Background. Despite an extensive literature, there have been widely divergent findings regarding the direction of the association between area socio-economic characteristics and area suicide rates, with high-quality studies finding either a direct relation (higher rates of suicide in higher socio-economic areas), an inverse relation (lower rates of suicide in higher socio-economic areas) or no association.. Method. We performed a systematic review of the literature dating from 1897 to 2004 and identified 86 publications with 221 separate analyses that met our inclusion criteria. We examined the percent of direct, inverse and null findings stratified by key study characteristics including size of aggregated area, socio-economic measure used, region of study, control variables and study design.. Results. Analyses at the community level are significantly more likely to demonstrate lower rates of suicide among higher socio-economic areas than studies using larger areas of aggregation. Measures of ...
Study Characteristics of Epithelial Tissues III flashcards from Zach Harter's Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
INTRODUCTION:Adherence-enhancing interventions have been assessed in the literature, however heterogeneity and conflicting findings have prohibited a consensus on the most effective approach to maintain adherence over time. With the ageing population and growth of chronic conditions, evaluation of sustainable strategies to improve and maintain medication adherence long term is paramount. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness of interventions for improving medication adherence over time among adults with any clinical condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Meta-analyses evaluating interventions to improve medication adherence were searched in PubMed in January 2019 and reviewed for primary studies. Experimental studies with a comparison group assessing an intervention to enhance medication adherence in adult patients with reported adherence outcomes were included. Two authors extracted data for study characteristics, interventions and adherence outcomes. Interventions were categorized into ...
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Review question We reviewed the evidence about the effect of inhaled corticosteroids in people with cystic fibrosis.. Background Repeated chest infections in people with cystic fibrosis cause inflammation and damage to the lungs which, in the long term, is the most common reason for death in people with cystic fibrosis. Inhaled corticosteroids are often used to treat inflammation, but may cause some side effects. Some of these side effects are less serious, for example oral thrush, but others are more serious, such as reduced growth rate in childhood. This is an update of an earlier review.. Search date The last search for evidence was on 15 August 2016.. Study characteristics In this updated review, 13 trials reported the use of inhaled corticosteroids in 506 people with cystic fibrosis aged between 6 and 55 years. Three trials were in children only, four in adults only and four were mixed ages; two trials did not describe the ages of the volunteers. The lung function and severity of disease of ...
The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured in a clinical setting for the management of asthma in adults. 13 electronic databases were searched and studies were selected against predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using QUADAS-2. Class effect meta-analyses were performed. Six studies were included. Despite high levels of heterogeneity in multiple study characteristics, exploratory class effect meta-analyses were conducted. Four studies reported a wider definition of exacerbation rates (major or severe exacerbation) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.63-1.02). Two studies reported rates of severe exacerbations (requiring oral corticosteroid use) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.43-1.72). Inhaled corticosteroid use was reported by four studies, with a pooled standardised mean difference of −0.24 (95% CI −0.56-0.07). No statistically significant differences for health-related ...
The authors included non-English trials in the review. The inclusion criteria for the individual trials and their participants were stated, and the author assessed the quality of the primary trials. It was not stated, however, how the trials were selected for inclusion or how study quality was assessed.. The authors listed the primary trials and the data extracted in tabular format, and discussed these data in the review. However, some of the participants details, i.e. age and gender, were not reported consistently.. The authors presented the data in a narrative format but did not report any statistical measurements that were used in the individual trials. This made it impossible to verify the results stated by the authors in this review. Heterogeneity was assessed in the narrative, based on the study characteristics used in the trials.. It was not possible to evaluate whether the authors conclusions were supported by their review due to the lack of primary data reported.. ...
People with Down syndrome often experience cognitive decline (a deterioration in memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes) at a younger age and in greater numbers than the general population. Various medicines have been shown to improve, or at least slow down the progression of these symptoms in people without Down syndrome.. Review question Do adults (18 years and older) with Down syndrome benefit from treatment with medicine to prevent cognitive decline, compared with other adults with Down syndrome who receive either fake medicine (placebos) or no medicine?. Study characteristics In January 2015, we, a team of Cochrane researchers, searched for all medical studies that investigated the effect of any medicine or nutritional supplement on cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. We found nine relevant randomised controlled trials (this design produces the most reliable results) that we could include in this overview. These studies ...
Previous meta-analyses of treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not shown mortality benefit from any individual class of medication. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception through November 2009 for randomized trials that evaluated any pharmacotherapy in the treatment of PAH. Reference lists from included articles and recent review articles were also searched. Analysis included randomized placebo controlled trials of at least eight weeks duration and studies comparing intravenous medication to an unblinded control group. 1541 unique studies were identified and twenty-four articles with 3758 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were reviewed and data extracted regarding study characteristics and outcomes. Data was pooled for three classes of medication: prostanoids, endothelin-receptor antagonists (ERAs), and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals
Materials and Methods: A total of 4,294 articles were identified through a systematic search involving all databases in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, specific journals (hand-search), conference proceedings, clinical trials registers, and collegiate contacts. Articles, abstracts, and gray literature were sought by two independent researchers. There were no language limitations. One hundred sixteen studies were identified for full-text assessment, with 10 included in the analysis (5 qualitative, 5 quantitative). Study characteristics and survival (Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative survival and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were extracted or recalculated. A failed veneer was one which required an intervention that disrupted the original marginal integrity, had been partially or completely lost, or had lost retention more than twice. A meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis of Empress veneers was completed, with an assessment of statistical heterogeneity and ...
Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe infection responsible for high mortality and disabling sequelae. Early identification of patients at high risk of these outcomes is necessary to prevent their occurrence by adequate treatment as much as possible. For this reason, several prognostic models have been developed. The objective of this study is to summarize the evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting death or sequelae due to BM in children 0-18 years of age. A search in MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted to identify prognostic studies on risk factors for mortality and sequelae after BM in children. Selection of abstracts, full-text articles and assessment of methodological quality using the QUIPS checklist was performed by two reviewers independently. Data on prognostic factors per outcome were summarized. Of the 31 studies identified, 15 were of moderate to high quality. Due to substantial heterogeneity in study characteristics and evaluated prognostic factors, no quantitative analysis was
The recent development of dedicated prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted radioligands shows the potential to change and improve the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer. There is an increasing number of prospective trials to further establish these tracers in the clinical setting. We analyzed data from the ClinicalTrials.gov registry including all listed prospective trials with PSMA-ligands for prostate cancer as of October 2019 concerning the different tracers and study characteristics. We found n = 104 eligible studies with a total of n = 25 different tracers in use: most frequently [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 (32%), followed by [18F]DCFPyL (24%) and [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 (10%). 85% are single-center, 15% multi-center studies. 95% national and 5% international studies. 34% are phase-II, 24% phase-I, 13% phase-I/-II, 12% phase-II/-III and phase-III and 7% early-phase-I. The primary purpose was classified as diagnostic in 72% of cases and therapeutic in 23% of cases. Most studies were executed in
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review current evidence regarding prenatal diagnosis and management of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) in fetuses with trisomy 21. A novel case of GATA1-positive TAM, in which following serial in utero blood transfusion clinical improvement and postnatal remission were observed, is included. SEARCH STRATEGY AND DATA COLLECTION: A systematic search of electronic databases (inception to October 2014) and reference lists, hand-searching of journals and expert contact. All confirmed cases of prenatal TAM were included for analysis. Data on study characteristics, design and quality were obtained. RESULTS: Of 73 potentially relevant citations identified, 22 studies were included, describing 39 fetuses. All studies included comprised single case or small cohort studies; overall quality was very low. Fetal/neonatal outcome was poor; 12 stillbirths (30.8%), 4 neonatal deaths (10.2%) and 7 infant deaths (17.9%). In two cases, the pregnancy was terminated (5.1%). TAM was
Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors.
Findings from our meta-analyses of 27 studies published over 22 years suggest an inverse association between high fluoride exposure and childrens intelligence. Children who lived in areas with high fluoride exposure had lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-exposure or control areas. Our findings are consistent with an earlier review (Tang et al. 2008), although ours more systematically addressed study selection and exclusion information, and was more comprehensive in a) including 9 additional studies, b) performing meta-regression to estimate the contribution of study characteristics as sources of heterogeneity, and c) estimating pooled risk ratios for the association between fluoride exposure and a low/marginal Ravens test score.As noted by the NRC committee (NRC 2006), assessments of fluoride safety have relied on incomplete information on potential risks. In regard to developmental neurotoxicity, much information has in fact been published, although mainly as short reports in Chinese ...
Of the 1,987 records identified, removing duplicates and studies ineligible for inclusion, a total 16 RCTs were included. Five of the studies used personalization messaging, eight used two-way communication, and eight used daily text message frequency. The median intervention duration was 12 weeks, and self-report was the most commonly used method to assess medication adherence. In the pooled analysis, a total of 2,747 patients were included (median age was 39 years and 50.3% were female). Text messaging was significantly associated with improved medication adherence (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-2.93; p < 0.001). Study characteristics including intervention duration, chronic disease characteristics of the population, or text message characteristics (personalization, two-way communication, or daily text message frequency) did not appear to significantly influence the effect size. In a sensitivity analysis, findings remained robust to change in inclusion criteria based on study ...
Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) offers technical benefits over single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) MPI, but there has been no systematic comparison of their diagnostic accuracy for coronary artery disease. The Authors performed a bivariate meta-analysis of the published literature to compare the sensitivity and specificity of PET versus SPECT stress MPI for ≥50% stenosis of any epicardial coronary artery in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). The Authors searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through January 2012 and the references of identified studies for prospective, English-language studies that evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of PET and/or SPECT MPI with coronary angiography as the reference standard and reported sufficient data to calculate patient-level true and false positives and negatives. Two investigators independently extracted patient and study characteristics; a third investigator ...
... is recommended for all students - even those transferring from other colleges. Find out about registering for classes, financial aid, email, parking, and more, and get valuable tips from current students! Sessions are offered on different Wake Tech campuses and last 2.5 hours (extended session 3-3.5 hours). Optional tours are available afterwards. Sessions do not include snacks or drinks, and are not appropriate for children. ...