A system and method are provided for representing content made accessible by a group of users. In general, a group content representation that is descriptive of content made accessible by the group of users is presented to an interested user. In one embodiment, the users are represented by avatars in a virtual environment, and the group content representation is presented in a view of the virtual environment provided to the interested user. The group content representation may be presented at a fixed or dynamic location within the virtual environment. For example, the group content representation may be presented at a location relative to the avatars representing the group of users in the virtual environment. Based on the group content representation, the interested user is enabled to quickly and easily determine whether content of interest is accessible from the group of users.
In this study, we aimed to examine dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and identify the factors associated with thiol oxidation. Thirty-eight subjects (18 male, 20 female) diagnosed with T1DM and 38 (17 male, 21 female) healthy volunteers without any known diseases were included in the study. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis concentrations were measured by a newly developed method (Erel & Neselioglu) in this study. After native thiol, total thiol and disulfide levels were determined; measures such as disulfide/native thiol, disulfide/total thiol, and native thiol/total thiol were calculated. In T1DM patients, compared to the control group, disulfide (p = 0.024), disulfide/native thiol (p < 0.001), and disulfide/total thiol (p < 0.001) were determined higher, while native thiol (p = 0.004) and total thiol (p < 0.001) levels were much lower. In the patient group, a positive correlation was determined between c-reactive protein (r = 325, p = 0.007; r = 316, p = 0.010, ...
Thiols are the organic compounds that contain a sulphydryl group. Among all the antioxidants that are available in the body, thiols constitute the major portion of the total body antioxidants and they play a significant role in defense against reactive oxygen species. Total thiols composed of both intracellular and extracellular thiols either in the free form as oxidized or reduced glutathione, or thiols bound to proteins. Among the thiols that are bound to proteins, albumin makes the major portion of the protein bound thiols, which binds to sufhydryl group at its cysteine-34 portion. Apart from their role in defense against free radicals, thiols share significant role in detoxification, signal transduction, apoptosis and various other functions at molecular level. The thiol status in the body can be assessed easily by determining the serum levels of thiols. Decreased levels of thiols has been noted in various medical disorders including chronic renal failure and other disorders related to ...
Selective purification of the thiol peptides of myosin: 1. A method for selective purification of thiol peptides is described. Thiol groups in a protein are tre
Free radicals contribute to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) autoimmune responses. We recently demonstrated that superoxide-deficient CD4 T cells exhibited increased effector responses and diabetogenicity, but the redox-dependent mechanism(s) mediating T cell activation were unclear. We hypothesized that during T1D progression, CD4 T cells with a reduced cell surface state would exhibit a concomitant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses. To test this, alexa fluor 647-conjugated maleimide (ALM)-labeling of cell surface reduced thiols on diabetogenic mouse and human CD4 T cells was performed. We observed an increase in ALM percentage and gMFI from peripheral Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse CD4 T cells during progression to overt diabetes. Cognate autoantigen stimulation elicited a 2- and 20-fold increase in CD4 ALM T cell percentage and gMFI, respectively. In addition to serving as a T cell activation marker, ALM gMFI of reduced CD4 T cell surface thiols was enhanced (1.2-fold) with ...
Acute exposure of a nonsmoking subject to passive smoking resulted in deterioration of serum antioxidant defense, accelerated lipid peroxidation, and accumulation of LDL cholesterol in cultured human macrophages. These events were observed even after a very short period (30 minutes) of passive smoking. Indeed, it has previously been suggested that the cardiovascular system is extremely sensitive to the chemicals in environmental tobacco smoke.1 Furthermore, the oxidative stress induced by SHS may have a more prominent effect on a nonsmoking subject than on an active smoker whose cardiovascular system has adapted to CS.1 Oxidative stress induced by acute passive smoking significantly decreased plasma ascorbic acid and caused a minor, nonsignificant decrease in protein sulfhydryl groups, reflecting increased use of these antioxidants. This is in line with previous studies demonstrating that long-term exposure to SHS decreases plasma ascorbic acid in both active and passive smokers.7 12 ...
Bacteria are exposed to oxidative stress as an unavoidable consequence of their aerobic lifestyle. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the stepwise one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen during the respiration. Pathogens encounter ROS during the oxidative burst of macrophages as part of the host immune defense. Besides ROS, bacteria also have to cope with reactive chlorine, electrophilic and nitrogen species (RCS, RES, RNS). To cope with these reactive species, bacteria have evolved different defense and repair mechanisms. To maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, they utilize low molecular weight (LMW) thiols. LMW thiols are small thiol-containing compounds that can undergo post-translational thiolmodifications with protein thiols, termed as S-thiolations. S-thiolations function as major redox regulatory and thiol-protection mechanism under oxidative stress conditions. In eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) functions as major LMW thiol, which is
The total thiols in a medium containing authentic biological sample (articular cartilage) has been determined electrochemically. The detection strategy utilises the electrochemical adaptation of the Ellmans reaction process via the electrochemically initiated reaction of thiols with diethyl-p-phenylenediamine. The strategy has been examined over a biologically significant pH range and the behaviour observed rationalised. The detection of thiols within the biological sample is shown to proceed with micromolar levels of thiol determined within the sample.
The tissue thiol levels of HGGs were found to be higher than the control group (p = 0.001). Although the median thiol levels of Grade 4 gliomas were higher than those of Grade 3, no statistically significant difference was noted (p = 0.076). When all tumors were compared according to the IDH1 mutation presence, IDH1-negative (IDH1-) HGGs had higher thiol contents than IDH1 mutant (IDH1+) HGGs (p = 0.001). The thiol levels of Grade 4 IDH1- gliomas were statistically significantly higher than of Grade 3 gliomas (p = 0.023), but no statistically significant difference between the thiol levels of Grade 3 and Grade 4 IDH1+ tumors was noted (p = 0.459 ...
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Background and Objective: Blood contains low concentration of thiols and some (thiols) are found in the albumin compartment. So far, little or no information exists on the relationship between serum total thiols and albumin in sub-chronic lead intoxication. To examine the relationship between serum total thiols and albumin in sub-chronic lead intoxicated rats supplemented with folic acid and/or vitamin C. Materials and Methods: This study was performed using 40 male albino rats weighing 160-190 g. The albino rats were divided into eight 8 of five each. Group 1-4 were sub-chronically intoxicated with lead fora period of 6 weeks, followed by supplementation with folic acid and/or vitamin C to group 2-7 fora period of 4 weeks. After the 10th week, the experimental rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed, after which their blood samples were collected. Results: Findings from this study revealed statistically significant (p,0.05) decrease in serum total thiols and albumin concentration in the ...
Glutathione (GSH)is the most abundant low molecular weight thiol and form of storage of SH-. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that adequate protein nutrition is crucial for the maintenance of GSH homeostasis [48]. Elevated levels of GSH inhibit prostaglandin production by a direct interaction with COX enzymes, of potential significance in the progression of inflammatory or degenerative states [36]. It is of particular interest, as discussed earlier that prostagandins synthesized from PUFA and most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs share this same locus of involvement. It is also relevant that some recent studies have found that on occasions the pain reduction in OA associated with the administration of chondroitin sulfate, a source of sulfur, was found to be equivalent to that provided by NSAID. The reasons for such unpredictable results, we suspect could be associated with differences in levels of protein in the diet, the better responders consuming higher amounts of SAA. ...
Come join fellow Shibas and their servants/owners for playdates with other local Shibas. Many of our members have great Shiba stories, and many tips on how to deal with our very strong-minded dogs. We
Come join fellow Shibas and their servants/owners for playdates with other local Shibas. Many of our members have great Shiba stories, and many tips on how to deal with our very strong-minded dogs. We
In the present study, two commercial assays for the redox status are compared and evaluated, the SH groups in proteins (SHp) and the total thiol levels (TTL). Both assa..
Protocols for postsynthetic modification of 2‐amino‐containing oligoribonucleotides with either an alkyl‐phenyl disulfide or an alkyl thiol group are described
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The global Tert-Dodecyl Mercaptan market was about 304 Million USD in 2015 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.39% from 2017 to 2022. The global sales of
Maleimide Coated 96 Well Solid Plates offer a powerful instrument for binding biomolecules containing free sulfhydryl groups or reducibile disulfide bonds.
FAM226A (family with sequence similarity 226 member A (non-protein coding)), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Q 8. A compound with molecular mass 180 is acylated with {tex} \mathrm { CH } _ { 3 } \mathrm { COCl } {/tex} to get a compound with molecular mass {tex} 390 . {/tex} The number of amino groups present per molecule of the former compound is: ...
For sulfhydryl-selective coupling of PEG to proteins and other thiol substrates and for selective scavenging of thiol containing peptides. ...
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105Rh[1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol] is a promising drug precursor for targeted radiotherapy. Nevertheless, the axial position of chloride ions in the complex structure and their weak binding to rhodium centre, due to HSAB concept, make such a complex subject to modifying action of certain sulphuric ligands, like human plasma thiol antioxidants: glutathione and cysteine. Experiments were performed with both radioactive 105Rh and inactive rhodium. The complexation of rhodium with 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16S4diol) resulted in three distinct peaks seen on UV, radiometric and MS chromatograms. The substitution of chlorides was noted in over 80% of 105[Rh(16S4diol)Cl2]+ units after incubation with glutathione, and less than 10% of complex units after incubation with cysteine (24 h, 37 °C). Reaction of 105[Rh(16S4diol)Cl2]+ with 1,8-octandithiol and 1,9-nonandithiol resulted in disappearance of the complex peak and occurrence of two new peaks. Product of RhCl3 and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition by selenium compounds mediated by oxidation of the protein thiol groups and generation of the superoxide. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The low molecular weight thiol (-SH) content of a human prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCap), important to the cellular resistance to drugs and irradiation, was investigated using three forms of thiol assay each utilizing different chemistries. The composition of the mixture was examined by derivatization of the thiols with a three-fold excess of the Ellman reagent to give mixed aromatic disulfides. The components were isolated by chromatography on C18 reverse phase silica gel followed by DE52 anion exchange separation, and then analyzed by capillary electrophoresis against prepared standards. The glutathione adduct (GSSE) and an unknown disulfide (RSSE) were the major components isolated on DE52 together with two minor ones. However, from the absorbance at 325 nm, it was found that the GSSE isolated (1.5 ± 0.2 femtomoles/cell) could only account for 28.5 ± 4.3% of the total ASF thiols. It appeared that the bulk of the thiol material had not formed a stable mixed disulfide with Ellmans reagent, and
This reaction is rapid and stoichiometric, with the addition of one mole of thiol releasing one mole of TNB. The TNB2− is quantified in a spectrophotometer by measuring the absorbance of visible light at 412 nm, using an extinction coefficient of 14,150 M−1 cm−1 for dilute buffer solutions,[3][4] and a coefficient of 13,700 M−1 cm−1 for high salt concentrations, such as 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride or 8 M urea.[4] Unfortunately the extinction coefficient for dilute solutions was underestimated in the original 1959 publication, as 13,600 M−1 cm−1, and as noted in a recent article, this mistake has persisted in the literature.[5] Commercial DTNB may not be completely pure, so may require recrystallization to obtain completely accurate and reproducible results.[4]. Ellmans reagent can be used for measuring low-molecular mass thiols such as glutathione in both pure solutions and biological samples, such as blood.[6] It can also measure the number of thiol groups on ...
1479501 Oxidizing mercaptans ASHLAND OIL Inc 1 Aug 1974 [7 Sept 1973] 34069/74 Heading C2C [Also in Divisions B1 and C5] Mercaptans and mercaptides are oxidized to the disulphides in aqueous alkaline solution in the presence of catalysts comprising a causticinert carrier impregnated with a tetrapyridinoporphyrazine or a tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine of the formula in which M is Cu, Ag, Mg, Zn, Hg, Th, Ti, Hf, Sn, Pb, V, Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt, each R is H, alkyl, aralkyl or aryl or two adjacent R groups are constituents of a cyclic carbon structure, and X is =N- or = CR-. Examples describe the oxidation of nbutyl mercaptan in aqueous sodium hydroxide using air as oxidant and activated carbon impregnated with cobalt or vanadium tetrapyridinoporphyrazine as catalyst.
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Attempts to denature the surrounding protein scaffold, i. e. to isolate the photoadduct consisting of FMN and methyl mercaptan failed. The adduct is apparently very unstable. For this reason, it was impossible to identify the adduct via mass spectrometry. However the structure of the adduct could be confirmed by CD spectroscopy. Irradiation of free FMN in aqueous solution in the presence of methyl mercaptan did not yield the corresponding free adduct of FMN and methyl mercaptan, but the fully reduced hydroquinone form of FMN. Therefore, the protein scaffold carries out two different functions: It guides the photoreaction between FMN and methyl mercaptan to adduct formation and it stabilizes the photoadduct after its formation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Downregulation of glutaredoxin but not glutathione loss leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice CNS. T2 - Implications in excitotoxicity. AU - Diwakar, Latha. AU - Kenchappa, Rajappa S.. AU - Annepu, Jayasree. AU - Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - Oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction play synergistic roles in neurodegeneration. Maintenance of thiol homeostasis is important for normal mitochondrial function and dysregulation of protein thiol homeostasis by oxidative stress leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. We examined the critical roles played by the antioxidant, non-protein thiol, glutathione and related enzyme, glutaredoxin in maintaining mitochondrial function during excitotoxicity caused by β-N-oxalyl amino-l-alanine (l-BOAA), the causative factor of neurolathyrism, a motor neuron disease involving the pyramidal system. ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: In tomato, impaired reductive activation of the stromal bisphosphatases appears to be the dominating factor limiting carbon assimilation following chilling in the light. The illumination-dependent activation of at least seven different chloroplast enzymes involves the reversible thiol/disulfide exchange between thioredoxin and the photosynthetic enzyme. The thermodynamics of the thiol/disulfide exchange between thioredoxin and the regulatory sulfhydryl groups of the various light-regulated chloroplast enzymes explains the differential responses among the various thioredoxin-regulated enzymes to the effects of chilling in the light (Hutchison et al. 2000). In the case of dark chilling, an intriguing effect of low temperature on the circadian regulation of transcription indicates that the low-temperature induced inhibition of photosynthesis in tomato may result from the loss of coordination in the expression of critical enzymes controlling ...
Millington, Keith R, Maurdev, George and Jones, Michael J 2009, Mechanism of photoprotection of wool with formaldehyde and thiol derivatives, Coloration technology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 117-122, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.2009.00183.x. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidants. AU - Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.. AU - Holtzclaw, W. David. AU - Cole, Robert N.. AU - Itoh, Ken. AU - Wakabayashi, Nobunao. AU - Katoh, Yasutake. AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Talalay, Paul. N1 - dc.publisher: National Academy of Sciences The first author designed and performed the experiments, and wrote the paper. The work was the first demonstration that inducers of cytoprotective responses are initially sensed in a chemical reaction with highly reactive sulfhydryl groups of the sensor protein Keap1. This finding has opened the field for many other investigators. dc.description.sponsorship: Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Foundation Barbara Lubin Goldsmith Foundation McMullan Family Fund National Cancer Institute Department of Health and Human Services CA 94076 American Institute for Cancer Research (Washington, DC) PY - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigations into the loss of glutathione from lenses in organ culture. AU - Qin, Chuan. AU - Tumminia, Santa J.. AU - Russell, Paul. AU - Rao, P. Vasantha. AU - Zigler, J. Samuel. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Purpose. To investigate possible causes and implications of the decrease in glutathione concentration in rat lenses during organ culture. Methods. Freshly excised lenses were incubated in modified TC-199 medium. Ellmans Reagent or the GSH-400 assay were used to assay glutathione levels in lenses cultured for different times and under a variety of altered culture conditions. Results. In lenses from young rats the glutathione decrease was not ameliorated by reduction of oxygen tension in the incubator, nor by supplementation of the culture medium with various antioxidants or sulfhydryl compounds, nor with the amino acid precursors of glutathione. Addition of 2-mercaptoethanol stimulated cysteine transport into the lens but had only a modest effect in maintaining the level of ...
Cysteines play important roles in the biochemistry of many proteins. The high reactivity, redox properties, and ability of the free thiol group to coordinate metal ions designate cysteines as the amino acids of choice to form key catalytic components of many enzymes. Also, cysteines readily react with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to form reversible oxidative thiol modifications. Over the last few years, an increasing number of proteins have been identified that use redox-mediated thiol modifications to modulate their function, activity, or localization. These redox-regulated proteins are central players in numerous important cellular processes. First aim of this study was to discover nitric oxide (NO) sensitive proteins in E. coli, whose redox-mediated functional changes might explain the physiological alterations observed in E. coli cells suffering from NO-stress. To identify E. coli proteins that undergo reversible thiol modifications upon NO-treatment in vivo, I applied a differential ...
In this study we examined whether metabolic stress induced by hypercholesterolemia alone or hyperlipidemia plus hyperglycemia accelerates atherosclerosis and renal injury by promoting thiol oxidative stress in macrophages and increasing the recruitment of macrophages to sites of tissue injury. We found that with each additional level of metabolic stress, macrophage accumulation increased in both atherosclerotic lesions and in kidneys of LDL-R−/− mice. Analysis of the macrophage glutathione reduction potential (Eh) revealed that metabolic stress promotes intracellular thiol oxidation and that oxidation of the macrophage glutathione reduction state correlates with both accelerated macrophage recruitment and increased lesion severity. Macrophage recruitment into MCP-1-loaded Matrigel plugs implanted in these mice was also accelerated with each additional level of metabolic stress, suggesting that increased cellular thiol oxidation induced by metabolic stress amplifies macrophage responses to ...
In order to study the oxidative stress-induced change in intracellular concentration of Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP, ([Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,]i) and Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,-induced oxidative stress, effects of hydrogen peroxide and ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, on rat cerebellar neurons were examined using a flow cytometer and fluorescent dyes: fluo-3 for monitoring [Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,]i; 2, 7-dichlorofluorescin, for reactive oxygen species; and 5-chloromethylfiuorescein, for cellular nonprotein thiols. Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide dose-dependently increased [Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,]i and decreased the content of nonprotein thiols. Ionomycin increased oxidative metabolism and decreased the content of nonprotein thiols. Results suggest that oxidative stress induces an increase in [Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,]j While an increase in [Ca,SUP,2+,/SUP,]i increases oxidative stress in neurons.. ...
Although the biophysical properties of T-channels were first described in sensory neurons (Carbone and Lux, 1984), their function in nociception has only recently been established (Todorovic et al., 2001a; Bourinet et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2007). Indeed, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the function of these channels in pain processing still are not well understood. The major finding of this study is that LA inhibits native and recombinant T-currents by oxidizing specific thiol residues on the extracellular face of the channel. Inhibition of CaV3.2 T-channels and the ensuing decrease in cellular excitability in nociceptive DRG cells may contribute to the documented analgesic properties of LA in vivo. This notion is strongly supported by the finding that local intraplantar injection of LA potently diminished responses to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in wild-type mice, but was completely ineffective in CaV3.2 knock-out mice. Importantly, we identified a novel regulatory site on ...
Thiol or sulfhydryl groups are highly reactive functional groups in cellular systems. Molecules carrying thiol groups are mostly derivatives of the amino acid cysteine and are grouped as low molecular weight (LMW)-thiols: coenzyme A (CoA), glutathione (GSH) or bacillithiol (BSH). LMW-thiols can help in the maintenance of the reduced cellular environment as so called redox-buffers. Additionally, they act as co-factors in enzyme reactions or help in the detoxification of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, electrophilic compounds or thiophilic metalloids (arsenite, tellurite). In proteins from different organisms cysteine is underrepresented compared to other amino acids, but still overtakes diverse roles. It is an important determinant in the tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. The nucleophilic character of the thiol or thiolate group, respectively, makes cysteine the catalytically active amino acids of different enzymes. As a precursor cysteine participates in the formation of Fe-S ...
This protocol describes how to vary the stiffness of a hydrogel made with a 12.5 mL HyStem® Hydrogel Kit, which is composed of Glycosil (CMHA-S, thiol-modified hyaluronic acid), Gelin-S (Gtn-DTPH, thiol-modified gelatin), Extralink (PEGDA, polyethylene glycol diacrylate), and DG Water (degassed, deionized water).
This protocol describes how to vary the stiffness of a hydrogel made with a 7.5 mL HyStem® Hydrogel Kit, which is composed of Glycosil® (CMHA-S, thiol-modified hyaluronic acid), Gelin-S® (Gtn-DTPH, thiol-modified gelatin), Extralink® (PEGDA, polyethylene glycol diacrylate), and DG Water (degassed, deionized water).
Purchase Thiol Redox Transitions in Cell Signaling, Part A, Volume 473 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123813459, 9780123813466
Egea, J., Fabregat, I., Frapart, Y. M., Ghezzi, P., Görlach, A., Kietzmann, T., Kubaichuk, K., Knaus, U. G., Lopez, M. G., Olaso-Gonzalez, G., Petry, A., Schulz, R., Vina, J., Winyard, P., Abbas, K., Ademowo, S., Afonso, C. B., Andreadou, I., Antelmann, H., Antunes, F., Aslan, M., Bachschmid, M. M., Barbosa, R. M., Belousov, V., Berndt, C., Bernlohr, D., Bertrán, E., Bindoli, A., Bottari, S. P., Brito, P. M., Carrara, G., Casas, A. I., Chatzi, A., Chondrogianni, N., Conrad, M., Cooke, M. S., Costa, J. G., Cuadrado, A., My-Chan Dang, P., De Smet, B., Debelec-butuner, B., Dias, I., Dunn, J. D., Edson, A. J., El Assar, M., El-Benna, J., Ferdinandy, P., Fernandes, A. S., Fladmark, K. E., Förstermann, U., Giniatullin, R., Giricz, Z., Görbe, A., Griffiths, H., Hampl, V., Hanf, A., Herget, J., Hernansanz-Agustín, P., Hillion, M., Huang, J., Ilikay, S., Jansen-Dürr, P., Jaquet, V., Joles, J. A., Kalyanaraman, B., Kaminskyy, D., Karbaschi, M., Kleanthous, M., Klotz, L-O., Korac, B., Korkmaz, K. S., ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Redox mechanism as alternative to ligand binding for receptor activation delivering disregulated cellular signals. AU - Nakashima, Izumi. AU - Pu, Mei Yi. AU - Nishizaki, Akira. AU - Rosila, Idris. AU - Ma, Li. AU - Katano, Yoshiaki. AU - Ohkusu, Kozo. AU - Rahman, S. M.Jamshedur. AU - Isobe, Ken Ichi. AU - Hamaguchi, Michinari. AU - Saga, Keisuke. PY - 1994/2/1. Y1 - 1994/2/1. N2 - Cross-linking with specific ligand is a general requirement for ordered activation of cell surface receptors. In this study we demonstrated a novel pathway for disregulated receptor activation through a redox mechanism. Treatment of murine thymocytes or spleen cells with thiol-reactive HgCl2, a known inducer of autoimmune proliferative lymphocyte disorders in rodents, was found to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, which was up to 100 times as extensive as that triggered by stimulation with antireceptor antibody or mitogen. Through the cross-linkage by thiol-reactive ...
View Notes - RasMol Assignment 2 from CHEM 101 at Northwestern IA. 4. There are 2 prosthetic groups present in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase. 5. There are roughly 24 phenylalanine present. 6. I looked
Ive been gallivanting through a gallimaufry of gaming goals recently, but this Bear cannot get it in gear from group content alone. There have to be soloing goals to grip me as well, yknow? At this point in the expansion lull, what do you do? Just keep scouting Archaeology sites to get those last nine rares?…
Ive been gallivanting through a gallimaufry of gaming goals recently, but this Bear cannot get it in gear from group content alone. There have to be soloing goals to grip me as well, yknow? At this point in the expansion lull, what do you do? Just keep scouting Archaeology sites to get those last nine rares?…
Hospital discharge: the patient, carer and doctor perspective JANUARY 2014 BMA Patient Liaison Group Contents Foreword by Dr Mark Porter, Chair of Council, BMA...3 Foreword by Catherine Macadam, Chair
Nitrous Kit for 48cc/66cc/80cc 2 stroke engines, 49cc 4-stroke engines These nitrous kits are designed to mount directly to your handle bars so that you never h
RedoxDB. A database dedicated to oxidative thiol modifications. The database already includes more than 2,000 proteins for which oxidative modifications, such as disulfides, S-sulfenylation, S-sulfinylation, S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, have been reported.. ...
|p|Gastec Detector Tubes indicate concentrations directly by way of a calibrated scale printed on the tubes. Gastec detector tubes are used for analysing airborne gases/vapours, as well as pollutants in soil and water.|/p|
I.D. Pavićević, V.B. Jovanović, M.M. Takić, A.Z. Penezić-Romanjuk, J.M. Aćimović, Lj.M. Mandić: Fatty acids binding to human serum albumin: changes of reactivity and glycation level of Cysteine-34 free thiol group with methylglyoxal. Chem Biol Int (2014) 224, 42-50 ...
This paper provides a systems level integration of the molecular events subject to reversible oxidation during IL-4 signal transduction. Code for simulation provided.