It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 minutes of the recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin where determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CNS site of glucocorticoid negative feedback during LPS- and psychological stress-induced fevers. AU - Morrow, Lee E.. AU - McClellan, Jennifer L.. AU - Klir, John J.. AU - Kluger, Matthew J.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - Glucocorticoids exert negative feedback in the anterior hypothalamus (AH) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fevers, but the central location of their negative feedback during psychological stress-induced fever has not been determined. To confirm that glucocorticoid modulation of LPS fever occurs in the AH, adrenalectomized animals were injected intrahypothalamically with either 0.25 ng of corticosterone or vehicle followed by 50 μg/kg LPS intraperitoneally. Animals pretreated with corticosterone developed significantly smaller fevers (P = 0.007) than animals given vehicle. To determine if glucocorticold modulation during psychological stress-induced fever may occur in the hippocampus, the fornix was transected to block hippocampal communication ...
Title: The Effects of Physical and Psychological Stress on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Lessons from Animal Models. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Javier R. Caso, Juan C. Leza and Luis Menchen. Affiliation:Seccion de Gastroenterologia, Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, C/ Dr Esquerdo 46. 28007 Madrid, Spain.. Keywords:Animal models, brain gut axis, IBD, stress. Abstract: Physical and psychological stresses are widely accepted as triggers and / or modifiers of the clinical course of diverse gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. Growing experimental evidence from a variety of models such as immobilization, thermal injury or early maternal deprivation in laboratory animals uniformly supports the ability of stress to induce the development of gastric ulcers, altered gastrointestinal motility and ion secretion, and increased intestinal permeability leading to the passage of antigens to the ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Longitudinal study of psychological distress symptoms in HIV-infected, school-aged children. AU - Wiener, Lori. AU - Battles, Haven. AU - Riekert, Kristin A.. PY - 2014/1/21. Y1 - 2014/1/21. N2 - Despite the growing numbers of HIV-infeeted sehool-aged ehildren, we know very little about the mental health status of this group. This longitudinal study exarnined the frequeney of psyehological distress symptoms in HIV-infected ehildren between the ages of 6 and 11 years at three time points over aperiod of two and one-half years. Children were assessed using the Dominic, a pictorial instrument that assesses for 7 psyehological distress symptoms of childhood. In addition, farnily and demographie variables were colleeted at Time 1. Children were found to be relatively well-adjusted, with low to moderate incidence of psyehological distress. While there were no significant ehanges in frequeney of psyehological distress symptoms from Time 1 to Time 3, the prevalence of overanxious and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early life stress increases stress vulnerability through BDNF gene epigenetic changes in the rat hippocampus. AU - Seo, Mi Kyoung. AU - Ly, Nguyen Ngoc. AU - Lee, Chan Hong. AU - Cho, Hye Yeon. AU - Choi, Cheol Min. AU - Nhu, Le Hoa. AU - Lee, Jung Goo. AU - Lee, Bong Ju. AU - Kim, Gyung Mee. AU - Yoon, Bongjune. AU - Park, Sung Woo. AU - Kim, Young Hoon. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Early life stress (ELS) exerts long-lasting epigenetic influences on the brain and makes an individual susceptible to later depression. It is poorly understood whether ELS and subsequent adult chronic stress modulate epigenetic mechanisms. We examined the epigenetic mechanisms of the BDNF gene in the hippocampus, which may underlie stress vulnerability to postnatal maternal separation (MS) and adult restraint stress (RS). Rat pups were separated from their dams (3 h/day from P1-P21). When the pups reached adulthood (8 weeks old), we introduced RS (2 h/day for 3 weeks) followed by escitalopram ...
It is possible to have a stress management program to overcome these problems and realistically fit into the busiest schedule. Before discussing how to prepare your plan, let me explain exactly what your stress is. Understanding the nature of stress helps to create the program. Stress Defined Stress is an organizations alarm system. This is a physiological reaction to the environment in the environment. You may know the answer to the fight or flight. It is also known as a sympathetic nervous system. When faced with a threat, the brain immediately triggers the release of stress hormones, which in turn creates a number of physiological changes. These changes are designed to allow the body to fight or to escape the threat. Heart rate, sweating, muscle tension, changes in blood flow, shallow breathing, increased vigilance and reaction time are all part of this response. In a life-threatening situation, this response is favorable. Youve experienced the benefits of a car opening up in front of him ...
Limitations and Exceptions: Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of lower secondary education. Thus this rate is a proxy that should be taken as an upper estimate of the actual lower secondary completion rate. There are many reasons why the rate can exceed 100 percent. The numerator may include late entrants and overage children who have repeated one or more grades of lower secondary education as well as children who entered school early, while the denominator is the number of children at the entrance age for the last grade of lower secondary education.. Other Notes: Data retrieved via API in March 2019. For detailed information on the observation level (e.g. National Estimation, UIS Estimation, or Category not applicable), please visit UIS.Stat (http://data.uis.unesco.org/).. Statistical Concept and Methodology: Lower secondary completion rate is calculated as the number of new entrants (enrollment minus repeaters) in the last grade of lower ...
Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting
Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting
RESULTS: On the stress-test day, blood pressure rose from 117/73 ± 13/12 to 155/92 ± 22/14 mmHg, heart rate from 77 ± 11 to 91 ± 25 b min(-1) and salivary cortisol concentrations from 8.5 ± 3.7 to 26.4 ± 12.1 nmol/l (P , 0.001); these measurements remained unchanged on the control day. On the stress-test day, when the Trier Social Stress Test was applied 75 min after the intake of a standard meal, the glucose concentrations were significantly higher compared with the control day (mean difference 1.5 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.5-2.4, P = 0.003). In the fasting state, glucose concentrations slightly decreased during the control day but remained stable on the stress-test day (mean difference compared with the control day 0.7 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.7 to 2.0, P = 0.31 ...
Background and Purpose- Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke.. Methods- Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high.. Results- Subjects with high stress intensity had almost a doubled risk of fatal stroke compared with subjects who were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress. AU - Skosnik, Patrick D.. AU - Chatterton, Robert T.. AU - Swisher, Tara. AU - Park, Sohee. PY - 2000/4/3. Y1 - 2000/4/3. N2 - Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and α-amylase (a correlate of NE) were assayed to probe the relationship between the stress response and attentional inhibition. Healthy subjects (N=20) engaged in the attention task, which was then followed by 15 min of a stressful video game before a return to the attentional task. Baseline saliva samples were obtained before the experiment began, 1 min after the video-game ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The involvement of glucocorticoids in psychological stress-induced exacerbations of experimental allergic asthma. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Introduction: Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSI) has been linked to a higher rate of fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in patients with CAD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk models. Coronary vascular constriction with mental stress is a potential mechanism of MSI that may be reflected as constriction in the peripheral circulation. Moreover, peripheral arterial constriction may itself contribute to MSI by increasing afterload.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a more pronounced microvascular constrictor response to mental stress will be predictive of development of MSI.. Methods: Patients with stable CAD (n=116) underwent a standardized mental stress test using a public speaking task. Myocardial perfusion imaging with 99m-Tc-sestamibi was used for rest and stress images. MSI was defined as a summeddifference score of ≥4, based on the difference between summed stressand rest perfusion scores. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) was used to assess peripheral ...
Little is known about stressful triggers and coping strategies of Nigerian adolescents and whether or not, and how, HIV infection modulates these sources of stress and coping. This study evaluated differences in stressors and coping strategies among Nigerian adolescents based on HIV status. We analysed the data of six hundred 10-19 year old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 States of Nigeria who self-reported their HIV status. Data on stressors and coping strategies were retrieved by self-report from participants, using a validated structured questionnaire. We compared results between adolescents with and without HIV with respect to identification of specific life events as stressors, and use of specific coping strategies to manage stress. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) had significantly increased odds of identifying having to visit the hospital regularly (AOR: 5.85; 95 % CI: 2.11-16.20; P = 0.001), and ...
The implications of exposure to acute and chronic stressors, and seeking mental health care, for increased psychological distress are examined. Research on eco¬nomic stress, psychological distress, and rural agrarian values each point to in¬creasing variability within rural areas. Using data from a panel study of 1,487 adults, a model predicting changes in depressive symptoms was specified and tested. Results show effects by size of place for men but not for women. Men living in rural villages of under 2,500 or in small towns of 2,500 to 9,999 people had significantly greater increases in depressive symptoms than men living in the country or in larger towns or cities. Size of place was also related to level of stigma toward mental health care. Persons living in the most rural environments were more likely to hold stigmatized attitudes toward mental health care and these views were strongly predictive of willingness to seek care. The combination of increased risk and less willingness to seek assistance
The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is well-established in explaining work-related stress and health differences. A lack of reciprocity between efforts and rewards at the workplace is central to the theory. The third component (over-commitment) was defined to be a moderator of high-cost/low gain-working conditions increasing the risk of ill-health. Although the theory has been widely supported empirically, all underlying hypotheses have not been sufficiently tested. This article examines whether the strength of the effect of the effort-reward imbalance ratio on health indicators is bigger than the effects of efforts and rewards individually. Another research gap on the interaction with over-commitment is addressed and health measures are compared. This study applied the effort-reward imbalance model on health satisfaction and the SF-12v2™ indicators physical health composite score (PCS) and mental health composite score (MCS) within a representative sample of German employees. After confirmatory
Allen, Andrew P., Kennedy, Paul J., Dockray, Samantha, Cryan, John F., Dinan, Timothy G. and Clarke, Gerard (2017) The Trier Social Stress Test: Principles and practice. Neurobiology of Stress, 6. pp. 113-126. ISSN 2352-2895 Allen, Andrew P., Hutch, William, Borre, Y. E., Kennedy, Paul J., Temko, Andriy, Boylan, Geraldine, Murphy, Eileen, Cryan, John F., Dinan, Timothy G. and Clarke, Gerard (2016) Bifidobacterium longum 1714 as a translational psychobiotic: modulation of stress, electrophysiology and neurocognition in healthy volunteers. Translational Psychiatry, 6. e939. ISSN 2158-3188 Allen, Andrew P., Kennedy, Paul J., Cryan, John F., Dinan, Timothy G. and Clarke, Gerard (2014) Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: Focus on the Trier Social Stress Test. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 38. pp. 94-124. ISSN 0149-7634 ...
Acute psychosocial stress stimulates transient increases in circulating pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines, but little is known about stress effects on anti-inflammatory cytokines or underlying mechanisms. We investigated the stress kinetics and interrelations of pro- and anti-inflammatory measures on the transcriptional and protein level.,br /,,br /,Forty-five healthy men were randomly assigned to either a stress or control group. While the stress group underwent an acute psychosocial stress task, the second group participated in a non-stress control condition. We repeatedly measured before and up to 120 min after stress DNA binding activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whole-blood mRNA levels of NF-κB, its inhibitor IκBα, and of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We also repeatedly measured plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10.,br /,,br /,Compared ...
Methods: Participants were 40 (n = 20 females) university students (mean age, 25.9 ± 4.56 years). Blood samples to determine neutrophil function by flow cytometry were taken at the end of resting baseline, during an acute stress task, and during recovery. The stress task was a 10-minute time-pressured mental arithmetic challenge with social evaluation ...
Objectives To investigate whether a group-based stress management intervention, based on principles from cognitive behaviour therapy, can reduce stress and alter coping strategies in an occupationally diverse population with extensive symptoms of work-related stress. Methods Using a randomized wait list control design, 102 participants were divided into two groups: intervention and wait list control (WLC). The intervention was a three-month group-based stress management program. Outcomes measures were the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, range 0-40 points) and five dimensions from the Brief COPE questionnaire (range 2-8 points) at baseline and three-, six- and nine-months follow-up. Data were analyzed with a univariate analysis of variance. Results On the PSS-10 from baseline to three months, the intervention group changed -6.45 (95% CI -8.25--4.64) points, compared to -1.12 (95% CI -2.94-0.70) points in the WLC group. The between-groups difference was -5.32 (95% CI -7.89--2.76) points, equalling ...
It can be concluded that low social support, from either supervisors or co-workers, appears to be a risk factor for low-back pain. Some indications of a relationship between high quantitative job demands and high conflicting demands and low-back pain were also found. Little evidence was found for an …
The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made.. ...
Lower secondary completion rate, gender parity index (GPI) in India was reported at 1.0596 GPI in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. India - Lower secondary completion rate, gender parity index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on October of 2020.
Gross enrolment ratio, lower secondary, gender parity index (GPI) in India was reported at 1.0508 GPI in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. India - Gross enrolment ratio, lower secondary, gender parity index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on November of 2020.
Purpose: To identify whether psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of falling into poverty, giving a more complete picture of how psychological distress affects living standards.. Methods: Longitudinal analysis of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian (HILDA) survey using Poisson regression models to estimate relative risk of falling into income poverty and multidimensional poverty between 2007 and 2012. The sample was limited to those who were not already in income poverty in 2007. Psychological distress was identified using the Kessler-10 (K10) scale.. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, having moderate psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 1.62 (95 % CI 1.31-2.01, p , 0.0001) and the risk of falling into multidimensional poverty by 1.85 (95 % CI 1.37-2.48, p , 0.0001); having very high psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 2.40 (95 % CI ...
Psychological stress Psychological stress is a result of many factors and should be dealt with very carefully. Stress can be defined as a set of
Objective: To study the physical and psychological stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to correlate stressors with different demographic variables. Design: Cross-sectional analytical survey. Setting: Intensive care unit of a private hospital. Patients and participants: 50 randomly selected ICU patients during the first week of their ICU stay. Measurements and results: The Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale was administered to 50 patients. Pain and the impossibility of sleeping due to noise and having tubes in the nose and mouth were considered the most important physical stressors. Loss of self control and lack of understanding about the attitudes and procedures were the main psychological stressors. Conclusions: Interventions should be aimed at relieving the patients pain and at controlling the level of noise to make sleep possible. From the psychological standpoint, the independence of the patient should be encouraged, thus stimulating the recovery of self-control. ...
Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance
The purpose of this review was to provide current knowledge about the possible association between psychosocial job stress and immune parameters in blood, saliva, and urine. Using bibliographic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Medline) and the snowball method, 56 studies were found. In general, exposure to psychosocial job stress (high job demands, low job control, high job strain, jo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of comorbid depressive symptoms and/or stress on adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in individuals with diabetes compared with those without diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Investigators examined the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and/or stress in adults with and without diabetes and physician-adjudicated incident CV outcomes including stroke, myocardial infarction/acute coronary heart disease, and CV death over a median follow-up of 5.95 years in the national REGARDS cohort study.RESULTS: Subjects included 22,003 adults (4,090 with diabetes) (mean age 64 years, 58% female, 42% black, and 56% living in the southeastern Stroke Belt). Elevated stress and/or depressive symptoms were more common in subjects with diabetes (36.8% vs. 29.5%; P , 0.001). In fully adjusted models, reporting either elevated stress or depressive symptoms was associated with a significantly increased incidence of stroke (HR 1.57 [95% CI 1.05, 2.33] vs. 1.01 ...
Objective: To identify risk indicators for high stress and low mental energy as well as to describe psychosocial working conditions at different types of call centres. Participants: 1183 operators from 28 call centres in Sweden, both external and internal, with different levels of task complexity, ownership and geographical location. Method: A cross sectional questionnaire study. Results: The stress level was moderately high and the energy level fairly high. Stress levels tended to be lower and psychosocial conditions better with increasing level of task complexity. Fourteen per cent of the operators were in a state of high stress/low energy (worn out) and 47% in high stress/high energy (committed under pressure). Operators in a state of low stress/high energy (committed without pressure) were most likely to report a better health status. High stress and lack of energy was mainly associated with time pressure, low decision latitude, and lack of social and supervisor support. Conclusions: ...
We propose to consider the role of biomarkers as signs and to distinguish between signs that are just indicators of biological processes and proxies that one can interact with and modify the disease process. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 852-872.
Methods Overall 280 male workers of a logistic support company for secure communication and intelligence were included in our study population. We measured work-related stress using the HSE indicator tool, general wellbeing using the Well-being Index (WHO5); affectivity was measured by the short version of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS); the frequency corrected QT (QTc) interval on the electrocardiogram was measured using the Bazetts formula; QT index (QTi) value, blood pressure, BMI, and fasting glycaemia were also recorded, as well as medications, lifestyles and comorbidities. Based on the Karaseks taxonomy, we compared high strain jobs, low strain jobs, active jobs and passive jobs with respect to WHO5, PANAS, QTc, QTi, blood pressure, BMI and glycaemia. Group differences were analysed by means of parametric and non parametric tests. ...
It was our observation not that they couldnt do math, but that they werent really attending to the right things, he says. We didnt see people improving over time. You might say, Well, they dont get how it works. But the people with high-stress childhoods, even after many trials, they werent using negative feedback to change their behavior and improve.. In brain scans from the people who lived with high stress as children, Birn and Pollak could see a surprisingly low amount of activity in the brain region expected to light up when confronted by a potential loss.. And then, when they would lose, wed see more activity than expected - an overreaction - in the part of the brain that responds to reward, Pollak says, which makes sense. If you didnt catch the cue that you were likely to lose, youre probably going to be pretty shocked when you dont win.. The high-stress childhood group also reported undertaking more risky behaviors - smoking, not wearing a seatbelt in a car or texting ...
Total possible scores on the Distress Questionnaire scale range from 5 to 25, with higher scores indicating greater psychological distress. A cut point of ≥ 11 is used to screen for most common mental disorders, whereas a cut point of ≥ 14 is chosen for increased specificity in applications where a clinical case finding is required.. On average, survey respondents reported a score of 15.1. Women reported higher psychological distress on the Distress Questionnaire (15.2), when compared to the average score observed for men (14.7). Younger survey respondents were more likely to report higher distress scores when compared older survey respondents.. While women and young people also reported higher distress on the Distress Questionnaire in the study by Batterham and colleagues (2016), on average, monthly survey respondents reported significantly higher levels of distress across all categories of gender and age.. More than four-fifths (85%) of female survey respondents and four-fifths (80%) of ...
The primary purpose of this proposed 5-year study is to determine whether a Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) intervention, demonstrated to be effective in reducing distress, enhancing coping, and maintaining health among HIV+ non-drug abusers (see Schneiderman and Antoni, 2000), can be effectively adapted for our target population of culturally diverse, HIV+, low-income Recovering Drug Abusers (RDAs). Since the late 1980s, members of our research team (i.e., Schneiderman, Antoni, Klimas, Fletcher) have been developing, refining and evaluating the effects of CBSM among HIV+ Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). In the early/mid 90s, we began to adapt and evaluate the effects of CBSM in other non-drug abusing subgroups that were emerging with increasing levels of HIV seroprevalence (e.g., pregnant women, African American and Hispanic men and women). After accumulating considerable support for the effectiveness of CBSM in these subgroups in the late 90s, our research team (i.e., Malow, ...
The primary purpose of this proposed 5-year study is to determine whether a Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) intervention, demonstrated to be effective in reducing distress, enhancing coping, and maintaining health among HIV+ non-drug abusers (see Schneiderman and Antoni, 2000), can be effectively adapted for our target population of culturally diverse, HIV+, low-income Recovering Drug Abusers (RDAs). Since the late 1980s, members of our research team (i.e., Schneiderman, Antoni, Klimas, Fletcher) have been developing, refining and evaluating the effects of CBSM among HIV+ Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). In the early/mid 90s, we began to adapt and evaluate the effects of CBSM in other non-drug abusing subgroups that were emerging with increasing levels of HIV seroprevalence (e.g., pregnant women, African American and Hispanic men and women). After accumulating considerable support for the effectiveness of CBSM in these subgroups in the late 90s, our research team (i.e., Malow, ...
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the ...
Cybra - Łódzka Regionalna Biblioteka Cyfrowa is... Here put the description for the main page matadata, visible e.g. when sharing on Facebook.
Objectives This study focused on estimating the relative risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in association with work stress, as indicated by the job-strain model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and the organizational injustice model.. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies were carried out. Studies were eligible if they had published a quantitative estimate of the association between work stress and incident CHD or cardiovascular mortality by January 2006. Results Fourteen prospective cohort studies were identified. For a total of 83 014 employees, the age- and gender-adjusted relative ratio of CHD for high versus low job strain was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-1.84], but the ratio decreased to 1.16 (95% CI 0.94-1.43) after adjustment for risk factors and potential mediators. The age- and gender-adjusted risk ratio for a combination of high efforts and low rewards was 1.58 (95% CI 0.84-2.97) for 11 528 employees, and no reduction in the ...
With the growth of atypical employment, there is increasing concern about the potential health-damaging effects of unstable employment. This prospective study of Finnish public-sector employees in 1998-2002 examined labor market trajectories and changes in health. At entry, all participants had a fixed-term job contract. Trajectories were measured by exposure to unstable employment during follow-up, destination employment status at the end of follow-up, and the way in which these elements were combined. Nonoptimal self-rated health at baseline was associated with high exposure to unstable employment and unemployment as the destination. After adjustment for health and psychological distress at baseline, a trajectory with stable employment as the destination was associated with a decreased risk of psychological distress at follow-up (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.98), whereas a trajectory toward the labor market periphery was related to increased risk of nonoptimal health ...
The way stress affects the body can range from a quick chest flutter to serious issues like depression and an increased risk for heart attack and stroke. Find out how stress affects you, and how to control it.
In vitro stress assays are commonly used to study responses of plants to abiotic stress and to assess stress tolerance. A literature review reveals that most studies use very high stress levels, and measure criteria such as germination, plant survival, or development of visual symptoms such as bleaching. However, we show that these parameters are indicators of very severe stress, and such studies thus only provide incomplete information about stress sensitivity. Similarly, transcript analysis revealed that typical stress markers are only induced at high stress levels in young seedlings. Therefore, tools are needed to study the effects of mild stress. We found that the commonly used stress-inducing agents mannitol, sorbitol, NaCl and H2O2 impact shoot growth in a highly specific and dose-dependent way. Therefore, shoot growth is a sensitive, relevant and easily measured phenotype to assess stress tolerance over a wide range of stress levels. Finally, our data suggest that care should be taken ...
When it comes to weight gain for women, childhood stress appears to be a bigger culprit than stress during adulthood, finds a national study led by a Michigan State University sociologist.
Cumulative risk assessment posits that multiple agents work together to induce disease and that multiple stressors therefore must be considered in order to gain a true understanding of why adverse health effects occur.1 Now a small but growing number of scientists are pushing the envelope by investigating whether chronic psychological stress might be one of those factors, enhancing a childs vulnerability to certain chemical exposures and contributing to effects that later show up as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and other problems. These researchers are also starting to identify biomarkers that may shed light on the mechanisms by which psychological stress acts on a childs developing immune system and brain to modify or enhance the response to certain pollution exposures such as traffic-related air pollutants and lead. ...
Stress is a powerful modulator of neuroendocrine, behavioral and immunological functions. After 4.5 days of repeated combined acoustic and restraint stress as a murine model of chronic psychological stress severe metabolic dysregulations became detectable in female BALB/c mice. Stress-induced alterations of metabolic processes that were found in a hepatic mRNA expression profiling were verified by in vivo analyses. Repeatedly stressed mice developed a hypermetabolic syndrome with severe loss of lean body mass, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, increased amino acid turn-over, and acidosis. This was associated with hypercortisolism, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and hypothyroidism. In contrast, after a single acute stress exposure changes in expression of metabolic genes were much less pronounced and predominantly confined to gluconeogenesis, probably indicating that metabolic disturbances might be initiated already early but will only manifest in repeatedly stressed mice. Thus, in our murine ...
Recent findings from epidemiological studies suggest that that there may be a link between the experience of early traumatic events and later development of psychotic symptoms. Animal studies provide a model of stress sensitization whereby early stressful events contribute to dopamine dysregulation and a sensitivity to psychosocial stress in young adulthood. Prodrome studies provide a unique opportunity to assess stress responsivity prospectively, prior to the onset of full psychosis, by identifying youth with an ultra-high-risk syndrome that confers approximately 35 percent risk for conversion to a full psychotic disorder within 2.5 years. In Study 1, we test the hypotheses that 1) UHR participants age 16-25 report a greater number of traumatic life events than healthy controls matched on age, gender and SES; and, 2) UHR participants show dysregulated stress-responsivity compared to healthy controls as exhibited by higher baseline salivary Cortisol levels, a slower return to baseline ...
We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21 day CSP (CSP1), a 60 day recovery (R1), a second 14 day CSP (CSP2), and a second 30 day recovery (R2). Body weight decreased approximately 5% during CSP1,... read morebut overshot to 5-10% above initial body weight during R1. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we periodically measured corticosterone and 12 biochemical analytes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), bile acids (BA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), glucose (GLU), uric acid (UA), calcium (CA++), phosphorus (PHOS), potassium (K+), and sodium (NA+). AST and CK increased at the beginning of CSP1, suggesting muscle breakdown. Additionally, decreases in ALB and TP paired with stable UA, but no associated change in GLU, suggested protein ...
Chronic social defeat stress, a depression model in rats, reduced struggling in the forced swimming test dependent on a hedonic trait-stressed rats with high sucrose intake struggled less. Social defeat reduced brain regional energy metabolism, and this effect was also more pronounced in rats with high sucrose intake. A number of changes in gene expression were identified after social defeat stress, most notably the down-regulation of Gsk3b and Map1b. The majority of differences were between stress-susceptible and resilient rats. Conclusively, correlates of inter-individual differences in stress resilience can be identified both at gene expression and oxidative metabolism levels.
In the service sector, customer-related social stressors may weaken employees’ well-being, impairing job-related outcomes. Drawing on the Conservation of Resources theory and on the psychology of sustainability, fostering personal resources become critical to encourage service providers who can effectively manage such job demands. This study investigated how customer-related social stressors and customer orientation influence service recovery performance and whether resilience buffers the negative effects of customer incivility on service recovery performance. One hundred and fifty-seven Italian customer-contact employees completed a questionnaire analyzing customer incivility, customer-related social stressors, resilience, customer orientation, and service recovery performance. Regression analyses and SEMs were conducted. Although all customer-related social stressors indirectly and negatively influenced service recovery performance by increasing burnout symptoms, customer incivility only exerted
Looking for online definition of secondary process in the Medical Dictionary? secondary process explanation free. What is secondary process? Meaning of secondary process medical term. What does secondary process mean?
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined age differences in the association between daily stressors and allostatic load.. METHOD: Participants consisted of 317 adults (34-84 years) who participated in Waves 1 (1996-1997) and 2 (between 2005 and 2009) of the Midlife Development in the United States Survey. During Wave 1, participants reported the stressors they encountered across eight consecutive days. Within-person affective reactivity slopes indexing change in negative affect from a nonstressor day to a stressor day were calculated for each participant. Affective reactivity and stressor exposure scores at Wave 1 were used to predict allostatic load at Wave 2.. RESULTS: Heightened levels of affective reactivity at Wave 1 predicted elevated levels of allostatic load at Wave 2 but only among older adults who also reported high levels of stressor exposure. No significant associations emerged for younger adults.. DISCUSSION: Daily stress processes may be one pathway through which age-related physical ...
The study investigated the frequency of adverse life events and prevalence of MD recorded for clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) in a medium secure unit, using data from an electronic patient record (EPR) system. Prevalence of MD was calculated on the basis of ICD-10 diagnoses and a 38-item checklist was developed to investigate adverse/traumatic life events for sub-samples with and without MD. High rates of MD were reported overall, particularly of schizotypal and delusional disorders and disorders of personality. Adverse life events including abuse, bereavement and relationship difficulties had been documented by clinicians. The overall number of recorded events was significantly higher for clients diagnosed with a MD. Associations between MD and life events have been reported previously, but not in a forensic ID population. The study contributes to a growing body of literature highlighting the relationship between life events and mental health in people with ID, offering further ...
Experiences of profound social deprivation during infancy shape the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, an important stress response system. Specifically, children who were exposed to institutionalized care as infants show blunted cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stressors even years after being adopted into stable, supportive families. However, new evidence suggests that these effects could be reversed later in development under certain conditions.. Gunnar and colleagues tested whether post-institutionalized youth showed evidence of stress recalibration with puberty. Participants were post-institutionalized youth and comparison (never adopted) youth ages 7 to 15 at baseline. Each of three consecutive annual sessions assessed pubertal stage via physical examination and salivary cortisol reactivity to the Trier social stress test, a task designed to measure response to social evaluation, which was adapted for children. Findings revealed that ...
Researchers are investigating the impact of psychological stress on ageing of the skin. Dermatologists know that ageing of the skin is influenced by external environmental factors including sun exposure and smoking and the natural ageing process of the skin. However to date there has been little research into the effects of psychological stress on ageing of the skin.. The research is being undertaken by The University of Manchester Dermatology and Psychology Research Centres in conjunction with Laboratoire Clarins. Researchers are looking for 140 Caucasian (white skinned) women, aged 25-40 years to have their skin measured and assessed by the Visia photographic system. The Visia system takes multiple photographs of the face in order to measure fine lines and wrinkles.. Interested volunteers will need to complete a brief screening survey in order to assess suitability for the research, and investigate recent use of sun beds or health issues which may influence the research. The assessments will ...
Although the limited size of the buffering effect may not be considered important in clinical settings, from a population health perspective the findings represent an additional small but significant piece of the puzzle in the pursuit to understand the determinants of population health. It is worth noting that the effect of experiencing a RLE on SRH seems to be completely mitigated or tempered in people with above average SOC. Additionally, it is plausible that much larger effects could be found if the outcomes examined were more proximal to the experience of stressful life events. For example, SOC might buffer the perceived stress, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, or neuroendocrine response associated with the experience of stressful life events to a much greater extent than was seen with the measure of SRH. Furthermore, the analysis in this study relied on a dichotomised derived index of various RLEs; it is possible that some stressful life events may be buffered to a greater or lesser ...
Although the limited size of the buffering effect may not be considered important in clinical settings, from a population health perspective the findings represent an additional small but significant piece of the puzzle in the pursuit to understand the determinants of population health. It is worth noting that the effect of experiencing a RLE on SRH seems to be completely mitigated or tempered in people with above average SOC. Additionally, it is plausible that much larger effects could be found if the outcomes examined were more proximal to the experience of stressful life events. For example, SOC might buffer the perceived stress, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, or neuroendocrine response associated with the experience of stressful life events to a much greater extent than was seen with the measure of SRH. Furthermore, the analysis in this study relied on a dichotomised derived index of various RLEs; it is possible that some stressful life events may be buffered to a greater or lesser ...
Positive affect is associated with alleviating mental and physiological stress responses. As laughter is a common physiological operationalization of positive affect, we investigated whether the effects of experiencing a stressful event on stress symptoms is lessened by frequency and intensity of daily laughter. Using an intensive longitudinal design, we ambulatory assessed the self-reported experience of stressful events, stress symptoms and the frequency as well as the intensity of laughter in university students daily lives. Our hierarchical ecological momentary assessment data were analyzed with multilevel models. The results support the stress-buffering model of positive affect: We found that the frequency of laughter attenuated the association between stressful events and subsequent stress symptoms. The level of intensity of laughter, however, was found to have no significant effect. Future studies should use additional psychophysiological indicators of stress and straighten out the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development and assessment of stressful life events subscales - A preliminary analysis. AU - Buccheri,Teresa. AU - Musaad,Salma. AU - Bost,Kelly K.. AU - Fiese,Barbara H.. AU - the STRONG Kids Research Team. PY - 2018/1/15. Y1 - 2018/1/15. N2 - Background Stress affects people of all ages, genders, and cultures and is associated with physical and psychological complications. Stressful life events are an important research focus and a psychometrically valid measure could provide useful clinical information. The purpose of the study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement of stressful life events and to assess its reliability and validity using established measures of social support, stress, depression, anxiety and maternal and child health. Methods The authors used an adaptation from the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to describe the prevalence of life events; they developed a 4-factor stressful life events subscales and used Medical Outcomes Social Support Scale, ...
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov The goal of this research is to compare the effects on psychological distress between T4 mono replacement group and T4/T3 c...
Guyton AG, Hall JE. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2006.. Lovibond, S.H. &Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.) Sydney: Psychology Foundation. ISBN 7334-1423-0.. Lovibond, P.F. &Lovibond, S.H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335-343.. Nixdorf I, Frank R, Beckmann J.Comparison of athletes proneness to depressive symptoms in individual and team Sports: research on psychological mediators in junior elite athletes.Front Psychol. 2016:17;7:893.. Newman HJ, Howells KL, Fletcher D.The dark side of top level sport: An autobiographic study of depressive experiences in elite sport performers.Front Psychol. 2016:7;7:868.. McMahon EM. Physical activity in European adolescents and associationswith anxiety, depression and well‑being. Eur Child Adolesc ...
Interest in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (ie, the study of the role of psychological factors in physical illness) has increased. Much research on the relation between stress and susceptibility to infectious disease has focused on the development of upper respiratory tract infections, which have a fairly high prevalence. Previous studies in which participants were exposed to respiratory viruses showed a relation between psychological stress and the risk of developing a cold.1, 2. The goal of the cohort study by Cohen et al was to determine which behavioural and biological pathways link stress to disease susceptibility. The strengths of this study include the use of quarantine both before and after inoculation to control for viral confounders, assessment to rule out disease in participants before study entry, blinded assessment of outcomes, extensive data collection on stressors and potential moderating variables, and use of both subjective and laboratory outcome measures. One weakness is ...
Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job
In the evaluation of Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress by Hellhammer J, Fries E, Buss C, Engert V, Tuch A, Rutenberg D, Hellhammer D., US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers indicated that four groups of 20 subjects were treated for three weeks with daily dosages of either 400 mg PAS, 600 mg PAS, 800 mg PAS, or placebo before exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Treatment with 400 mg PAS resulted in a pronounced blunting of both serum ACTH and cortisol, and salivary cortisol responses to the TSST, but did not affect heart rate. The effect was not seen with larger doses of PAS. With regard to the psychological response, 400 mg PAS seemed to exert a specific positive effect on emotional responses to the TSST. While the placebo group showed the expected increase in distress after the test, the group treated with 400 mg PAS showed decreased ...
Background: There is a documented association between affective disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety) and cardiovascular disease in humans. Chronic social stressors may play a mechanistic role in the development of behavioral and cardiac dysregulation. The current study investigated behavioral, cardiac, and autonomic responses to a chronic social stressor in prairie voles,
Background: The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) is a prospective randomized controlled trial of a group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) stress management program for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The intervention reduced the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the present study was to analyze if the positive effects of the CBT program on clinical outcomes could have been mediated by changes in biomarkers for inflammation.. Methods: Altogether 362 patients with CHD were randomly assigned to intervention or usual care. The inflammatory biomarkers (VCAM-1, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, PTX3, and hs-CRP) were serially assessed at five time points every six months from study start until 24 months later, and analyzed with linear mixed models.. Results: Baseline levels of the inflammatory markers were near normal, indicating a stable phase. The group-based CBT stress management program did not significantly affect the ...
UIS: Percentage of population age 25+ with at least completed lower secondary education (ISCED 2 or higher). Gender Parity Index in Uruguay was reported at 1.0779 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Uruguay - Percentage of population age 25+ with at least completed lower secondary education (ISCED 2 or higher). Gender Parity Index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on June of 2021.
Gross enrolment ratio, primary and lower secondary, gender parity index (GPI) in Liechtenstein was reported at 0.9694 GPI in 2017, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Liechtenstein - Gross enrolment ratio, primary and lower secondary, gender parity index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on December of 2020.
Experiments recently conducted by scientists at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University are providing an invaluable look at the processes occurring at crystalline scales in real time and will allow for validation of atomistic and crystalline-level models that are being developed within the ARL Enterprise for Multiscale Research in Materials, and the Materials for Extreme Dynamic Environments Collaborative Research Alliance.. According to Dr. John Beatty, who manages the research alliance, these experiments relied on x-rays produced from the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, or CHESS, and a fast-pixel array x-Ray detector, to peer deep into the crystal plasticity of magnesium at high-strain rates. Data from these experiments rendered temporal resolution at the microsecond scale during a high-strain rate Kolsky bar experiment.. Professor Todd Hufnagel, Johns Hopkins University, designed and led the collaborative execution of these unique first of their kind ...
Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. Southern tadpoles had higher CORT content in response to predators after 1 day of exposure, whereas there was no increase in CORT in the northern populations. Two weeks later, there were no predator-induced CORT elevations. Artificially elevated CORT levels strongly decreased growth, development and survival in both northern and southern tadpoles. We suggest that the lower CORT response in high-latitude populations can be connected with avoidance of ...
GOALS OF WORK Patients with brain cancer are at a risk of experiencing elevated levels of distress due to the severe functional, neurocognitive, and neuropsychological sequelae of the disease. Using the National Comprehensive Cancer Networks Distress Thermometer, we evaluated the extent and sources of distress within a population of patients with brain cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were asked to complete the Distress Thermometer, a single-item rapid screening tool for distress. The Distress Thermometer is a visual analog scale on which participants rate their level of distress from 0 (none) to 10 (extreme). Participants were also asked to designate which items from a 34-item list constitute sources of distress. MAIN RESULTS Fifty-two percent of participants met the | or =4 cut-off score for distress. The scores were positively correlated with patient-reported emotional sources of distress (r = 0.444, p | 0.001), physical sources of stress (r = 0.231, p | 0.05), and total number of
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prevalence, type, disclosure, and severity of adverse life events in college students. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total consumption of 1-14 units of alcohol compared with no consumption seemed associated with a lower risk of stroke ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Psychological distress associated with active surveillance in patients younger than 70 with a small renal mass. AU - Goldberg, Hanan. AU - Ajaj, Rami. AU - Cáceres, Jaime Omar Herrera. AU - Berlin, Alejandro. AU - Chandrasekar, Thenappan. AU - Klaassen, Zachary. AU - Wallis, Christopher J.D.. AU - Ahmad, Ardalan E.. AU - Leao, Ricardo. AU - Petrella, Anika R.. AU - Kachura, John R.. AU - Fleshner, Neil. AU - Matthew, Andrew. AU - Finelli, Antonio. AU - Jewett, Michael A.S.. AU - Hamilton, Robert J.. PY - 2020/6. Y1 - 2020/6. N2 - Purpose: To compare the psychological distress throughout several predefined disease time points in patients younger than 70 with small renal masses (SRMs) treated with either active surveillance (AS) or ablative/surgical therapy. Methods: Using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System - revised (ESAS-r) questionnaire, we focused on psychological distress symptoms in all consecutive patients with an SRM between 2014 and 2017. We further evaluated the ...
Metal exposure is a public health hazard due to neurocognitive effects starting in early life. Poor socio-economic status, adverse home and family environment can enhance the neurodevelopmental toxicity due to chemical exposure. Disadvantaged socio-economic conditions are generally higher in environmentally impacted areas although the combined effect of these two factors has not been sufficiently studied. The effect of co-exposure to neurotoxic metals including arsenic, cadmium, manganese, mercury, lead, selenium, and to socio-economic stressors was assessed in a group of 299 children aged 6-12 years, residing at incremental distance from industrial emissions in Taranto, Italy. Exposure was assessed with biological monitoring and the distance between the home address and the exposure point source. Childrens cognitive functions were examined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Linear mixed models were chosen to
Psychosocial characteristics have been linked to coronary heart disease. In the Belgian Job Stress Project (1994-1999), the authors examined the independent role of perceived job stress on the short-term incidence of clinical manifest coronary events in a large occupational cohort. A total of 14,337 middle-aged men completed the Job Content Questionnaire to determine the dimensions of the extended job strain model, job demands, decision latitude, and social support. Jobs were categorized into high strain, low strain, active jobs, and passive jobs. During the 3-year follow-up, 87 coronary events were registered. At baseline, 17% of workers experienced high strain. Job demands and decision latitude were not significantly related to the development of coronary heart disease after adjustment for covariates. The 38% risk excess among subjects classified in the high-strain category did not reach statistical significance. However, coronary heart disease incidence was substantially associated with the ...
Psychological trauma is an unfortunate and common occurrence after a burn injury. Trauma suffered by burn injury survivors often lurks far beneath physical disfigurement. Insidious and unseen, the attendant social and psychological consequences can often be more damaging than the burn injury itself. Understanding what these symptoms are, and how they manifest themselves, can lead to successful treatment options.. Severe burn injuries are a major source of stress for everyone involved in the burn survivors life. Primary causes of stress include: pain and/or itching during the healing process, reliving the event and the circumstances that caused the burn injury, changes in appearance and the reaction of others to these changes, and worries about the future concerning all of these issues. Psychological stress affects all mind and body functions, and can trigger other medical complications.. Theres a litany of normal physical and emotional reactions to an abnormal event, such as a burn injury. ...
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the research on mental health needs at U.S. universities has focused on undergraduate students (Benton, Robertson, Tseng, Newton, & Benton, 2003) and not on those individuals in graduate school. Attending graduate school is a huge commitment that demands much of the students time and energy in successfully managing a challenging academic workload (Lawson & Fuehrer, 2001). Using the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping as the theoretical framework, this study documented the self-reported stress of MSW students using the Perceived Stress Scale. The Brief COPE measured students evaluation of the stressfulness of situations in the past month of their lives and what
Can emotional stress trigger Parkinsons disease (PD)? This idea is compelling but not new. More than 100 years ago, Gowers wrote that prolonged anxiety and emotional shock are the most common antecedents of Parkinsons disease and advised his patients to refrain from all causes of mental strain and of physical exhaustion. Extreme psychological stress, such as the holocaust, has been associated with PD1 and in some studies ex-prisoners of war had a significantly higher incidence of developing PD several decades after their release.2 More recently, several authors have speculated about the role of emotional stress in PD.3-5. Here, we hypothesise that chronic stress can cause nigrostriatal degeneration in susceptible individuals, who have impairment in stress coping mechanisms. Further, we speculate that the non-motor symptoms in the prodromal phase of PD resemble those seen in patients with functional somatic syndromes. We emphasise that we are putting forward a theory for consideration and ...
Stress is an important causative factor in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).. It remains unknown whether stress-related changes in gut function are mediated by altered autonomic efferent gut-specific innervation.. Dr Murray and colleagues from Middlesex in England studied the effect of acute physical and psychological stress on autonomic innervation and visceral sensitivity in healthy volunteers and patients with IBS.. The researchers included a total of 24 patients (20 women) with constipation-predominant IBS and 12 healthy volunteers (8 women).. Participants underwent either physical (cold water hand immersion) or psychological (dichotomous listening) stress on separate occasions.. Assessments included stress perception (visual analogue scale), gut-specific autonomic innervation (rectal mucosal blood flow [RMBF] by laser Doppler flowmetry), and viscerosomatic sensitivity (anal and rectal electrosensitivity).. ...
Description: A model of social stressor variables, social integration variables and demographic control variables was tested to assess their impact on alcohol use among the elderly. A secondary analysis of a survey on alcohol use among the elderly in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, was conducted to test the major hypotheses of the study. Contingency table analysis, using gamma and partial gamma as correlation coefficients, was utilized in the data analysis. The first hypothesis, in regard to the positive relationship of social stressors with alcohol use, was confirmed. The best predictors of alcohol use among the social stressor variables were usual occupation, length of retirement, annual income, and subjective health status. The second hypothesis, that the social integration variables would be negatively related to alcohol use, received only moderate support. The results of the analysis indicated that six of the ten social integration variables were negatively related to alcohol use. Only three of ...
Psychological stress has long been associated with negative cardiovascular outcomes. Potential mechanisms include the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and/or the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increased inflammation. However, how psychological stress influences specific immune responses and cardiovascular disease (CVD) state remains elusive. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic condition caused by a mutation of the ß-globin gene that causes morphological deformation of red blood cells (RBC) to a sickle shape. Patients with SCD are sensitive to stress and experience acute vaso-occlusive episodes (VOE) with an inflammatory component that can result in vital organ damage. Importantly, the mechanistic link between psychological stress, inflammation, and VOE remains to be understood.. Xu et. al. used a SCD mouse model and observed the existence of specific brain-vascular stress signals in CVD. The authors experimentally showed that psychological stress enhanced the ...
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animals emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities. Half of the animals, slaughtered in the same batch, were used for a complete study of biomarkers of stress, including brain neurotransmitters and some muscle biomarkers of oxidative stress. After slaughter, specific brain areas were excised and the levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA)) and indoleamines (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and serotonin (5HT)) were analyzed. In addition, muscle proteasome ...
The general aim of the current study was to investigate how perceived health risk of a chemical exposure and self-reported distress are related to perceived odor intensity and odor valence, symptoms, cognitive performance over time as well as reactions to blank exposure. Based on ratings of general distress, 20 participants constituted a relatively low distress group, and 20 other participants a relatively high distress group. Health risk perception was manipulated by providing positively and negatively biased information regarding n-butanol. Participants made repeated ratings of intensity, valence and symptoms and performed cognitive tasks while exposed to 4.7 ppm n-butanol for 60 min (first 10 min were blank exposure) inside an exposure chamber. Ratings by the positive and negative bias groups suggest that the manipulation influenced perceived health risk of the exposure. The high distress group did not habituate to the exposure in terms of intensity when receiving negative information, but ...
When it comes to weight gain for women, childhood stress appears to be a bigger culprit than stress during adulthood, finds a national study led by an MSU sociologist. Interestingly, though, neither childhood nor adult stress was associated with weight gain for men.
Prenatal stress could have great influence on development of offspring and might alter cognitive function and other physiological processes of children. The current study was conducted to study the effect of physical or psychological prenatal stress on addictive and anxiety-like behavior of male and female offspring during their adolescence period (postnatal day (PND) 40). Adult female rats were exposed to physical (swimming) or psychological (observing another female rat swimming) stress from day six of gestation for 10 days. Male and female offspring were assayed for anxiety-like behavior, motor and balance function and morphine conditioned place preference using the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), rotarod and wire grip assay and conditioned place preference. Offspring in both physical and psychological prenatal stress groups demonstrated significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in EPM paradigm, but no alterations were observed in motor and balance function of animals. Offspring in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Psychological stress and oxidative damage in lymphocytes of aerobically fit and unfit individuals. AU - Flint, Melanie. AU - Kelly Z., Knickelbein. AU - Jenkins, Frank J.. AU - Baum, A.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 1. EP - 19. JO - Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research. JF - Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research. SN - 1071-2089. IS - 1. ER - ...
The human brain undergoes rapid development from late gestation to early childhood. The brain structures that are developing or undergoing age-related changes are more vulnerable to the effects of stress. Trauma at different time points in an individuals life might be associated with different outcomes, depending on the brain structure that was affected at the time of exposure to adversity.. The hippocampus, the amygdala and the frontal lobes of the brain are responsible for development of cognitive and emotional functions. Repeated exposure to stress triggers the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in production of glucocorticoids by the adrenal gland. Glucocorticoids are essential for normal brain maturation and its receptors are expressed throughout the brain. Skewed levels of glucocorticoid impair maturation and survival of different brain cells. Hence, expression of glucocorticoids can have long lasting effects on the regions of the brain that regulate ...
Kiecolt-Glaser et al. (1984). Kiecolt-Glaser has been particularly interested in naturalistic life stressors and their impact on measures of immune function. In this study her group used 75 medical students preparing for final examinations. As an index of immune function they used natural killer (NK) cell activity, part of our natural immunity system.. Measures of NK cell activity were recorded from blood smaples taken one month before exams (low stress) and during the exam period (high stress). Participants also completed questionnaires on experience of negative life events and social isolation. Findings were that NK cell activity was significantly reduced in the high stress samples, compared to the low stress samples. In addition, the greatest reductions were in students reporting higher levels of social isolation.. Kiecolt-Glaser et al concluded that examination stress (a brief naturalistic stressor in Segerstom and Millers approach) reduces immune function, making people potentially more ...