article{cf46fba3-5796-4634-acdf-dfa4d578d20e, abstract = {This chapter discusses the molecular properties, genetics, and biosynthesis of Bacillus subtilis succinate dehydrogenase complex. The citric acid cycle enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a membrane-bound iron-sulfur flavoprotein. Mitochondrial and bacterial SDH and membrane-bound fumarate reductase in anaerobic and facultative bacteria are similar in composition. SDH and also fumarate reductase can be extracted with detergent from the membrane in a complex with one or two (depending on the organism) small hydrophobic polypeptides. These small associated polypeptides are integral membrane proteins that anchor each enzyme to the membrane and are, at least in mitochondria, required for electron transfer from enzyme to quinone. The chapter discusses about the (1) growth of B. subtilis and isolation of membranes, (2) immunoprecipitation and composition of B. subtilis SDH Complex, (3) genetics of B. subtilis SDH-protoplast fusion, and (4) ...
The kidney of guinea pigs infected with the H37Rv and BCG strains of M. tuberculosis showed a diminution in succinic dehydrogenase activity when measured by the tetrazolium technique. This effect was also seen in the liver and spleen of animals infected with the BCG strain. Sensitized animals showed similar results when given tuberculin in sublethal doses. The succinic oxidase was also low in the kidneys of animals infected with the H37Rv strain.. The depressed enzyme activity of the tissues of infected animals could be restored to normal by addition of normal tissue extract or dialysate. This suggests that the alteration in tissue metabolism observed in tuberculosis may depend upon the loss of some as yet unidentified factor important for succinic dehydrogenase activity.. ...
The structure of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase (SQR), analogous to the mitochondrial respiratory complex II, has been determined, revealing the electron transport pathway from the electron donor, succinate, to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone. It was found that the SQR redox centers are arranged in a manner that aids the prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation at the flavin adenine dinucleotide. This is likely to be the main reason SQR is expressed during aerobic respiration rather than the related enzyme fumarate reductase, which produces high levels of ROS. Furthermore, symptoms of genetic disorders associated with mitochondrial SQR mutations may be a result of ROS formation resulting from impaired electron transport in the enzyme. |P /|
Health risks associated with inhalation and deposition of biological materials have been a topic of great concern due to highly publicized cases of inhalation anthrax, of new regulations on the release of particulate matter, and to increased concerns on the hazards of indoor air pollution. Here, we present an evaluation of the sensitivity of two immortal cell lines (A549, human lung carcinoma epithelia) and NR8383 (rat alveolar macrophages) to a variety of bacterial-derived inhalation hazards and simulants including etoposide, gliotoxin, streptolysin O, and warfarin. The cell response is evaluated through quantification of changes in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, release of lactate dehydrogenase, initiation of apoptosis, and through changes in morphology as determined by visible light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These cells display dose-response relations to each toxin, except for triton which has a step change response. The first observable responses of the epithelial
All subunits of human mitochondrial SDH are encoded in nuclear genome. After translation, SDHA subunit is translocated as apoprotein into the mitochondrial matrix. Subsequently, one of the first steps is covalent binding of the FAD cofactor (flavinylation). This process seems to be regulated by some of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Specifically, succinate, isocitrate and citrate stimulate flavinylation of the SDHA.[14] In case of eukaryotic Sdh1 (SDHA in mammals), another protein is required for process of FAD incorporation - namely Sdh5 in yeast, succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 (SDHAF2) in mammal cells. Before forming a heterodimer with subunit SDHB, some portion of SDHA with covalently bound FAD appears to interact with other assembly factor - SDHAF4 (Sdh8 in yeast). Unbound flavinylated SDHA dimerizes with SDHAF4 which serves as a chaperone. Studies suggest that formation of SDHA-SDHB dimer is impaired in absence of SDHAF4 so the chaperon-like assembly factor might ...
Complete information for SDHD gene (Protein Coding), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Subunit D, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for SDHA gene (Protein Coding), Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Sdhd - Sdhd (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein (Sdhd), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
tcr:511909.40 K00234 succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein subunit [EC:1.3.5.1] , (RefSeq) succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (A) MLRRIFARFSPKLSKAYPMIDHTFDCVVVGAGGSGLRAAMGVAASGYDVACISKLYPSRS HTIAAQGGINAALANCEEDDWRWHVYDTVKGSDWLGDQDAIQYMCQEAPCVVSELESMGL PFLRTKDGFIYQRAFGGQSIHFGGKQARRTCAASDRTGHAMLHTLYGQSFQYGVNFFNEY YCLDLIVEDGCCRGVVAMSIDDGTIHRFRSKYTILATGGYGRCWFTTTSAKSCTGDGTAM VARAGLPAEDMEFVQFHPTGIYGPGVLITEGARGEGGYLVNSEGERFMERYAPKAKDLAS RDVVSRAITLEVLAGRGCGPKKDHVLLQLHHLPPEQLHEKLPGISESAHIFAGVDVTKES IPIVPTVHYNMGGIPTLWTGEVVSPRNGDDDAIVPGLLAAGECACASVHGANRLGANSLL DIVVFGKSCANTVIFNLTKEGRNQPELRPDAGESSIADLDGILHNKGDIPVARIRERMKE TMALYAAVFRTEESMLKGQGIIEECYRDYSHVFVHDKSPVWNSNLIEALELRNLLTNALL TITGAAVRRESRGAHARDDYPERDDHNWMKHTLAYLDDKNGKARLAYRRVHNEMLTNELE SIPPAKRVY ...
SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE (MODIFIED FROM PETTE & TYLER, 1983). 1. Phosphate buffer (100mM, pH 7.6). --Solution A (1.36g KH2PO4 /100ml) 12ml. --Solution B (1.42g Na2HPO4/100ml) 88ml. 2. NBT Stock. --Phosphate buffer as above 100ml. --KCN 6.5mg. --EDTA 185mg. --Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) 100mg. Freeze in 2ml aliquots. 3. Succinate stock (500 mM sodium succinate). --Sodium succinate 2.7g. --Distilled water 20ml. Freeze in 5ml amounts. 4. Incubation medium. --NBT stock 2.0ml. --Succinate stock 0.2ml. --Phenazine methosulphate 0.7mg (one small crystal). Mix just before use, keep out of strong light.. ...
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Fumarate reductase is the enzyme that converts fumarate to succinate, and is important in microbial metabolism as a part of anaerobic respiration. Succinate + acceptor <=> fumarate + reduced acceptor Fumarate reductases can be divided into two classes depending on the electron acceptor: Fumarate reductase (quinol) (EC 1.3.5.4) The membrane-bound enzyme covalently linked to flavin cofactors, which is composed of 3 or 4 subunits, transfers electrons from a quinol to fumarate. This class of enzyme is thus involved in the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Fumarate reductase (NADH) (EC 1.3.1.6) The enzyme is monomeric and soluble, and can reduce fumarate independently from the electron transport chain. Tielens, A.G., van Hellemond, J.J. (1998). "The electron transport chain in anearobically functioning eukaryotes". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1365: 71-78. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Camarasa; et al. (2007). "Role in anaerobiosis of the isoenzymes for Saccharomyces ...
Flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh1p, Sdh2p, Sdh3p, Sdh4p); K00234 succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein subunit [EC:1.3.5.1] ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
pvx:PVX_111005 K00234 succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein subunit [EC:1.3.5.1] , (RefSeq) flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (A) MLTVRRKCSPAFALSTRLNFSSVKKKAYDIVDHHYDAVIVGAGGAGLRSGLELSKNNYKV ACISKLFPTRSHTVAAQGGINAALGNMTEDDWRWHAYDTIKGSDWLGDQNAIQYMCREAP ESVLELEEFGLPFSRTKSGKIYQRAFGGQSLKYGKGGQAYRCAAAADRTGHAMLHTLYGQ SLAYNCVFFVEYFVLDLLMASQNECIGVICLNIADGKIHRFFAPHTVIATGGYGRAYLSC TSAHACTGDGNAIVSRSKLPLQDLEFVQFHPTGIYPAGCLITEGCRGEGGILRNREGEAF MMRYAPKAKDLASRDVVSRAMTIEINEGRGCGPNADHIYLDLTHLPYETLKERLPGIMET AKIFAGVNVTNQYIPVLPTVHYNMGGIPTNYKTQVLTQRVNSSKGVSTLEGEDIIVKGLY AAGEAASASVHGANRLGANSLLDIVVFGKRASLTIMEIDKPNIPPISAQADIGDETIQRL DKIRYNKGTISTAQIRKKMQVCMQKHAAVFRIGPLLEEGYKQILTICSQFNDVYVKDKTL TWNTDLIETLELENLLTLASQTILAAIERKESRGAHARDDFPERDDKAFLKHSLTWMTDR DVEKAKFFTTYRGVITKPLDDEMEHVPPVKRVY ...
GIST oncogenesis in the great majority of cases is due to activation of kinase signaling due primarily to gain of function mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA receptors. This class of GIST, which has been referred to as "Type 1" GIST [46], can occur throughout the GI tract, and generally presents as sporadic disease in older adults. Tumor cells are generally spindled or mixed spindled/epithelioid, and these GISTs, with notable exceptions such as the PDGFRA D842V mutation discussed here, generally respond well to front-line therapy with the RTK inhibitor IM. SDH-deficient GIST, which have have also been termed Type II GIST, are an interesting sub-class of GIST that generally lack receptor mutations. SDH impairment leads to cytosolic accumulation of the TCA intermediate succinate and inhibition of alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenases [47]. These enzymes include the prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) that normally contributes to the degradation of the hypoxia-inducible gactor-1A (HIF1A) [48] as well as TET ...
The zinc finger proteins Mig1 and Mig2 play important roles in glucose repression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate whether the alleviation of glucose effect would result in an increase in a
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Among the mutant strains examined, deletion of genes directly related to the mitochondria respiratory chain (NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, electron transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome bc 1 complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and FoF1-ATP synthase) showed lower ATP synthetic activity compared with that of the parental strain, indicating that these components of the mitochondria respiratory chain were indispensable for ATP synthetic activity.. In the case of FoF1-ATP synthase (complex V), 12 single gene deletion strains were used to measure their ATP synthetic activity by the MASH method. Deletion of ATP4 had almost no effect on the ATP synthetic activity because ATP4 encodes b subunit which effects on the stability of oligomeric FoF1-ATP synthases, not ATP synthetic activity [15]. As the result, especially in both the ΔATP2 strain and ΔATP20 strain, the ATP synthetic activities were drastically decreased compared to the other mutant strains ...
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of mammalian mitochondria and many bacterial cells.
tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden ...
Video articles in JoVE about mitochondrial encephalomyopathies include Visualization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Function using Cytochrome C Oxidase / Succinate Dehydrogenase (COX/SDH) Double-labeling Histochemistry, Respirometric Oxidative Phosphorylation Assessment in Saponin-permeabilized Cardiac Fibers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel succinate dehydrogenase subunit B germline variant associated with head and neck paraganglioma in a Dutch kindred. T2 - A family-based study. AU - de Vos, B.. AU - Rijken, J. A.. AU - Adank, M. A.. AU - Hoksbergen, A. W.J.. AU - Bayley, J. P.. AU - Leemans, C. R.. AU - Hensen, E. F.. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Objective: In the Netherlands, the majority of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) are caused by germline variants in the succinate dehydrogenase genes (SDHD, SDHB, SDHAF2). Here, we evaluate a four-generation family linked to a novel SDHB gene variant with the manifestation of a HNPGL. Design: A family-based study. Setting: The VU University Medical Center (VUmc) Amsterdam, a tertiary clinic for Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. Participants and main outcome measures: The index patients presented with an embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma and a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis and multiplex ...
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Cellular location of ganglioside-sialidase activity was determined in confluent hamster embryo fibroblasts transformed with herpes simplex virus type 2. Approximately equal specific activities of ganglioside-sialidase activity were found to be associated with the crude lysosomal and crude plasma membrane fractions isolated from whole cell homogenates. Whole transformed cells hydrolyzed exogenous ganglioside substrate, suggesting a partial location of the cellular sialidase on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of these cells. Intact cells were treated with the diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid, a nonpenetrating reagent inhibitory to ecto-enzymes (DePierre, J.W., and M. L. Karnovsky. 1974. J. Biol. Chem. 249:7111-7120). Cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase activity was not inhibited by this treatment, and mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity was inhibited only 10%, indicating that intracellular enzymes were not affected. 5-Nucleotidase activity was diminished 90%, and sialidase very ...
Succinate dehydrogenase activity was investigated histochemically in the rat pineal gland. The influence of fixation on the activity pattern, the possible diffusion of enzyme, the nothing...
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Whole cells, homogenates and mitochondrial obtained from the livers of albino rats which were starved for 6 days or more showed a 50% decrease in oxidative activity. The decrease could be corrected by the addition of cytochrome c in vitro. The phosphorylative activity of mitochondria remained unaffected. The decrease in oxidative rate was not observed when starving animals were given the anti-hypercholesterolaemic drug clofibrate. The total cellular concentration of cytochrome c was not affected by starvation. However, the concentration of the pigment in hepatic mitochondria isolated from starving animals was less than half that in normal mitochondria. Clofibrate-treated animals did not show a decreased concentration of cytochrome c in hepatic mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated from starving animals, though deficient in cytochrome c, did not show any decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity or in the rate of substrate-dependent reduction of potassium ferricyanide or attendant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of emphysema and malnutrition on diaphragm structure and function. AU - Lewis, M. I.. AU - Monn, S. A.. AU - Zhan, W. Z.. AU - Sieck, Gary C. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Interactive effects of emphysema (EMP) and prolonged nutritional deprivation (ND) on contractile, morphometric, and metabolic properties of hamster diaphragm muscle (DIA) were examined. Six months after induction of EMP (intratracheal elastase), saline-treated controls (CTL) and EMP hamsters of similar body weights were subjected to ND over 6 wk. Isometric contractile and fatigue properties of costal DIA were determined in vitro. DIA fibers were histochemically classified as type I or II, and fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity and cross-sectional area were determined using quantitative microscopic procedures. From histochemical sections, the number of capillaries per fiber (C/F) and per fiber cross-sectional area (C/A) were determined. ND resulted in progressive loss of body weight (ND-CTL, ...
1. Exposure of Astasia longa to oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5) at atmospheric pressure leads to an inhibition of growth rate and of respiration. Growth resumes at the normal rate as soon as the oxygenation is discontinued, but respiration recovers more slowly. 2. Mitochondria prepared from cells exposed to oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5) during growth have considerably decreased activities of succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase and succinate oxidase activities as compared with mitochondria obtained from cells exposed to air+carbon dioxide (95:5). Cytochrome oxidase activity is not appreciably inhibited by exposure of the cells to 95% oxygen. 3. The mitochondrial fraction of Astasia contains rhodoquinone. The rhodoquinone concentration increases in cells exposed to 95% oxygen. The content of ergosterol-containing compounds also increases in the mitochondria of cells exposed to 95% oxygen. There is little change in the ubiquinone content of ...
Membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenases (succinate:quinone reductases, SQR) and fumarate reductases (quinol:fumarate reductases, QFR) couple the oxidation of succinate to fumarate to the reduction of quinone to quinol and also catalyse the reverse reaction. SQR (respiratory complex II) is involved in aerobic metabolism as part of the citric acid cycle and of the aerobic respiratory chain. QFR is involved in anaerobic respiration with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor, and is part of an electron transport chain catalysing the oxidation of various donor substrates by fumarate. QFR and SQR complexes are collectively referred to as succinate:quinone oxidoreductases (EC 1.3.5.1), have very similar compositions and are predicted to share similar structures. The complexes consist of two hydrophilic and one or two hydrophobic, membrane-integrated subunits. The larger hydrophilic subunit A carries covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide and subunit B contains three iron-sulphur centres. QFR ...
Principal Investigator:KITA Kiyoshi, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:General medical chemistry
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Monospecific, polyclonal antisera were raised to purified bovine heart succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and to the individual large (Mr = 70000) and small (Mr = 27000) subunits of this enzyme. The specificities of the antisera were determined by immune blotting. These antisera exhibited cross-reactivity with the corresponding polypeptides in Buffalo rat liver (BRL), pig kidney (PK-15) and bovine kidney (NBL-1) cell lines, and were employed to investigate some of the events involved in the biogenesis of succinate dehydrogenase in the BRL and PK-15 cell lines. Newly-synthesised forms of the large and small subunits of SDH were detected in cultured PK-15 and BRL cells labelled with 35 [35S]methionine in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. In both cell lines, the precursor forms of the large and small subunits exhibit M values approx. 1-2000 and 4-5000 greater than the corresponding mature forms. When the uncoupler is removed in pulse-chase experiments, complete conversion of the ...
Succinate and fumarate are four-carbon dicarboxylates that differ in the identity of their central bond (single or double). The oxidoreduction of these small molecules plays a central role in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. During aerobic respiration, succinate is oxidized, donating two reducing equivalents, while in anaerobic respiration, fumarate is reduced, accepting two reducing equivalents. Two related integral membrane Complex II superfamily members catalyze these reactions, succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and fumarate:menaquinol oxidoreductase (QFR). The structure, function, and regulation of these integral-membrane enzymes are summarized here. The overall architecture of these Complex II enzymes has been found to consist of four subunits: two integral membrane subunits, and a soluble domain consisting of an iron-sulfur protein subunit, and a flavoprotein subunit. This architecture provides a scaffold that houses one active site in the membrane and another in the soluble milieu,
We have used fluorescence quench titrations, EPR spectroscopy and steady-state kinetics to study the effects of site-directed mutants of FrdB, FrdC and FrdD on the proximal menaquinol (MQH2) binding site (QP)of Escherichia colifumarate reductase (FrdABCD) in cytoplasmic membrane preparations. Fluorescence quench (FQ) titrations with the fluorophore and MQH2 analog 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HOQNO) indi-cate that the QPsite is defined by residues from FrdB, FrdC and FrdD. In FQ titrations, wild-type FrdABCD binds HOQNO with an apparentKdof 2. ...
This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations …
Dehidrogenase suksinat (bahasa Inggris: succinate dehydrogenase, succinate:coenzyme Q reductase, succinate:quinone reductase, SQR, SDH) merupakan kompleks enzim yang dibentuk dari protein hasil transkripsi dari 4 berkas genetik SDHA, SDHB, SDHC dan SDHD, pada inti sel, yang bermigrasi ke dalam mitokondria. Sebagai bagian dari kompleks II pada rantai transpor elektron di dalam mitokondria, SDH berperan baik pada siklus asam sitrat dan fosforilasi oksidatif,[1] sebagai senyawa supresor tumor,[2] dan penghambat pembentukan ROS pada molekul FAD.[3] Defisiensi pada SDH menimbulkan simtoma hipoksia, meningkatkan metilasi histon dan defisiensi siklus asam sitrat. ...
The Hereditary Paraganglioma Syndrome (hPGL) is a rare genetic cancer syndrome that is most commonly caused by a defect in mitochondrial metabolism. Our goal is to understand how altered cellular metabolism leads to the development of cancer. Although hPGL is uncommon, it serves as an excellent model for the abnormal metabolic behavior displayed by nearly all cancers. Our goal is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target the abnormal behavior of cancer cells. In the laboratory we have developed hPGL mouse models and use high throughput chemical screening to identify the therapeutic susceptibilities that result from the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells ...
The Hereditary Paraganglioma Syndrome (hPGL) is a rare genetic cancer syndrome that is most commonly caused by a defect in mitochondrial metabolism. Our goal is to understand how altered cellular metabolism leads to the development of cancer. Although hPGL is uncommon, it serves as an excellent model for the abnormal metabolic behavior displayed by nearly all cancers. Our goal is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target the abnormal behavior of cancer cells. In the laboratory we have developed hPGL mouse models and use high throughput chemical screening to identify the therapeutic susceptibilities that result from the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells ...
For the first time, scientists at Newcastle University have identified that the activity of a specific and key metabolic enzyme found in the batteries of human
In experiments with albino rats it was found that after administration of phytobacteriomycin, trichotecin, hygromycin B or levoristatin into the stomach in doses of 1/20 of LD50 activity of the microsomal enzymes of the liver cells significantly changed and the changes persisted within at least 2 weeks. The above antibiotics induced similar changes in the lysosome enzyme, i.e. acid phosphatase, providing an increase in its activity. Changes in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (mytochondria indicator enzyme), glucose-6-phosphatase (ribosome indicator enzyme) and aspartate aminotransferase (cytoplasm indicator enzyme) were different for each antibiotic. It is concluded that the above antibiotics were capable of impairing on intoxication the enzymatic function of various cell microstructures, though the levels of the change direction may be different.
Metopropol Succinate ER is the extended release formula of Metropropol Succinate and is given as a beta blocker for patients with chest pain, according to WebMD. It lowers blood pressure and...
Emoxypine Succinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Emoxypine Succinate is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Paragangliomas of the head and neck are highly vascular and usually clinically benign tumors arising in the paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system. A significant number of cases (10-50%) are proven to be familial. Multiple genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial succinate-dehydrogenase (SDH) complex are associated with hereditary paraganglioma: SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Furthermore, a hereditary paraganglioma family has been identified with linkage to the PGL2 locus on 11q13. No SDH genes are known to be located in the 11q13 region, and the exact gene defect has not yet been identified in this family. We have performed a RNA expression microarray study in sporadic, SDHD- and PGL2-linked head and neck paragangliomas in order to identify potential differences in gene expression leading to tumorigenesis in these genetically defined paraganglioma subgroups. We have focused our analysis on pathways and functional gene-groups that are known to be associated with SDH function and paraganglioma
Paragangliomas of the head and neck are highly vascular and usually clinically benign tumors arising in the paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system. A significant number of cases (10-50%) are proven to be familial. Multiple genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial succinate-dehydrogenase (SDH) complex are associated with hereditary paraganglioma: SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Furthermore, a hereditary paraganglioma family has been identified with linkage to the PGL2 locus on 11q13. No SDH genes are known to be located in the 11q13 region, and the exact gene defect has not yet been identified in this family. We have performed a RNA expression microarray study in sporadic, SDHD- and PGL2-linked head and neck paragangliomas in order to identify potential differences in gene expression leading to tumorigenesis in these genetically defined paraganglioma subgroups. We have focused our analysis on pathways and functional gene-groups that are known to be associated with SDH function and paraganglioma
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wqy: Remodelling Of Carboxin Binding to the Q-Site of Avian Respiratory Complex II
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). The selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production by reverse electron transport (RET) through Complex I during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by RET at ...