and reduced over-discharge phenomenon of the 0.6S-EG material are exclusively attributed to the particular microstructure and composition of the cathode.
Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of , 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ∼ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as −13.3 mW m−2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the ...
This Organic Sulfur is 99.9% Pure MSM, each batch is tested for purity, and certified for quality. If you are considering supplementing with Sulfur, crystals are the only way to go!. ​Therapeutic Organic Sulfur Crystals can be excellent for:. 1. Improves skin health and complexion: Organic Sulfur is necessary for collagen production. Sagging skin and wrinkles, as well as dry, cracked skin are all developed through a loss of collagen.. Organic Sulfur works together with Vitamin C to build new, healthy tissues. Organic Sulfur can normalize collagen formation and radically improve skin health.. 2. Improves flexibility: Research has shown that Organic Sulfur is highly effective in improving joint flexibility. Additionally, it helps to produce flexible skin and muscle tissue.. This leads to an increase in overall flexibility due to a restoration of the juiciness in the tissues.. 3. Detoxifies the body: One of the most important features of Organic Sulfur is that it makes your cells more ...
Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation ...
Main conclusion: Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR2;1) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene (SULTR12), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al3+) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S). On the other side, Al3+ may be detoxified by complexation with sulfate in the acid soil solution as well as in the root-cell vacuoles. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms governing plant responses to Al toxicity and its relationship with sulfur nutrition, emphasizing the role of ...
A method for generating energy from sulphur combustion without causing harmful emissions to the environment entails steps of evaporating liquid sulphur to generate sulphur dioxide gas and sulphur vapor, combusting the sulphur vapor with oxygen gas to generate heat, and reducing (either at high temperature or catalytically) the sulphur dioxide to carbon dioxide and sulphur vapor by reacting the sulphur dioxide with carbonyl sulfide. The carbonyl sulphide can be generated by reacting hydrogen sulfide with recycled carbon dioxide that is recycled by condensing sulphur vapor, carbon dioxide and water to yield liquid sulphur, elemental sulphur, steam and carbon dioxide. Energy in the hot reactor products (SO2 gas and sulphur vapor S2) and steam can be harnessed using this emission-free process. Likewise, this process can be used to produce elemental sulphur and/or carbon monoxide without polluting the atmosphere. Furthermore, this process can be used for the transshipment by pipeline of sulphur by
In previous evaluations, of GTA welding stainless steel plates the surfactant content in the workplace has been assumed to be in a state of equilibrium. However surfactant concentration usually had to be adjusted in order to achieve agreement between the weld pool shapes in experiments and those in simulations. In this study a physiochemical approach to the redistribution of surfactant at the surface and in the bulk is presented for the first time. Sulphur was considered as a represenative surfactant. The model allows surfactant molecular transport via convection, diffusion, and sorption. It is shown that sulphur atoms accumulate at the surface at stagnation points, affecting the coefficient of surface tension and thus the final weld pool shape. Thus, the sulphur content in the simulation approaches the nominal sulphur content in the steel plate. The theory is strenghtened by both electron probe microanalysis and Auger electron spectroscopy. At the time the work was carried out, Mr Winkler, Dr ...
The amounts and profile distribution of various sulfur forms in Louisiana coastal marshes were investigated to understand sulfur cycling as related to the origin and type of tidal wetland marshes. Sampling was conducted quarterly from a Panicum hemitomon freshwater marsh, a Spartina patens brackish marsh, and a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh in Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Soil samples were fractionated into acid-volatile sulfides (AVS), elemental sulfur, HCl-soluble sulfur, pyrite sulfur, ester-sulfate sulfur, carbon-bonded sulfur, and total sulfur. Seasonal changes showed a greater effect on the distribution of S fractions in brackish and salt marsh than in the freshwater marsh. Season appeared to have a pronounced effect on the distribution of acid-volatile sulfides, elemental sulfur, and pyrite sulfur. The profile distribution of acid-volatile sulfides and elemental sulfur in all marshes was similar. These sulfur forms showed the greatest abundance in the oxidized zone ($|$20 cm) during spring,
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Bacteria in well aerated soil, similar to nitrogen fixing bacteria, can convert elemental sulfur into sulfate through an oxidation process. Coal contains a significant amount of sulfur, and factories that burn coal for energy release sulfur dioxide into the air. Over time, sun exposure converts the sulfur dioxide to sulfate, a significant contributor to acid rain. Acid rain is a serious pollutant, in that hydrogen sulfate, a potent acid, penetrates lakes, making them too acidic for lifeforms to thrive. The Clean Air Act, enacted by congress in 1980, has led to substantial decreases in the amount of acid rain released into the atmosphere. Factories have introduced highly effective scrubbing technologies to comply with the law, and, as a consequence, less sulfate makes its way back into the soil. ...
A process and apparatus for reducing the sulfur content of naphtha. The process includes introducing at least a portion of a naphtha feed stream to a selective hydrodesulfurization zone under selective hydrodesulfurization conditions in the presence of a selective hydrodesulfurization catalyst to form a low sulfur stream which contains mercaptan and thiophene compounds. At least a portion of the low sulfur stream is separated into at least two streams, a mercaptan rich stream containing mercaptan and thiophene compounds and an overhead stream containing hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas. The mercaptan rich stream is treated in an adsorbent zone to remove at least a portion of the mercaptan and thiophene compounds to form a mercaptan lean stream.
Acrylamide formation in cooked food has become a significant problem for the food industry. This study concerned the accumulation of free asparagine, one of the precursors for acrylamide formation, in wheat and rye grain. Asparagine concentration was found to be greatly affected by environmental conditions (E), genetic factors (G) and the interaction between the two (G x E). One of the environmental conditions controlling free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain was sulphur deficiency, which caused an increase of up to thirty-fold in free asparagine concentration. Sulphur deficiency and free asparagine concentration were linearly related to the amount of acrylamide that formed when wheat flour was heated at 180°C. Asparagine concentration was also the main determinant of acrylamide formation in rye but, unlike in wheat, it was not affected by sulphur availability, at least under field conditions. Rye flour had lower acrylamide forming potential than wheat per unit of asparagine, possibly due ...
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
01-10-1997· A middlings material of 6.13 wt% sulfur content crushed and re-treated gave a reduction in emission value from 2795 to 1783 g of sulfur per GJ: 36.2% at a CV loss of 17.7%. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. (Keywords: coal fines; sulfur removal; wet cleaning) Increasing concern about the emissions of sulfur dioxide, causing acid rain, from fossil fuels has led to the introduction of ...
If you havent heard about what organic sulfur can do for your busy life yet, then youre missing out on all the fun. Im a married work at home managing 4 kids and 2 dogs. Im busy. Who isnt? Youre busy too. Every month I keep taking my organic sulfur, I find myself with more kick in my step. Organic sulfur is
19 EU member states have not yet drawn up laws to implement a directive setting limits on sulphur emissions from ships in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and English Channel that takes effect from next year. The European Commission will begin pilot investigations, the first stage of infringement proceedings, against member states that have not transposed the directive on the sulphur content of marine fuels. The Commission has confirmed that it will take appropriate and proportionate measures to address the fact that the so called scrubber technologies used to clean sulphur emissions from exhaust fumes cause sludge that is not easy to dispose of in some ports. The Commission has asked member states to provide detailed information on EU port acceptance of scrubbers, in particular the open loop systems which discharge water that has a chemical composition that may not be compatible with water regulations applied in protected areas like ports. Shipping companies will have to either use cleaner fuels, ...
Fossil fuel consumption is rapidly increasing in the world, and so is the amount of sulfur that is generated as by-product of the industrial refining process. Since sulfur is expected to increase continuously in the future, the huge cost of waste disposal will be required if there is no counterplan. As a result, using sulfur as construction materials such as asphalt and concrete was considered. However, sulfur concrete made with unmodified sulfur has limitation for practical use because it has inferior properties such as poor resistance to water and significantly more brittle than traditional concrete. In order to overcome these drawbacks, Modified sulfur was developed. Sulfur concrete using modified sulfur binders shows excellent durability in high acid or salt concentrations. This study investigated the mechanical and durability properties of sulfur concrete made with modified sulfur binder instead of Portland cement. Preliminary tests were performed to evaluate effects of the maximum size of ...
Sulfur Crusher Copper. Sulfur dioxide rock crushing greenrevolution sulfur dioxide rock crushing sulfur and copper after grinding iron ore crusher gold ore The sulfur dioxide content of flue gases Sulfur Crusher Copper. Sulfur dioxide rock crushing greenrevolution sulfur dioxide rock crushing sulfur and copper after grinding iron ore crusher gold ore The sulfur dioxide content of flue gases is bound to the limestone mobile is the Stone Crusher or rock crusher used for crushing copper ore materials Get Price ...
Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English. Bangla Meaning of Sulfur Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the bangla language with its free online services. Found 39 sentences matching phrase sulfur.Found in 5 ms. liver of sulphur, Marathi translation of liver of sulphur, Marathi meaning of liver of sulphur, what is liver of sulphur in Marathi dictionary, liver of sulphur related Marathi , मराठी words The condiment is composed largely of sodium chloride with several other components lending the salt its colour and smell. Bangla meaning of sulfur … brimstone, sulphur Find more words! gandhaka (गंधक).-m (S) Sulphur. Another word for Opposite of Meaning of Rhymes with Sentences with Find word forms Translate from English Translate to English Words With Friends Scrabble Crossword / Codeword Words starting with Words ending with Words containing exactly Words containing letters Pronounce Find ...
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BACKGROUND: SoxAX enzymes initiate microbial oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Their catalytic mechanism is unknown. RESULTS: Cyanide displaces the CysS(-) ligand to the active site heme following reduction by S(2)O(4)(2-) but not Eu(II). CONCLUSION: An active site heme ligand becomes labile on exposure to substrate analogs. SIGNIFICANCE: Elucidation of SoxAX mechanism is necessary to understand a widespread pathway for sulfur compound oxidation. SoxAX enzymes couple disulfide bond formation to the reduction of cytochrome c in the first step of the phylogenetically widespread Sox microbial sulfur oxidation pathway. Rhodovulum sulfidophilum SoxAX contains three hemes. An electrochemical cell compatible with magnetic circular dichroism at near infrared wavelengths has been developed to resolve redox and chemical properties of the SoxAX hemes. In combination with potentiometric titrations monitored by electronic absorbance and EPR, this method defines midpoint potentials (E(m)) at pH 7.0 of
New standards to reduce sulfur levels in gasoline, which will produce significant benefits in terms of public health and local air pollution, are also part of President Obamas strategy to mitigate climate change, according to U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy.
Spatial distribution of nutrients in the soil can be a problem with high analysis fertilizer applied at a low application rate. Consider the product Tiger 90, which is 90 percent sulfur, compared to ammonium sulfate, which contains 24 percent sulfur. To get the same rate of sulfur, roughly four times the material is required when using ammonium sulfate compared to elemental sulfur. The higher application rate of ammonium sulfate ensures better distribution of sulfur across the landscape. Thus, a better spatial distribution of sulfur across the landscape may require higher application rates of elemental sulfur, which may offset the cost difference of elemental sulfur versus ammonium sulfate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MODIFICATION OF BENZENE AND CARBON MONOXIDE ADSORPTION ON Pt(111) BY THE COADSORPTION OF POTASSIUM OR SULFUR.. AU - Garfunkel, Eric. AU - Farias, M. H.. AU - Somorjai, G. A.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. Sulfur, on the other hand, causes a decrease in the desorption peak temperatures for both benzene and CO. The authors interpret the effects of potassium on CO and benzene adsorption as electronic, while for sulfur, structural effects may dominate.. AB - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. ...
At S & D Non-Ferrous, we stock Sulphur Copper in Grade CW114C, a free machining copper with an approximately 80% machinability rating. Adding sulphur to copper produces a free machining copper as the sulphur acts as a chip breaker, making it far easier to machine than pure copper and only having a minor effect on the conductivity of the metal.. Machining speeds can reach up to 4 times faster than those of pure copper and greater tooling life span is also seen when using sulphur copper over pure copper. Sulphur Copper is a versatile metal as it combines the high thermal and electrical conductivity values that are usually only seen in pure copper, however the ease of machining from the sulphur, allowing it to be used in a greater number of circumstances. Other qualities of CW114C are easy solder ability and decent levels of corrosion resistance. Our CW114C sulphur copper is readily available in a number of formations, including sulphur copper plate or sulphur copper bar in a range of shapes. Our ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a gamma-proteobacterium that lives at pH2 and obtains energy by the oxidation of sulfur and iron. It is used in the biomining industry for the recovery of metals and is one of the causative agents of acid mine drainage. Effective tools for the study of its genetics and physiology are not in widespread use and, despite considerable effort, an understanding of its unusual physiology remains at a rudimentary level. Nearly complete genome sequences of A. ferrooxidans are available from two public sources and we have exploited this information to reconstruct aspects of its sulfur metabolism. Two candidate mechanisms for sulfate uptake from the environment were detected but both belong to large paralogous families of membrane transporters and their identification remains tentative. Prospective genes, pathways and regulatory mechanisms were identified that are likely to be involved in the assimilation of sulfate into cysteine and in the formation of Fe-S centers. Genes and