Male injection drug users deported from the United States to Tijuana have four-fold higher odds of HIV infection compared to those living in Tijuana who were not deported there, according to a study to be presented at the International AIDS Conference on August 5, 2008 in Mexico City.
CONTEXT: In British Columbia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons eligible for antiretroviral therapy may receive it free but the extent to which HIV-infected injection drug users access it is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify patient and physician characteristics associated with antiretroviral therapy utilization in HIV-infected injection drug users. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage between survey data and data from a provincial HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) drug treatment program.
The intervention arm consists of 7 group sessions, 2 individual sessions, and one community experience. The control arm consists of 8 group sessions, aiming at controlling for demand (1st session) and attention (8 group sessions). Behavioral assessments and blood draws (for viral load and CD4 testing) occur at baseline, 6, and 12 month follow-up; a 3 month assessment involves behavioral assessment only. 1161 participants took baseline. Of these, 966 were randomized into the study, and 840, 807, and 821 participants took 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up assessments, respectively. ...
Injecting drug users (IDUs) are among the most vulnerable populations at risk to contract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Among Canadian cities, Montreal holds one of the higher HIV and HCV contraction rates in the IDU population. Results from SurvUDI, a population survey among IDUs conducted in the province of Quebec (Canada), show that in Montreal 18% of IDUs are infected with HIV and 67% are infected with HCV. The cornerstone of HIV and HCV prevention strategies is to give information on safe injection practices and to make available sterile syringes and other injection equipment. However, the SurvUDI survey reveals that a large proportion of IDUs recruited in community programs offering sterile injection equipment and information on safe injection practices are still sharing needles with other IDUs. Indeed, it seems that information dissemination and distribution of sterile injection equipment are not sufficient in order to control the HIV and HCV epidemic ...
A sample of 95 intravenous drug users agreed to provide urine samples, which would be tested for the presence of the metabolites of opiates and cocaine; the purpose of the study was to assess the validity of injection drug users self- reported use of these drugs. Using chi-square analyses, the researchers determined that there were no significant differences between intravenous drug users who agreed to participate in the study and those who declined to participate in terms of age, gender, ethnic group, education, primary drug of choice, treatment history, project intervention assignment, or time of follow-up. The urinalysis findings showed that 30 percent of the 67 participants who claimed to be drug-free over the previous 6 months had in fact used drugs. When compared to the total sample, the rate of misrepresentation fell to 21 percent. Logit regression analyses indicated that intravenous drug users who were black or whose primary drugs of choice were injected cocaine and crack were more likely than
Quality Testosterone Cypionate Weight Loss Steroids For Females / Males Injection 250mg for sale - wholesale cheap Testosterone Steroid from anabolicoralsteroids.
A team of doctors report in the latest Journal of Viral Hepatitis on mortality in HIV-infected injection drug users with active vs cleared hepatitis C virus-infection.. ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Perspectives v8n5 sex partners of injection drug users, Author: Alliance Health Project, Name: Perspectives v8n5 sex partners of injection drug users, Length: 9 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-10-07
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Intravenous Drug Abuse, Persons Who Inject Drugs, Intravenous Drug User, Injection Drug Abuse, IV Drug Abuse, IVDA, PWID.
Background. In order to identify, in a sample of heroin intravenous drug users IVDU, those factors associated with the predominant risk behaviour related to the transmission of HIV-1 infection-sharing of injection equipment-a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Valencia, Spain from 1987 to 1992. Methods. Informed consent and pertinent...
Intravenous drug abusers in a methadone program in Minnesota were offered HIV-antibody screening to determine the degree of interest in screening and extent of infection. Thirty-nine (85 percent) were willing to be tested. Only seven refused. All patients were aware of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their high risk of exposure to the AIDS virus through sharing of injection paraphernalia. None reported exposure to additional risk factors, such as homosexual or bisexual activity or having received a blood transfusion. Of the patients tested, none was positive for HIV antibodies. The high degree of patient interest in screening was unanticipated as was the lack of positive laboratory findings for HIV antibodies. Factors associated with acceptance of testing included patient awareness of high seroprevalence rates, indifference to potential negative social consequences of positive HIV-antibody status, and the voluntary nature of the testing. These findings raise a cautious sense of ...
Endocarditis - injection drug users answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
There s another alarming consequence to America s heroin and prescription painkiller epidemic an increase in a serious heart infection called endocarditis, U.S.
Both injection drug use (IDU) and hepatitis C (HCV) coinfection nearly tripled the risk of death in HIV-positive North Americans and Europeans, according ...
The war on drugs is driving much of the global AIDS pandemic, increasing new infections among injection-drug users in the U.S. and elsewhere, according to a new report from the Global Commission on Drug Policy.
Prevalence of Injection Drug Use in Australia: It has been estimated that a very low proportion of the Australian general population aged 14 years and over have ever injected or recently injected drugs. In 2010, 1.8% of the population had injected a drug in their lifetime, with 0.4% having injected a drug in the past year. More than one-quarter (27.1%) of recent users
Injection drug users who undergo surgery for infective endocarditis have a significantly higher risk of reoperation or death between three and six months after surgery compared to patients who develop endocarditis who are not IV drug abusers, according to an article in the September 2015 issue of the Annals of Thoracic Surgery.
Doctors should consider giving a daily AIDS drug to another high risk group to help prevent infections - people who shoot heroin, methamphetamines or other injection drugs, U.S. health officials said Wednesday.
Wholesale Drug Injection - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Drug Injection products in best price from certified Chinese Drug Intermediate manufacturers, Drug Package suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Rate of HIV infection in intravenous drug users in the U.S. in 2009, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That rate has fallen by half - from 18% - since the 1990s.
From 1991 - 1994 when word got around that I refused the liver transplant and the doctors said I was delirious, many said they were right. I was delirious. Its funny how people act when you have a life threatening disease like Hepatitis C, that has a stigma attached to it. The first thing people think is you must be a intravenous drug user. Religious people automatically said
There are many different types of intravenous drugs, but some of the most commonly used ones are chemotherapy drugs, narcotics...
In addition to sterile needles, syringe-exchange programmes typically offer services such as HIV and Hepatitis C testing; alcohol swabs; bleach water and normal saline (often as eye drops); aluminium "cookers"; citric acid powder (an imperative agent that enables heroin to dissolve in water); containers for needles and many other items.[18] A survey conducted by Beth Israel Medical Center in New York city and the North American Syringe Exchange Network, among 126 surveyed SEPs that 77% provided material abuse therapy, 72% provided voluntary counselling and HIV testing, and more than two-thirds provided supplies such as bleach, alcohol pads and male and female condoms. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), around 1/5 of all new HIV infections and the vast majority of Hepatitis C infections are the result of injection drug use.[19] Needle-exchange programmes are supported by the CDC and the National Institute of Health.[19][20] The NIH estimates that in the United States, between ...
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Needle-exchange programs designed to cut injection drug users risk of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and other infections do seem to reduce needle sharing, but there is only limited evidence that they lower disease transmission, a new research review concludes.
Camden, N.J., City Council Member Ali Sloan-El (R) on Tuesday plans to introduce legislation to allow a needle-exchange program in the city to reduce the ...
The nations drug czar has touted needle-exchange programs as a way to reduce the spread of disease and to steer heroin users into treatment.
Despite $1 million in city AIDS funding over three years, the Districts largest needle-exchange program is nearly out of cash and has at times been unable to supply clean syringes to intravenous...
Art Caplan, MSNBC.coms "Vitals": The belief that "[g]iving out free clean needles sends the message that injecting drugs is OK … just happens to be completely unsupported by any evidence at all," Caplan, director of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania writes, adding, "Policy involves more than scientific evidence when it comes to touchy subjects like drug addiction. However, morality cannot ignore the facts." He concludes, "If needle-exchange programs do reduce risk, suffering, deaths and costs, and it is beyond dispute that they do, then it is bad ethics to insist on a moral message that is utterly disconnected from the harsh realities of drug abuse" (12/19 ...
Needle exchange was first introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1985 in response to the AIDS epidemic. Most areas within the UK have pharmacy-based needle-exchange programs (NEPs). Mobile, agency-based and automated needle exchange programs also exist.Despite this widespread availability of free needles, HIV infection among newer UK injection drug users (IDUs) is rising, according to the Health Protection Agency. The data comes from samples taken of addicts who accessed services provided by NEPs and methadone treatment programs. ...
Injection drug users (IDUs) who continue to inject can substantially reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV, hepatitis B and C, and other ...
Harm Reduction Coalition advances policies and programs that help people address the adverse effects of drug use including overdose, HIV, hepatitis C, addiction, and incarceration.
Martin cites a number of alarming statistics to show the size of the drug problem. The number of IDUs is estimated to be between 1 million and 1.4 million. By mid-2000, 36 percent (270,721) of AIDS cases in the United States had occurred among IDUs, their sexual partners and their children, and these three categories of people accounted for half of all new HIV infections in the nation. In fact, 57 percent of children born with AIDS in the United States are the offspring of IDUs or their sexual partners. IDUs also risk exposure to various forms of hepatitis. Between 50 and 80 percent of IDUs contract hepatitis C - the most dangerous strain -- within their first year of needle use ...
Supporters of needle exchange programs say they provide clean needles to injection drug users to prevent the spread of disease, but Madison County, Indiana, Prosecutor Rodney Cummings said the exchange program in his community brought a different set of is
Adult injection drug users aged 30 years or younger are both at the highest risk for acquiring hepatitis C and transmitting HCV, according to a presentation at the International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users. Kimberly Page, PhD, MPH, MS, from the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, presented results from the Acute UFO study, which took place from 2003 to 2017
Critics of a proposal to expand Baltimores syringe exchange believe that would only encourage drug use, but city officials said theyre trying to stop the spread of dangerous diseases.
The Treatment and Care for HIV-Positive Injecting Drug Users training curriculum is designed for clinicians who provide treatment and care, including ART, for HIV-positive injecting drug users. The training curriculum consists of a trainer manual, 12 participant manuals, and a CD-ROM with PowerPoint presentations and reference articles. Topics covered in the curriculum include: Module 1: Drug use and HIV in Asia Module 2: Comprehensive services for injecting drug users Module 3: Initial patient assessment Module 4: Managing opioid dependence Module 5: Managing non-opioid drug dependence Module 6: Managing ART in injecting drug users Module 7: Adherence counselling for injecting drug users Module 8: Drug interactions Module 9: Management of coinfections in HIV-positive injecting drug users Module 10: Managing pain in HIV-infected injecting drug users Module 11: Psychiatric illness, psychosocial care and sexual health Module 12: Continuing medical education Trainer ...
... J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2012; 2(1): Ji Y, Kujtan L,
Data Collection Notes: This dataset contains waves 3 and 4 of the survey. However, question text is only available for wave 4. The wave 3 questionnaires were destroyed in an accident. The variable order follows the questionnaire for wave 4. ICPSR staff added wave 3 variables in a pattern that follows the wave 4 questionnaire.. The Principal Investigator computed variables to reflect the number of times the respondent did certain activities. These variables have the same variable names and labels as the originals except the letter "K" is added to the end of the variable names and "(Converted to number of times)" is added to the end of the variable labels.. The Principal Investigator computed variables to reflect the percentage of the time the respondent did certain activities. These variables have the same variable names and labels as the originals except the letter "F" is added to the end of the variable names and "(Converted to Percentage)" is added to the end of the variable labels.. At the ...
Free Shipping. Great Low Price. Drench Syringe allows easy administration of fluids to livestock, including cattle, sheep, and goats. Durable plastic syringe with curved metal drenching probe. Measurements are marked in 50 ml increments on the syringe barrel.Drench Syringe 600 ml Labelvage Drenching | Needles Syringes | Farm
Free Shipping on most orders over $60. Great Low Price. O-Ring for Nylon Syringes.Nylon Syringe O-Ring Generic brand may vary Syringes | Needles Syringes | Farm
Objective: Injection drug use (IDU) remains a major risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition. The complex interplay between drug use, non-sterile injection, and Hepatitis C rema..
KENILWORTH, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced the presentation of results from the companys Phase 3 C-EDGE CO-STAR clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the investigational once-daily tablet elbasvir/grazoprevir1 (50mg/100mg) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1, 4 or 6 infection who inject drugs and are receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT). Ninety-five percent (189/198) of patients treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks in the pre-specified primary efficacy analysis population achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the completion of treatment (SVR12, considered virologic cure). Adherence to treatment was high, with 97 percent of patients taking at least 95 percent of their study medication over the 12 weeks of therapy. These findings will be featured today at the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Presidents Press Conference at The ...
Congress had banned the use of federal money to finance needle exchange programs. Supporters of the ban thought such programs encouraged drug use. Now, activists see the lifting of the ban as a step forward in the fight to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS.
BACKGROUND: Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive war on drugs campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. METHODS: We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project.
Tobramycin Injection manufacturers - Systacare Remedies exporters, suppliers of Tobramycin Injection Drug india, indian Tobramycin Injection,Tobramycin Sulphate Injection manufacturer, wholesale Tobramycin Injection Drug suppliers, Tobramycin Injection, Tobramycin Injection Drug, Tobramycin Sulphate Injection
For injecting drug users there are other important considerations. This includes that injecting drug-users often chaotic lives mean that they can find it difficult to access health services and may only be in contact with health professionals sporadically. This trial included only those who were currently attending drug treatment clinics. However, there are likely to be many other vulnerable groups of injecting drug users in the community who are not attending clinics, or who attend but then are lost to follow-up. Therefore, ensuring that all drug users are able to access care, and receive continued care and treatment may be issues that would need to be considered ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The provision of programs to prevent the spread of HIV and hepatitis among people who inject drugs (PWID) is inadequate in many countries around the world and presents a critical public health problem, comprehensive reviews by Australian researchers from the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre at UNSW Sydney have found.. The two reviews of the global prevalence of injecting drug use and of interventions to prevent the spread of blood borne viruses among PWID are published today in leading international journal The Lancet Global Health.. The authors estimate that 15.6 million people have recently injected drugs. Of these, 18% are living with HIV infection and 52% test positive for hepatitis C (HCV) antibody.. Yet despite evidence that needle and syringe programs (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) reduce HIV and HCV infections, they are still not being implemented in many places, and few people can access them in many countries, the authors found.. Australia is one of only four ...
Problematic use of prescription-type opioids prior to heroin use among young heroin injectors Robin A Pollini1, Caleb J Banta-Green2, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota3, Mitcheal Metzner3, Eyasu Teshale4, Richard S Garfein31Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, MD; 2Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 3Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA; 4National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Misuse of prescription-type opioids and related adverse health effects are increasing, but little is known about the role of these drugs as a precursor to heroin use. We conducted an exploratory study to determine the proportion of young heroin injectors reporting problematic use of prescription-type opioids prior to using heroin, and to describe the factors associated with prior problematic prescription-type opioid use.Methods: Between March 2009
Drug rehab includes detox, therapy, support groups and medical interventions. The most effective drug treatment programs are individualized and holistic.
Increasing prevalence of HIV, and persistent high-risk behaviours among drug users in Bangladesh: need for a comprehensive harm reduction programme.: There are
An injector system includes, in combination, an injector and a syringe for injecting fluid into a patient. The syringe includes a body, a plunger movably disposed within the body, and an encoding device providing syringe information. The injector includes a motor, a controller operably associated with the motor, a sensor operably associated with the controller and operable to read the encoded syringe information provided by the encoding device, a drive member powered by the motor and operable to automatically advance and engage the plunger when the syringe is mounted on the injector, and a plunger engagement detection device operable to indicate when the drive member of the injector has engaged the plunger of the syringe.
from Jules: this is a nice study comparing the Net Health Benefit of treating HCV in the US to that of the influenza vaccine, the Clean Air Act and X-Ray Shielding. Regardless in my opinion the federal govt is obligated to treat all with HCV and to immediately conduct routine HCV screening and link all to care & to provide immediately curative HCV treatments to all without restrictions. Not doing this reflects the stigma of HCV & injection drug use, the reason insurers & the federal govt are doing this is because HCV is considered a disease afflicting injection drug users. If we had a cure for cancer or heart disease the federal govt would not restrict access to treatment & would do routine screening. We could eliminate an epidemic, the HCV epidemic, we have a cure, there is no virus in the history of medicine for which we have a cure. Very expensive new LDL drugs, cancer therapies & HIV therapy are lifetime treatments because they do not provide a cure and in the case of new $100,000 cancer ...
If you would like more information about our Harm Reduction program, you can email us at: [email protected] or call 1-800-660-5853 and ask for Harm Reduction.. ...
You can get high from anti-diarrhoea drugs, such as Imodium, and doctors have revealed that some drug users are abusing the medication - and the consequences can be fatal.
Prague - DataApex is pleased to announce the release of a new control driver for the ASX-8000 Autosampler from CETAC Technologies, USA. This driver has been officially released with Clarity Chromatography Software version 4.0.3.The ASX-8000 driver has been developed in close cooperation with CETAC Technologies, Inc. Adding the ASX-8000 driver to a broad portfolio of Clarity drivers expands... Read More » ...
In this report, the United States Contrast Injector Market 2017 is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2
Cisco Systems AIR-PWRINJ-FIB= Aironet Power Injector - Power Injector (External) - 15 Watt - 1 Output Connector(s) (537962)... more power injectors and splitters available at ReStockIt.com
A commission led by the top prosecutor in Vermonts most populous county has announced support for the creation of supervised drug injection sites
Now £41 (Was £̶5̶0̶) on TripAdvisor: Vedensky Hotel, St. Petersburg. See 59 traveller reviews, 213 candid photos, and great deals for Vedensky Hotel, ranked #67 of 361 hotels in St. Petersburg and rated 4 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
 St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology was originally called St. Petersburg Practical Technological Institute  and was founde...
Discover the best homework help resource for NURSING at St. Petersburg College. Find NURSING study guides, notes, and practice tests for St. Petersburg College.
Feb 25 (Reuters) - Teams for Tuesdays Champions League round of 16 first leg match between Zenit St Petersburg and Borussia Dortmund at the Petrovsky stadium: Zenit St Petersburg: 1-Yuri Lodygin;
Discover the Sokos Hotel Vasilievsky in St Petersburg. Read reviews of Sokos Hotel Vasilievsky and book your next St Petersburg hotel with SuperBreak.
Characteristics of hidden populations (e.g. population of injection drug users) cannot be studied using standard sampling and estimation procedures. This article consider..
Drug users are the fastest-growing category of organ donor, and now rank fourth behind victims of stroke, blunt trauma and heart disease.
AMC RECALL EXAM OCTOBER 2000 MEDICINE 1. Hepatitis C in Australia mainly spread by 1. heterosexual 2. homosexual 3. intravenous drug users...
9. The Hep B vaccine is routinely given to babies within the first 2 weeks of life. However, the age group most likely to contract Hep B is between the ages of 20-35. The people in this age bracket that are most likely to contract Hep B are intravenous drug users, sexually promiscuous, and homosexual. Medical personnel and those who work in prisons/jail are also at a higher risk, but at less risk than the former ...
A recent research presented at the world AIDS conference has pointed out that less than 10 percent of injecting drug users (IDUs) receive appropriate assistance that will help them from spreading HIV.
reVolutionize your laboratory efficiency with the worlds first hand-held automated analytical syringe eVol® is the coupling of two precision devices: a digitally controlled electronic drive and an XCHANGE® (patent pending) enabled analytical syringe. The result is a digitally controlled positive displacement dispensing system that can be programmed to reproducibly and accurately perform a wide variety of liquid handling procedures. 2910100 2910200 2910205 2910010 2910012 2910030 2910040 2910020 2910022 2910024 2910026 2910027 2910028 2910324 2910322 2910320 2910380 2910382 2910384 2910385 2910335 2910035 036910 038110 039110 2910021 2910023 2910025 2910037 036912 036914 036916 036918 036922 036920 038161 038138 039160 039161 039138 Battery accessories charging stand replacement needle syringes plungers NMR
ST. PETERSBURG - Three pit bulls, which bit two people earlier this month, are scheduled to be euthanized.Officials with Pinellas County Animal Services determined those pit bulls - among
For two days last week game creators from around the world visited the picturesque city of St Petersburg in Russia for the 4C conference. This is the second...
With business and economic leaders gathering for the St Petersburg International Economic Forum Business RT spoke with International Paper CEO, John Faraci, about President Medvedevs keynote address and Russias investment climate.
Things to do near Comfort Hotel on TripAdvisor: See 96,596 reviews and 51,009 candid photos of things to do near Comfort Hotel in St. Petersburg, Russia.
This Information System is provided by the University of Toronto Library and the G7 and G8 Research Group at the University of Toronto ...
4. A. B. Aleksandrov and P. P. Kargaev, Hardy classes of functions harmonic in the half-space, Algebra i Analiz 5 (1993), no. 2, 1-73; English transl., St. Petersburg Math. J. 5 (1994), no. 2, 229-286. MR 1223170 (94h:42034) ...
Remember the snarky debate about a safe drug-injection site in Ottawa? writes Citizen columnist Kelly Egan. Well, because its 2015, because of sunny ways, because a new, shaggy-haired sheriffs in town, expect to hear more sound and fury on the issue, and real soon.
Refurbished Gilson 234 Sampling Injector. Free 90-day warranty. Over 12,000 instruments in stock including more HPLC - Liquid Chromatography. Tested & serviced prior to shipping.
This application provides the healthcare profession with a method of quickly checking the compatibility of any two of the following intravenous drugs at the Y-site:
Originally Posted by dmu Zstravsvouïtié (sp)! Im a Brit living in France and have just got my Visa for a short trip to St Petersburg in October. Im
You can submit your own pictures to the User Gallery. You need to be registered and logged in as a user before we can accept your pictures.. ...
You can submit your own pictures to the User Gallery. You need to be registered and logged in as a user before we can accept your pictures.. ...
My 64 Reg R35 has a Linney Flex Fuel Kit, uprated/compatible pumps and injectors, colder plugs and uprated coil packs. Currently I have been buying drums of...
漢服」的定義尚有爭議(依No1lovesu的觀點),我看還需要長時間作討論,請No1lovesu君不要以為自己偏隘的觀點就是對的,爭着在未逹成共識前就修改條目 觀乎No1lovesu的編輯,似是硬要利用漢服就是「漢人服飾」這個定義,把漢人穿上的滿族服飾混淆視聽成為漢服。漢語是漢民族的語言,漢人現今也常用英語,那英語也是漢語的一種嗎?--lauyulam(留言) 2014年12月22日 (一) 04:47 (UTC) 現在只有手機在手不方便,不能馬上詳細回應閣下的不客觀發言。但我想先請教user:Lauyulam先生一個問題,有哪一本地方誌、相關歷史文獻、正規學術書籍以及報章等記載會將英語寫作是漢語的一種。 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV risk behavior among amphetamine injectors at U.S. syringe exchange programs. AU - Braine, Naomi. AU - Des Jarlais, Don. AU - Goldblatt, Cullen. AU - Zadoretzky, Cathy. AU - Turner, Charles. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews were done using Audio Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing technology. Amphetamine injectors differ from other SEP participants in that they are younger and more likely to be White, to have had a recent same sex partner, and to be homeless. Rates of injection risk behavior are higher among amphetamine injectors than other SEP participants, but rates of condom use are similar. Factors associated with ...
Pubdate: Fri, 20 Jun 2003 Source: Walla Walla Union-Bulletin (WA) Copyright: 2003 Walla Walla Union-Bulletin Contact: http://www.union-bulletin.com/ Details: http://www.mapinc.org/media/2619 Author: Kathleen Obenland NEEDLE EXCHANGE PROGRAM SEES RISE IN USE The increase may be due to more awareness about the program, or a possible rise in intravenous drug use. Drug addicts and other users took nearly twice as many syringes to a local needle exchange program in 2002 compared to the year before, according to the HIV/AIDS assistance agency, Blue Mountain Heart to Heart. Officials speculate the rise could be due to increasing awareness about the exchange program, a possible rise in intravenous drug use in Walla Walla, or both. Intravenous drug users exchanged 12,036 dirty syringes for clean ones last year, said Adam Kirtley, Heart to Heart executive director. In 2001, the agency received 6,318 syringes in the program. The number of people exchanging also has grown. Forty people visited the exchange ...
The first needle exchange was formed by the Amsterdam junkiebond in 1984 in an effort to slow the spread of hepatitis B among IDU.(16) As the number of European AIDS cases increased sharply, needle exchange programs were soon adopted in other European cities. By the early 1990s, programs had been implemented in more than 20 countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and most member nations of the European Union.(17) Needle exchange programs developed more slowly in the United States than in Europe, primarily because of fierce political opposition. Nevertheless, at the end of 1996, 104 needle exchange programs were operating in more than 20 U.S. states (David Purchase, North American Syringe Exchange Network, personal communication, November 1996). Only about one half of U.S. needle exchange programs are legal, but others operate with the tacit support of local officials. Nearly all needle exchange programs require one-for-one exchange of syringes. The effectiveness of needle ...
Needle exchange is a public health program for people who use drugs by injection (PWID). It is an important component of a comprehensive set of programs designed to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne infections among people who inject drugs, their families and communities. Nationally, about a quarter of all people living with AIDS acquired HIV infection directly or indirectly through injection drug use: either from sharing injection equipment, having unprotected sex with an injection drug user, or transmission to children born to injection drug users.. Needle exchange programs provide new, sterile syringes and clean injection equipment in exchange for used, contaminated syringes. They also get drug users into drug treatment and health care. Other services include testing for HIV, hepatitis, TB and other infections to which drug users are prone; treatment readiness counseling and case management services; education about harms associated with drug use and how to minimize them; and ...
The National Viral Hepatitis Roundtable (NVHR) condemns the imposition of a ban on use of federal funds for syringe exchange in the omnibus spending bill. The FY 2012 omnibus, passed today in the House and expected to pass in the Senate tomorrow, reinstates a complete ban on use of federal funding for syringe exchange programs. This reversal of federal policy represents a huge step backwardin the fight to eliminate hepatitis C and other blood-borne viruses, despite numerous studies demonstrating that access to sterile syringes reduces the incidence of HIV and viral hepatitis.. Access to sterile syringes a cost effective life saving measure, and syringe exchange programs also connect people who use drugs to substance use treatment and medical care. "For two years, since the original lifting of the ban, syringe exchange programs around the country have worked closely with local law enforcement and health officials to make syringe access a part of their communities HIV and viral hepatitis ...
Pubdate: Thu, 25 Sep 2003 Source: Smithers Interior News (CN BC) Copyright: 2003, BC Newspaper Group Contact: http://www.interior-news.com/ Details: http://www.mapinc.org/media/1631 Author: Larissa Ardis Bookmark: http://www.mapinc.org/find?137 (Needle Exchange) SECOND NEEDLE EXCHANGE CONSIDERED Smithers will soon be home to a second needle exchange site, if a proposal under discussion by service providers and local health professionals becomes a reality. The facility, which could open as early as November, would operate out of Positive Living North Wests First Avenue office and complement the needle exchange that has operated in the Smithers Public Health Unit since 1994. It would provide injection-drug users with a safe needle-disposal service and free, clean needles, and offer referrals to addictions counselling. According to Deb Schmitz, Positive Livings executive director, evidence suggests local demand strongly warrants a second exchange. Although the Health Units exchange officially ...
Indianas health commissioner has approved a one-year needle-exchange program for a rural county at the center of the states largest HIV outbreak.
The state opioid crisis comes starkly into view at the AHOPE needle exchange program, where one wall is covered with obituaries for people who have died of overdose. The program aims to keep people off that wall.
Fully developed posts on syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are here and here. A couple more are forthcoming. Here are the notes I took as I read the literature in this area. This is Part II. Part I is here. Part III is here. (0) Impact Evaluation of a Policy Intervention for HIV Prevention in Washington, DC, by Monica
A Proven Practice to Reduce the Spread of HIV and Blood-borne Diseases The Louisville Metro Syringe Exchange Program has served more than 14,000 participants since it began in June 2015. Locations and hours of operation:
The city of San Diego Wednesday rejoined the ranks of cities offering needle exchange programs as a public health service when the city council voted to reinstate the program. It had been dropped because of waning political support a year ago, but Wednesday it was re-approved on a 6-1 vote. Needle exchanges were first approved in November 2001 and the program was launched in July 2002. It operated out of two centers, one in the East Village and one in North Park. During its operation, the program collected nearly 350,000 dirty needles and distributed more than 285,000 clean ones. But until state law changed this year, cities or counties had to declare a public health emergency every two weeks to keep the programs operating. A year ago this month, the two-week vote failed, and the program was shut down. Needle exchange programs are widely recognized to reduce the spread of diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C by reducing the sharing of syringes. But some opponents accuse them of promoting or ...
Urbenville Community Health - Needle Syringe Program The Needle Syringe Program is a public health measure to reduce the spread of blood-borne viral infect
In the midst of a driving November rain, a woman in a stiff wig and a soiled trench coat approached a converted ice-cream truck in East Harlem and exchanged a brown-paper bag of used hypodermic needles for a bag of new ones. Into the bag went several condoms and the friendly admonition, Use them; be safe. It was just another day for the people inside the white truck that houses one of New Yorks needle-exchange programs. Intravenous drug users come to the van, which parks on the street, and trade used needles for new ones in an effort to slow the spread of AIDS through shared needles.
The high prevalence of infection with HIV and other blood-borne pathogens in injection drug users (IDUs) is directly related to the lack of syringe access.
May 2008 marks the 13th anniversary of Hepatitis Awareness Month in the United States. May 19 is World Hepatitis Day, which recognizes the importance of global commitments to prevent liver disease and cancer caused by viral hepatitis. This issue of MMWR includes a report on an outbreak of acute hepatitis C associated with unsafe injection practices at an endoscopy clinic and a report on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among young injection-drug users. Both reports highlight the role of viral hepatitis surveillance in detecting outbreaks and populations at risk. Development of effective state and local surveillance for acute and chronic viral hepatitis is a public health priority. HCV infection is the most common bloodborne illness, the leading cause of chronic liver disease, and the primary indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV is spread primarily through exposure to infectious blood; injection-drug use is the major contributor to HCV transmission in the United ...
Injection drug use is a major public health problem. Oral health problems and the appearance of dental disease among injection drug users (IDUs) are caused by their lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations between socioeconomic factors, drug use, and oral hygiene habits on the oral health of heroin drug users. A cross-sectional survey on oral health was carried out as part of UNICEFs research on the biological and behaviours survey among injection drug users in Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Zenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A sample of 519 IDUs participated in the survey. Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) was used to obtain the sample. The data were obtained through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire related to socio-demographic characteristics, duration of drug injection, frequency of drug injection in the last month and oral health. Older participants (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02 -1.10), part-time employment (OR = 3.57; 95% CI = 1.02 - 12.20) and unemployment