It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 minutes of the recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin where determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CNS site of glucocorticoid negative feedback during LPS- and psychological stress-induced fevers. AU - Morrow, Lee E.. AU - McClellan, Jennifer L.. AU - Klir, John J.. AU - Kluger, Matthew J.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - Glucocorticoids exert negative feedback in the anterior hypothalamus (AH) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fevers, but the central location of their negative feedback during psychological stress-induced fever has not been determined. To confirm that glucocorticoid modulation of LPS fever occurs in the AH, adrenalectomized animals were injected intrahypothalamically with either 0.25 ng of corticosterone or vehicle followed by 50 μg/kg LPS intraperitoneally. Animals pretreated with corticosterone developed significantly smaller fevers (P = 0.007) than animals given vehicle. To determine if glucocorticold modulation during psychological stress-induced fever may occur in the hippocampus, the fornix was transected to block hippocampal communication ...
Title: The Effects of Physical and Psychological Stress on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Lessons from Animal Models. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Javier R. Caso, Juan C. Leza and Luis Menchen. Affiliation:Seccion de Gastroenterologia, Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital General Universitario "Gregorio Maranon", C/ Dr Esquerdo 46. 28007 Madrid, Spain.. Keywords:Animal models, brain gut axis, IBD, stress. Abstract: Physical and psychological stresses are widely accepted as triggers and / or modifiers of the clinical course of diverse gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. Growing experimental evidence from a variety of models such as immobilization, thermal injury or early maternal deprivation in laboratory animals uniformly supports the ability of stress to induce the development of gastric ulcers, altered gastrointestinal motility and ion secretion, and increased intestinal permeability leading to the passage of antigens to the ...
Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting
Background and Purpose- Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke.. Methods- Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high.. Results- Subjects with high stress intensity had almost a doubled risk of fatal stroke compared with subjects who were ...
Introduction: Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSI) has been linked to a higher rate of fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in patients with CAD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk models. Coronary vascular constriction with mental stress is a potential mechanism of MSI that may be reflected as constriction in the peripheral circulation. Moreover, peripheral arterial constriction may itself contribute to MSI by increasing afterload.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a more pronounced microvascular constrictor response to mental stress will be predictive of development of MSI.. Methods: Patients with stable CAD (n=116) underwent a standardized mental stress test using a public speaking task. Myocardial perfusion imaging with 99m-Tc-sestamibi was used for rest and stress images. MSI was defined as a summeddifference score of ≥4, based on the difference between summed stressand rest perfusion scores. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) was used to assess peripheral ...
Little is known about stressful triggers and coping strategies of Nigerian adolescents and whether or not, and how, HIV infection modulates these sources of stress and coping. This study evaluated differences in stressors and coping strategies among Nigerian adolescents based on HIV status. We analysed the data of six hundred 10-19 year old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 States of Nigeria who self-reported their HIV status. Data on stressors and coping strategies were retrieved by self-report from participants, using a validated structured questionnaire. We compared results between adolescents with and without HIV with respect to identification of specific life events as stressors, and use of specific coping strategies to manage stress. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) had significantly increased odds of identifying having to visit the hospital regularly (AOR: 5.85; 95 % CI: 2.11-16.20; P = 0.001), and ...
The implications of exposure to acute and chronic stressors, and seeking mental health care, for increased psychological distress are examined. Research on eco¬nomic stress, psychological distress, and rural agrarian values each point to in¬creasing variability within rural areas. Using data from a panel study of 1,487 adults, a model predicting changes in depressive symptoms was specified and tested. Results show effects by size of place for men but not for women. Men living in rural villages of under 2,500 or in small towns of 2,500 to 9,999 people had significantly greater increases in depressive symptoms than men living in the country or in larger towns or cities. Size of place was also related to level of stigma toward mental health care. Persons living in the most rural environments were more likely to hold stigmatized attitudes toward mental health care and these views were strongly predictive of willingness to seek care. The combination of increased risk and less willingness to seek assistance
Acute psychosocial stress stimulates transient increases in circulating pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines, but little is known about stress effects on anti-inflammatory cytokines or underlying mechanisms. We investigated the stress kinetics and interrelations of pro- and anti-inflammatory measures on the transcriptional and protein level.,br /,,br /,Forty-five healthy men were randomly assigned to either a stress or control group. While the stress group underwent an acute psychosocial stress task, the second group participated in a non-stress control condition. We repeatedly measured before and up to 120 min after stress DNA binding activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whole-blood mRNA levels of NF-κB, its inhibitor IκBα, and of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We also repeatedly measured plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10.,br /,,br /,Compared ...
Methods: Participants were 40 (n = 20 females) university students (mean age, 25.9 ± 4.56 years). Blood samples to determine neutrophil function by flow cytometry were taken at the end of resting baseline, during an acute stress task, and during recovery. The stress task was a 10-minute time-pressured mental arithmetic challenge with social evaluation ...
Objectives To investigate whether a group-based stress management intervention, based on principles from cognitive behaviour therapy, can reduce stress and alter coping strategies in an occupationally diverse population with extensive symptoms of work-related stress. Methods Using a randomized wait list control design, 102 participants were divided into two groups: intervention and wait list control (WLC). The intervention was a three-month group-based stress management program. Outcomes measures were the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, range 0-40 points) and five dimensions from the Brief COPE questionnaire (range 2-8 points) at baseline and three-, six- and nine-months follow-up. Data were analyzed with a univariate analysis of variance. Results On the PSS-10 from baseline to three months, the intervention group changed -6.45 (95% CI -8.25--4.64) points, compared to -1.12 (95% CI -2.94-0.70) points in the WLC group. The between-groups difference was -5.32 (95% CI -7.89--2.76) points, equalling ...
The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made.. ...
Purpose: To identify whether psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of falling into poverty, giving a more complete picture of how psychological distress affects living standards.. Methods: Longitudinal analysis of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian (HILDA) survey using Poisson regression models to estimate relative risk of falling into income poverty and multidimensional poverty between 2007 and 2012. The sample was limited to those who were not already in income poverty in 2007. Psychological distress was identified using the Kessler-10 (K10) scale.. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, having moderate psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 1.62 (95 % CI 1.31-2.01, p , 0.0001) and the risk of falling into multidimensional poverty by 1.85 (95 % CI 1.37-2.48, p , 0.0001); having very high psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 2.40 (95 % CI ...
Psychological stress Psychological stress is a result of many factors and should be dealt with very carefully. Stress can be defined as a set of
Objective: To study the physical and psychological stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to correlate stressors with different demographic variables. Design: Cross-sectional analytical survey. Setting: Intensive care unit of a private hospital. Patients and participants: 50 randomly selected ICU patients during the first week of their ICU stay. Measurements and results: The Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale was administered to 50 patients. Pain and the impossibility of sleeping due to noise and having tubes in the nose and mouth were considered the most important physical stressors. Loss of self control and lack of understanding about the attitudes and procedures were the main psychological stressors. Conclusions: Interventions should be aimed at relieving the patients pain and at controlling the level of noise to make sleep possible. From the psychological standpoint, the independence of the patient should be encouraged, thus stimulating the recovery of self-control. ...
The purpose of this review was to provide current knowledge about the possible association between psychosocial job stress and immune parameters in blood, saliva, and urine. Using bibliographic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Medline) and the snowball method, 56 studies were found. In general, exposure to psychosocial job stress (high job demands, low job control, high job strain, jo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of comorbid depressive symptoms and/or stress on adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in individuals with diabetes compared with those without diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Investigators examined the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and/or stress in adults with and without diabetes and physician-adjudicated incident CV outcomes including stroke, myocardial infarction/acute coronary heart disease, and CV death over a median follow-up of 5.95 years in the national REGARDS cohort study.RESULTS: Subjects included 22,003 adults (4,090 with diabetes) (mean age 64 years, 58% female, 42% black, and 56% living in the southeastern "Stroke Belt"). Elevated stress and/or depressive symptoms were more common in subjects with diabetes (36.8% vs. 29.5%; P , 0.001). In fully adjusted models, reporting either elevated stress or depressive symptoms was associated with a significantly increased incidence of stroke (HR 1.57 [95% CI 1.05, 2.33] vs. 1.01 ...
Objective: To identify risk indicators for high stress and low mental energy as well as to describe psychosocial working conditions at different types of call centres. Participants: 1183 operators from 28 call centres in Sweden, both external and internal, with different levels of task complexity, ownership and geographical location. Method: A cross sectional questionnaire study. Results: The stress level was moderately high and the energy level fairly high. Stress levels tended to be lower and psychosocial conditions better with increasing level of task complexity. Fourteen per cent of the operators were in a state of high stress/low energy ("worn out") and 47% in high stress/high energy ("committed under pressure"). Operators in a state of low stress/high energy ("committed without pressure") were most likely to report a better health status. High stress and lack of energy was mainly associated with time pressure, low decision latitude, and lack of social and supervisor support. Conclusions: ...
It was our observation not that they couldnt do math, but that they werent really attending to the right things, he says. We didnt see people improving over time. You might say, Well, they dont get how it works. But the people with high-stress childhoods, even after many trials, they werent using negative feedback to change their behavior and improve.. In brain scans from the people who lived with high stress as children, Birn and Pollak could see a surprisingly low amount of activity in the brain region expected to light up when confronted by a potential loss.. And then, when they would lose, wed see more activity than expected - an overreaction - in the part of the brain that responds to reward, Pollak says, which makes sense. If you didnt catch the cue that you were likely to lose, youre probably going to be pretty shocked when you dont win.. The high-stress childhood group also reported undertaking more risky behaviors - smoking, not wearing a seatbelt in a car or texting ...
The primary purpose of this proposed 5-year study is to determine whether a Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) intervention, demonstrated to be effective in reducing distress, enhancing coping, and maintaining health among HIV+ non-drug abusers (see Schneiderman and Antoni, 2000), can be effectively adapted for our target population of culturally diverse, HIV+, low-income Recovering Drug Abusers (RDAs). Since the late 1980s, members of our research team (i.e., Schneiderman, Antoni, Klimas, Fletcher) have been developing, refining and evaluating the effects of CBSM among HIV+ Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). In the early/mid 90s, we began to adapt and evaluate the effects of CBSM in other non-drug abusing subgroups that were emerging with increasing levels of HIV seroprevalence (e.g., pregnant women, African American and Hispanic men and women). After accumulating considerable support for the effectiveness of CBSM in these subgroups in the late 90s, our research team (i.e., Malow, ...
The primary purpose of this proposed 5-year study is to determine whether a Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) intervention, demonstrated to be effective in reducing distress, enhancing coping, and maintaining health among HIV+ non-drug abusers (see Schneiderman and Antoni, 2000), can be effectively adapted for our target population of culturally diverse, HIV+, low-income Recovering Drug Abusers (RDAs). Since the late 1980s, members of our research team (i.e., Schneiderman, Antoni, Klimas, Fletcher) have been developing, refining and evaluating the effects of CBSM among HIV+ Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). In the early/mid 90s, we began to adapt and evaluate the effects of CBSM in other non-drug abusing subgroups that were emerging with increasing levels of HIV seroprevalence (e.g., pregnant women, African American and Hispanic men and women). After accumulating considerable support for the effectiveness of CBSM in these subgroups in the late 90s, our research team (i.e., Malow, ...
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the ...
Objectives This study focused on estimating the relative risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in association with work stress, as indicated by the job-strain model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and the organizational injustice model.. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies were carried out. Studies were eligible if they had published a quantitative estimate of the association between work stress and incident CHD or cardiovascular mortality by January 2006. Results Fourteen prospective cohort studies were identified. For a total of 83 014 employees, the age- and gender-adjusted relative ratio of CHD for high versus low job strain was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-1.84], but the ratio decreased to 1.16 (95% CI 0.94-1.43) after adjustment for risk factors and potential mediators. The age- and gender-adjusted risk ratio for a combination of high efforts and low rewards was 1.58 (95% CI 0.84-2.97) for 11 528 employees, and no reduction in the ...
With the growth of atypical employment, there is increasing concern about the potential health-damaging effects of unstable employment. This prospective study of Finnish public-sector employees in 1998-2002 examined labor market trajectories and changes in health. At entry, all participants had a fixed-term job contract. Trajectories were measured by exposure to unstable employment during follow-up, destination employment status at the end of follow-up, and the way in which these elements were combined. Nonoptimal self-rated health at baseline was associated with high exposure to unstable employment and unemployment as the destination. After adjustment for health and psychological distress at baseline, a trajectory with stable employment as the destination was associated with a decreased risk of psychological distress at follow-up (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.98), whereas a trajectory toward the labor market periphery was related to increased risk of nonoptimal health ...
In vitro stress assays are commonly used to study responses of plants to abiotic stress and to assess stress tolerance. A literature review reveals that most studies use very high stress levels, and measure criteria such as germination, plant survival, or development of visual symptoms such as bleaching. However, we show that these parameters are indicators of very severe stress, and such studies thus only provide incomplete information about stress sensitivity. Similarly, transcript analysis revealed that typical stress markers are only induced at high stress levels in young seedlings. Therefore, tools are needed to study the effects of mild stress. We found that the commonly used stress-inducing agents mannitol, sorbitol, NaCl and H2O2 impact shoot growth in a highly specific and dose-dependent way. Therefore, shoot growth is a sensitive, relevant and easily measured phenotype to assess stress tolerance over a wide range of stress levels. Finally, our data suggest that care should be taken ...
Cumulative risk assessment posits that multiple agents work together to induce disease and that multiple stressors therefore must be considered in order to gain a true understanding of why adverse health effects occur.1 Now a small but growing number of scientists are pushing the envelope by investigating whether chronic psychological stress might be one of those factors, enhancing a childs vulnerability to certain chemical exposures and contributing to effects that later show up as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and other problems. These researchers are also starting to identify biomarkers that may shed light on the mechanisms by which psychological stress acts on a childs developing immune system and brain to modify or enhance the response to certain pollution exposures such as traffic-related air pollutants and lead." ...
Stress is a powerful modulator of neuroendocrine, behavioral and immunological functions. After 4.5 days of repeated combined acoustic and restraint stress as a murine model of chronic psychological stress severe metabolic dysregulations became detectable in female BALB/c mice. Stress-induced alterations of metabolic processes that were found in a hepatic mRNA expression profiling were verified by in vivo analyses. Repeatedly stressed mice developed a hypermetabolic syndrome with severe loss of lean body mass, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, increased amino acid turn-over, and acidosis. This was associated with hypercortisolism, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and hypothyroidism. In contrast, after a single acute stress exposure changes in expression of metabolic genes were much less pronounced and predominantly confined to gluconeogenesis, probably indicating that metabolic disturbances might be initiated already early but will only manifest in repeatedly stressed mice. Thus, in our murine ...
Recent findings from epidemiological studies suggest that that there may be a link between the experience of early traumatic events and later development of psychotic symptoms. Animal studies provide a model of "stress sensitization" whereby early stressful events contribute to dopamine dysregulation and a sensitivity to psychosocial stress in young adulthood. "Prodrome" studies provide a unique opportunity to assess stress responsivity prospectively, prior to the onset of full psychosis, by identifying youth with an "ultra-high-risk" syndrome that confers approximately 35 percent risk for conversion to a full psychotic disorder within 2.5 years. In Study 1, we test the hypotheses that 1) UHR participants age 16-25 report a greater number of traumatic life events than healthy controls matched on age, gender and SES; and, 2) UHR participants show dysregulated stress-responsivity compared to healthy controls as exhibited by higher baseline salivary Cortisol levels, a slower return to baseline ...
Cancer is a life-threatening disease. By 2025, the number of people dying from cancer each year is expected to increase to 11.4 million, up from the 2015 figure of 8.8 million.1 In China, cancer is the leading cause of death, accounting for 27% of deaths among patients with cancer worldwide.2 A previous study has shown that 27% of the cancer mortality risk is associated with psycho-spiritual distress.3 A meta-analysis has found a dose-response effect, indicating that higher levels of psychological distress are linked to a 41% increased risk of cancer death.4 Psycho-spiritual distress, such as anxiety, depression and hopelessness, is prevalent among patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.5 Approximately 32.5% to 75.7% of patients with cancer experience psycho-spiritual distress, which is higher than in the population as a whole, as well as higher than in patients with other diseases.6-8 Psycho-spiritual distress may greatly prolong hospitalisation rates,9 interfere with cancer treatment,10 ...
Results from studies of the impact of psychological stress on breast cancer risk have been inconsistent, possibly due to differences in subjective responses to similar stressful events. Dispositional optimism, characterized by the general belief that good things will happen in ones life, is correlated with better adjustment to diverse stressors and psychological wellbeing. Limited numbers of studies suggest that the benefit of optimism may also extend to physical health. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine psychosocial and behavioral correlates of dispositional optimism and to determine whether optimism is a protective factor for breast cancer in a large cohort of women aged 35-74 years.. Data came from the Sister Study, a prospective cohort of 50,884 women with a sister with breast cancer. Optimism was assessed among 46,776 women (92%) at the first biennial follow-up interview using the 6-item Life Orientation Test -Revised (LOT-R). After excluding 1,009 women diagnosed with ...
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To the Editor:. Chida and Steptoe,1 in their thorough meta-analysis examining the association between cardiovascular responses to acute mental stress and future cardiovascular disease development noted significant associations between exaggerated reactivity and impaired recovery after stress and subsequent worsening of cardiovascular risk status. Although the precise mechanisms linking stress reactivity and the worsening of cardiovascular risk status are yet to be determined, the authors observed that the association between exaggerated stress reactivity and future cardiovascular risk was confined to studies using cognitive challenges. Consistent with this observation we have noted blunted sympathoneural responses to the cold pressor test in individuals with essential hypertension and in those genetically predisposed to hypertension,2 whereas laboratory mental stress is associated with a specific activation of the cardiac sympathetic nervous outflow.3 Using single-unit recording techniques, we ...
Several interesting differences in current health-related behaviors and stable behavioral characteristics were observed between a group of adolescent boys classified as reactors versus nonreactors to a social stressor. The reactive group was less likely to engage in high-risk health behaviors including smoking cigarettes, use of alcohol and other drugs, and engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse, compared with their nonreactive peers. There were no significant differences between groups in history of minor illnesses or major diseases.. To our knowledge, this is the second study to link CVR to risk behaviors in boys. Liang et al33 tested 24 boys 14 to 16 years old. They used similar measures including the SCI as one of three laboratory stressors. A hierarchical multivariate regression analysis indicated that 40% of risk behavior was accounted for by an interaction between recent positive life events and mean arterial blood pressure reactivity. This finding was interpreted to mean that the ...
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed. They represented different stakeholders in five Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three engineering consulting companies ...
Year Book of Psychiatry and Applied Mental Health. 1998(8):340, ANNUAL 1998. Issn Print: 0084-3970. Publication Date: Annual 1998. ...
Methods of preparing a low stress porous low-k dielectric material on a substrate are provided. The methods involve the use of a structure former precursor and/or porogen precursor with one or more organic functional groups. In some cases, the structure former precursor has carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. In other cases, one or both of the structure former precursor and porogen precursor has one or more bulky organic groups. In other cases, the structure former precursor has carbon-carbon double or triple bonds and one or both of the structure former precursor and porogen precursor has one or more bulky organic groups. Once the precursor film is formed, the porogen is removed, leaving a porous low-k dielectric matrix with high mechanical strength. Different types of structure former precursors and porogen precursors are described. The resulting low stress low-k porous film may be used as a low-k dielectric film in integrated circuit manufacturing applications.
Work is typically associated with increased BP10 and the pattern may be enhanced when the work stress is high. However, demanding jobs are not necessary stressful if one can organize the job to best meet the workload. Job characteristics, such as job demands and decision latitude, may also contribute to work-related stress and Karasek et al3 hypothesized that the job most likely to generate distress combined the highest demand with the lowest control. However, the hypothesis that high professional strain could be related to a higher BP during working hours remains controversial.11-16 Furthermore, a higher BP at work may be due to an exaggerated BP response to similar strains.17-20 Previous studies did not provide a clear picture of the influence of potentially stress-related factors on BP in normotensive subjects. Thus, the present study was conducted to examine the putative importance of subjective self-reported job strain and objective stress-induced response on BP, with a special focus on ...
Results The search identified 1769 citations for the period between 1977 and March 2010. The 26 included publications described 40 analyses out of 20 cohorts including 154 767 participants. Study quality of the 26 publications was rated 2++ (n=2), 2+ (n=13), and 2- (n=11). Duration of follow-up varied between 2 and 25 years. Thirteen out of the 20 cohorts showed statistically significant positive associations between work stress and cardiovascular diseases (7 out of 13 cohorts applying the demand-control model, all 3 cohorts using the effort-reward model, and 3 out of 6 cohorts investigating other models). Risk estimates were significant for 10 out of 15 analyses examining males but only 1 out of 9 analyses examining females. In two age-stratified analyses the associations were weaker in participants ,55 years.. ...
From medical devices such as stints to custom-made human implants used in reconstructive surgery, the use of rapid prototype models is rapidly growing in popularity among designers and engineers, due to new and innovative technology-and the reasons are evident.. Looking at anatomical parts as one example:. Rapid prototype models allows for an accurate fabrication of a patients implant-whether its for bone replacement or prosthesis. Because its customized to fit the patient, the benefits of utilizing rapid prototype models allow for the surgeon to conduct preoperative planning and practice in advance of the actual surgery. The surgery thereby becomes less invasive for the patient, reduces reconstruction time, and provides better esthetic results.. Due to this proactive approach facilitated by rapid prototyping, it has also been found to alleviate a patients pre-surgery psychological stress, as they have more confidence that the surgical complications will be minimized if not ...
The result of psychological stress on the gastrointestinal microbiota is widely recognized. exacerbation. Collectively, these results suggest that long-term exposure to mental stress induces dysbiosis in the immunodeficient mouse inside a strain-specific manner and also that alteration of microbial diversity, which may be related to an changed design of immunoglobulin secretion in Odanacatib the gastrointestinal […]. ...
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How stress affects your body can turn into so much more than just your body. It can affect your whole entire life! Check out just what I mean!
Researchers say microvascular coronary dysfunction, which occurs more often in women than men, may be triggered by emotional stress, leading to heart attacks and other cardiac problems.
People who reported feeling happier over all had lower levels of fat in their blood, which puts them at a lower risk of heart disease, according to new research
4817.0.55.001 - Information Paper: Use of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale in ABS Health Surveys, Australia, 2007-08 ...
It is a stressful life we all lead these days and stress at work has become the norm. Excessive stress can affect our daily functioning and play havoc...
In a continuously stressful environment, the effects of recurrent prenatal stress (PS) may accumulate across generations and alter stress vulnerability and resilience. Here, we report in female rats that a family history of recurrent ancestral PS facilitates certain aspects of movement performance, and that these benefits are abolished by the experience of a second hit, induced by a silent ischemia during adulthood. Female F4-generation rats with and without a family history of cumulative multigenerational PS (MPS) were tested for skilled motor function before and after the induction of a minor ischemic insult by endothelin-1 infusion into the primary motor cortex. MPS resulted in improved skilled motor abilities and blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function compared to non-stressed rats. Deep sequencing revealed downregulation of miR-708 in MPS rats along with upregulation of its predicted target genes Mapk10 and Rasd2. Through miR-708 stress may regulate mitogen-activated protein
People suffering from anxiety, depression, sleeplessness or other forms of psychological distress are at greater risk of death from a stroke, according to a new
Somatic Exercises[tm] for Stress Management and Increased Flexibility Exercises to maintain overall flexibility; also includes a brief discussion with participants. Recommended: use with the Relax video to further develop an effective relaxation and stress management program. Two 60-min. cassettes. ...
People who experience traumatic or enduring psychological stress are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders as well as cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. Our research is focused on revealing how psychological stress drives the development of mental and physical disorders. Specifically, we aim to identify the psychological and biological factors that account for the adverse effects of psychological stress, and ultimately to drive the development of targeted interventions to reduce such negative effects of stress. To this end, we are currently focused on uncovering stress-related changes in immune system functioning and on examining how such changes impact brain function and structure.. ...
Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity because of their capability to generate oxidized lipid agonists from the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). development characteristics (Supplementary Shape S1). To assess whether COX-2 is essential for PAF-R mediated enhancement of tumor development, WT mice had been implanted with two B16F10 tumors and treated with intraperitoneal shots from the COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) or saline automobile starting at time 0 and every 3 times afterwards. As proven in Figure ?Shape6,6, the COX-2 inhibitor blocked the tumor development enhancing ramifications of IR on the next tumor. We didnt take note any ramifications SPP1 of COX-2 inhibitor publicity for the irradiated (still left) tumor ((PAFR-KO) mice had been implanted with PAF-R lacking B16F10 tumors on both dorsal hind flanks (time 0). Six times afterwards (and q 2-3days soon after) still left side tumors had been sham-irradiated or irradiated with 5Gcon of IR. The proper side tumors still ...
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Im bringing you Part II of Kathy Morellis series on physical and hormonal influences on womens mental health. In Part II she focuses on the changes that occur during pregnancy. Kathy breaks down the emotional responses to pregnancy this way:. Emotional. What if the pregnancy was unplanned? What if this pregnancy follows a stillbirth or miscarriage? What if her primary relationship with the babys father is not going well? There is also job stress, financial factors and a whole host of other life stressors that combined can make the news of a pregnancy hard to take and All of these emotional considerations require attention and adjustment. We clinicians and birth workers must be aware of these potential life stressors and be sure that we are as vigilant in addressing these emotional needs of the women that we serve as we are addressing their physical needs.. Physiologic/Hormonal. By the first six weeks of pregnancy, estrogen levels rise to three times more than during the menstrual cycle! ...
stress ratio is large enough. Permeability changes at low stress levels are more sensitive than at high stress levels due to the ...
Because of the autonomic nature of our bodys response, sometimes people can be unaware that they are experiencing a stress response. After all, we release stress hormones when there is a lack of sleep or when we are pressed for time. Being overworked, annoyed, or constantly exposed to excessive noise can even trigger a stress response. Unfortunately, these stress hormones make us more resistant to insulin, and therein lies the rub for people with diabetes.. When stress hormones are involved, most people with diabetes need more insulin to get the sugar into the cells. In addition, more sugar is released from the liver into the blood during stress because our brain needs more fuel to function. Its pretty clear how those two processes combined can make managing glucose levels hard for people with diabetes. Thank goodness for good tech! If you enter stress-related glucose values in the mySugr app, and note any stressful events when they occur, it can help you understand your bodys unique reaction ...
When the bowel and the stomach are good then the blood will be good and the person will get good health. Stress affects the health of the stomach and bowel. In order to treat schizophrenia we have to treat initially both the physical and the emotional stress. Physical stress treats with correct food supplements, physical exercises and correct diet while the emotional stress treats with the self-talk therapy. Once the stresses reduce, the stomach and the bowel will starts to function effectively and the blood circulating the body will be cleaner and more nutritious. Once the blood becomes cleaner and nutritious, the brain will get more oxygen and nutrition. When the brain is well nourished, inflammation of brain tissues will subsides and finally becomes normal, CLICK. Once the brain tissues become normal, the brain start to function and secrete dopamine normally and the patients cured from schizophrenia ...
Browse Whole Livings 2-in-1 Comfort Food Makeovers collection. Also find healthy breakfast, lunch, snack, dinner & dessert recipes, plus heart healthy food & weight loss recipe ideas at WholeLiving.com.
Its the season of comfort food and celebration, and theres no reason you should miss out because youre living with diabetes. Need proof? Check out this one-day, expert-backed meal plan.
The nature of work and the demands of the workplace have been continually evolving and have changed significantly over the last 50 years. Perhaps now more than
A 13-year-old boy was riding his bicycle two days ago when he began to have sharp, pleuritic pain in his right chest. He has no shortness of breath or fevers. He has no past medical history, but on a review of systems he reports a two-month history of back pain with "good days and bad days". Although he had mentioned it to his parents in passing some time ago, there appear to be some distracting social stressors in the family ...
Traumatic experiences in early life can leave emotional scars. But a new study suggests that violence in childhood may leave a genetic mark as well. Researchers have found that children who are physically abused and bullied tend to have shorter telomeres—structures at the tips of chromosomes w...
If a good nights sleep doesnt even begin to touch your exhaustion, you might be quick to blame normal stressors such as your demanding job, your boss, your family - in short, your life.. But its a mistake to think that lifes stressors are supposed to zap our energy. In nearly all cases of chronic tiredness, theres something much deeper going on.. The right questions and diagnostic tests can reveal surprising things that may be working against you and your energy levels - everything from a hidden medical issue to your exercise habits could be the culprit.. Here are the top ten most common sources of energy depletion that Ive seen:. ...
A new study on 168 married couples says that when a couple is dealing with cancer,the psychological distress of a partner may have a negative impact on the well being of either person.
Study finds that women with heart disease are put at far more risk by emotional stress than men with the same condition. Gain insights into the risk factors
Synonyms for upset in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for upset. 193 synonyms for upset: distressed, shaken, disturbed, worried, troubled, hurt, bothered, confused, unhappy, gutted, put out, dismayed, choked, grieved, frantic. What are synonyms for upset?
Its a confusing topic because there have been many studies showing both the benefits and the dangers of multivitamins.. My answer? Two words: personalized medicine.. Personalized medicine starts with the idea that because everyone is different, there cannot possibly be one answer that applies to everyone. You are genetically unique; your life stressors are not the same as those of the person next to you, and your diet for the past five years is uniquely yours.. All these factors determine whether or not you need a multi right now. And these differences explain why all medical and health programs need to be tailored to each individual. To better understand how to use personalized medicine to answer the multi question, lets first talk about what vitamins actually do.. Vitamins help to activate all the enzymes that make your cells and organs function optimally. Vitamins and minerals also provide antioxidants necessary for a healthy immune system; they protect your tissues from damage; and provide ...
Being a kid doesnt always mean being carefree - even the youngest tots worry. Find out what stresses kids out and how to help them cope.
There is a little disconnect from the micro-cellular level to macro-vascular level. I dont understand biochem that well (sorry) but I do agree Palls take on chronic stressors and use of broad spectrum antioxidants in these inflamed individuals. Definitely Id agree that mitochondrial metabolism is KEY to many chronic conditions -- we throw them off by overconsuming carbs/fructose! Or by not exercising (which is a free source of antioxidants) or not consuming enough dietary antioxidants when mitochondria combust fatty acids (the most potent energy source ...
Everything that causes stresses is called stressor. According to this, there are external (physical) and internal (emotional) stresses. Also, it is important to distinguish acute and chronic stresses. Acute stress is a singular reaction of our mind on probable threat or disturbance, like noise, crowd, ailment, infection, danger, etc. Chronic stress is a chain of stress conditions, which can be caused by permanent disturbance, like continuous pressure at workplace or long-lasting emotional crises, etc.. Of course, stresses affect our health, mind and body to a great extent. First and simple signs of stress include anxiety, short-temper, low moral, temperature rise, changes of blood pressure, stomachache, headache, and so on. If the stress is not very hard and the stressed person is quite resistive to the negative influences of the stressors, stress condition will possibly end in a short while with total relaxation. Specialists suggest that light stresses are even useful, because they can refresh ...
The establishment of these three relationships allows the construction of a conceptual framework to describe the role of mediating factors. Although evidence supports psychological stress as a key mediator, the effect appears to be much stronger in women than in men. Future research should focus on longitudinal designs that incorporate the measurement of each part of the proposed conceptual framework. However, when designing prevention programs and interventions, we must consider the existing evidence that shows the detrimental role psychological stress plays in the development of obesity.. ...
A new study has revealed that high stress levels can reduce a womans chances of getting pregnant. Researchers found that blood levels of a marker for a stress hormone...
Some symptoms we associate with stress can make us fall into the temptation of taking vitamins: do we need? Who has not ever heard the advice take vitamin
Environments shape health and well-being, yet little research has investigated how different real-world environmental settings influence the well-known determinant of health known as stress. Using a cross-over experimental design; this pilot study investigated the effect of four urban environments on physiological and psychological stress measures. Participants (N = 15) were exposed on separate days to one of the four settings for 20 min. These settings were designated as Very Natural; Mostly Natural; Mostly Built and Very Built. Visitation order to the four settings was individually randomized. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase; as well as self-report measures of stress; were collected before and after exposure to each setting. Gender was included as a variable in analysis; and additional data about environmental self-identity, pre-existing stress, and perceived restorativeness of settings were collected as measures of covariance. Differences between environmental settings showed greater benefit from
Because stress is known to suppress the immune system, its particularly important for people living with HIV and AIDS to emphasize daily stress management.
current evidence of the role of mitochondria in understanding how stress -- either negative or positive -- may affect human health
Rather than a worry, fear or anger response to triggers: become quiet, focused, aware of your feelings around the stressful experience, consciously relax by slowing down your breathing. When deeply upset, you cant always change the feeling, but you can slow down and deepen your own breath. Doing this regularly, will teach you to react pro-actively: responding rather than reacting to stress triggers. Use the female tend-and-befriend stress response. Women (and female animals form all species) experiencing stress tend to nurture themselves and their young and form bonds with others. Women also have the classical fight-or-flight response under stress, but the tend-and-befriend response seems to take effect during long term chronic stress. Female animals need to protect their young in a stressful situation - as did our ancestors and ourselves even today, when physically threatened. Fleeing too soon might leave a young animal defenseless. So use it, by forming networks and support groups with ...
Mental health is fundamental to the wellbeing of individuals, their families and the population as a whole. One indication of the mental health and wellbeing of a population is provided by measuring levels of psychological distress using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 questionnaire was developed to yield a global measure of psychosocial distress, based on questions about peoples level of nervousness, agitation, psychological fatigue and depression in the past four weeks[1]. ...
What is stress?. Stress is a worried or nervous feeling that stops you relaxing, caused, for example, by pressure at work or financial or personal problems. Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Stress is your bodys way of responding to any kind of demand. It can be caused by both good and bad experiences. When people feel stressed by something going on around them, their bodies react by releasing chemicals into the blood. These chemicals give people more energy and strength, which can be a good thing if their stress is caused by physical danger. But this can also be a bad thing, if their stress is in response to something emotional and there is no outlet for this extra energy and strength. This will discuss different causes of stress, how stress affects you, the difference between good or positive stress and bad or negative stress, and some common facts about how stress affects people today.. What Causes Stress?. Many different things can ...
You might be surprised to see how many parts of your body and your health are affected by stress. Spoiler alert: Exercise helps alleviate it!
Research in the studies in this issue of APA PeePs looks at how stress can influence cognitive processing and affect overt behavior.
Have you ever wondered whats going on in the brain when you blank on information youre sure you know during a stressful test? TED-Ed explains why.
The information is presented for educational purposes only and is not intended to diagnose or prescribe for any medical or psychological condition, nor to prevent, treat, mitigate or cure such conditions. The information contained herein is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a doctor or qualified healthcare professional. Therefore, this information is not intended as medical advice, but rather a sharing of knowledge and information based on research and experience. Living Waters Wellness encourages you to make your own health care decisions based on your judgment and research in partnership with a qualified healthcare professional. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information on this website is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. ...
Glucocorticoids are stress hormones. All vertebrates respond to stressful situations by releasing hormones, such as adrenalin and glucocorticoids, which instantaneously increase the animals heart rate and energy level. This provides more energy to our muscles, increases blood pressure and turns off everything thats not essential to surviving, such as digestion, growth and reproduction. These are physiological responses to stress. There are also psychological responses to these hormones. In the short term, we think more clearly and aspects of learning and memory are enhanced, but over long periods of time, these effects can be reversed, as some of the evidence below indicates﻽ ...
by Jill Frank. Stress plays a critical role in life. It can help you accomplish work timely and accurately, promote healthy competition, and force you to evaluate problems and formulate creative solutions. It can also hamper your ability to effectively perform your job, thereby reducing your chances of promotion; interfere with your capacity to sustain relationships; and lead to physical illness. So, how do you find balance? Start by preventing or eliminating stress that is unnecessary. 1. Manage Expectations. Are others clear about what you expect of them? Whether they are vendors, subordinates, or committee members, make sure they understand exactly what you want, and when and how you would like it completed. This will prevent misunderstandings for you as well as the other person. 2. Communicate Effectively. Many problems arise due to a lack of or ineffective communication. Don t focus solely on your verbal and written communication though. Listening is a lost art for most, and one that can ...
Health, ...Stress-evoked changes in circuits that regulate serotonin in certain p... The impetus for this research was our interest in how stress alters t...A common belief is that drug seeking is regulated by dopamine a chemi...In explaining their study the researchers said that the dynorphin/kap...,Stress-induced,changes,in,brain,circuitry,linked,to,cocaine,relapse,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Hello, Does anyone know if stress affects these fertility tests? I finally had these tests done for the first time today and I was probably the most stressed I have been in I dont know how long. We...
Critics of genetic screening believe it is unethical due to 1) uncertainty, 2) psychological impact, 3) false sense of security, and 4) potential for discrimination. The claim of uncertainty revolves around the fact that just because a woman tests p ositively does not mean she will eventually develop breast cancer. Likewise, a woman who tests negatively may still be at risk due to other factors such as age, reproductive health, and environmental influences. Secondly, the psychological effects that genetic testing may have on women is a concern. Critics believe that a woman who tests positively for mutations may undergo intense psychological stress and depression, even though there is not a 100% guarantee that she will eventually be stricken with b reast cancer. Only one major study has actually assessed the psychological impact of genetic screening. The results of the study showed that one month after genetic screening, the psychosocial scores of women who tested positive made no substantial ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Mechanisms Underlying the Links between Psychosocial Stress, Aging, the Brain and the Body (R01) PA-09-216. NIA
Most of us today spend six to eight hours in front of a computer screen. That can have a lot of negative effects on the eyes; here are five tips to help.
Results Of 1596 patients, 51% reported stress. Patients reporting prior stress were (mean, 95%CI) younger [53 (52,54) vs. 55 (54,56); p=0.001], more often female (77% vs. 69%; p,0.001), living alone (17% vs. 12%; p=0.005); fewer completed high school (41% vs. 48%, p=0.01). They reported higher levels of pain [5.8 (5.6-6.0) vs. 5.3 (5.1,5.5); p,0.001], fatigue [5.7 (5.5,5.9) vs. 4.8 (4.6,5.0); p,0.001], worse function [HAQ-DI [1.1 (1.1,1.2) vs. 1.0 (0.9,1.0); p,0.001], and global disease assessment [60.2 (58.2,62.2) vs. 55.7 (53.6,57.8); p=0.002]. A significant, independent negative effect of psychological but not physical stress was associated with RAPID3 scores at BL,6 and 12 months (p≤0.0008) (Table). Fewer patients reporting prior psychological stress achieved a RAPID 3 remission (p,0.0017). ...
After three weeks, the researchers measured the number and size of tumors in the mice. The number of tumors was 2.5 times greater in the mice that had been in the 2-hour stress group and 3.6 times greater in the 6-hour stress group compared to the mice with no stress. In addition, tumor growth was confined in the no-stress mice, but had spread to the liver or spleen in half of the stressed mice ...
Childhood adverse experiences have been consistently documented to engender persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to chronic stress. However, there has been very little research examining whether this effect can be elicited among children when using a standardized laboratory stress test, or whether such effects are found in non-Western youth. In the current study, 80 10-year-old Chinese children (45% girls, 4-5th grades) were selected from 970 students based on the experience of being bullied, resulting in a sample of 59 victims (physical, verbal, and relational/social), and a group of 21 nonbullied children with distributions of age and gender that were comparable ...
This study aims to assess the rates of psychological distress and unmet psychological needs amongst patients suffering from head and neck cancer
One important thing the study does not address is heart disease deaths that are not related to diet. It states that around half of all heart disease deaths (1000 people per day in the US) are due to poor diet. What about the other half? It would be very important to separate the number of deaths attributable to genetic defects vs the high stress environments of low- to middle-SES in an excessively competitive culture. High-stress environments are a huge contributing factor in all of the top ten causes of death. And, of course, the kill-or-be-killed worldview of the political right is a primary source of epidemic stress. I dont consider myself a leftist by any stretch, but left-wing ideas are much more conducive to stress relief than right-wing notions of cutthroat competitiveness. The weight of all that preventable death will hopefully mellow out the general population. Fully 50% of the general population has some sort form of clinical depression. 15% of men and 25% of women at some time in ...
One important thing the study does not address is heart disease deaths that are not related to diet. It states that around half of all heart disease deaths (1000 people per day in the US) are due to poor diet. What about the other half? It would be very important to separate the number of deaths attributable to genetic defects vs the high stress environments of low- to middle-SES in an excessively competitive culture. High-stress environments are a huge contributing factor in all of the top ten causes of death. And, of course, the kill-or-be-killed worldview of the political right is a primary source of epidemic stress. I dont consider myself a leftist by any stretch, but left-wing ideas are much more conducive to stress relief than right-wing notions of cutthroat competitiveness. The weight of all that preventable death will hopefully mellow out the general population. Fully 50% of the general population has some sort form of clinical depression. 15% of men and 25% of women at some time in ...
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Contributors JG-T participated in the acquisition of the data, conducted the main analyses, interpreted the data and drafted and revised the article. MPT contributed to the design of the study and the acquisition of the data, the interpretation of the data and the revision of the article. MJG contributed to the design of the study, the interpretation of the data and the revision of the article. NK-A and MAL contributed to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition and interpretation of the data and the revision of the article. RJK contributed to the interpretation of the data and the revision of the article. EA conceptualised and designed the study, supported the acquisition of the data, contributed to the analysis and interpretation of the data and was a major contributor to the drafting and revision of the article. ...
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Test-Label: intel-Performance-Testing Test-Status: SUCCESS http://dpdk.org/patch/51700 _Performance Testing PASS_ Submitter: Hemant Agrawal ,hemant.agrawal at nxp.com, Date: Tuesday, March 26 2019 12:01:44 DPDK git baseline: Repo:dpdk Branch: master CommitID:faf8c3095ac649f3d893ee846e2aa7cf1b4ccf4d 51700-51703 --, performance testing pass Test environment and result as below: Ubuntu 17.10 Kernel: 4.13.0-43-generic GCC: gcc (Ubuntu 7.2.0-8ubuntu3) 7.2.0 NIC: Intel Corporation Ethernet Converged Network Adapter XL710-QDA2 40000 Mbps Target: x86_64-native-linuxapp-gcc Fail/Total: 0/2 Detail performance results: +------------+---------+-------------------------------------+ , frame_size , txd/rxd , throughput difference from expected , +============+=========+=====================================+ , 64 , 512 , 0.151 , +------------+---------+-------------------------------------+ , 64 , 2048 , 0.009 , +------------+---------+-------------------------------------+ Ubuntu 17.10 Kernel: ...