Background. Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are confined mainly to a few sero-groups. Capsular transformation may serve as a mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance to new serotypes. Methods. Antibiogram and molecular typing, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were performed on 46 nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid (MEF) isolates expressing serotype 11A, 45 MEF isolates expressing serotype 15B/C (recovered during 1998-2003 from Israeli children ...
Gene target information for rpmG - 50S ribosomal protein L33 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for rpsT - 30S ribosomal protein S20 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a child-care center. AU - Boken, Daniel J.. AU - Chartrand, Stephen A.. AU - Goering, Richard V.. AU - Kruger, Robert. AU - Harrison, Christopher J.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. N2 - We obtained nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae from 54 children ages 2 to 24 months attending an Omaha child-care center (CCC) in April 1994. Thirty-two (59%) of the 54 children were colonized with S. pneumoniae belonging to serotypes 23, 19, 6 and 11. Seventeen (53%) of the pneumococcal isolates were highly resistant to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration ≥2.0 mUg/ml; HR-SP) and 7 (22%) were intermediately resistant to penicillin (0.12 ≤minimal inhibitory concentration ≤ 1.0 mUg/ml; IR-SP). Within each pneumococcal capsular serotype, there were 1 to 3 DNA subtypes based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis. A single pulsed field gel electrophoresis strain predominated in most CCC rooms, ...
The pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is a surface-exposed protein of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It belongs to a group of proteins designated the lipoprotein receptor I antigen family. The gene encoding PsaA from an encapsulated strain of pneumococcal serotype 6B was cloned and sequenced. The peptide sequence was compared to that of homologs found in S. pneumoniae serotype 2, viridans streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. Identity values among the deduced peptides ranged from 57 to 98%. The polymorphism of psaA was examined among the 23 encapsulated vaccine serotypes by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Ten different enzymes were used to analyze 80 strains representing the 23 serotypes in a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. This analysis showed that restriction sites within the gene were highly conserved, with only a minor variation occurring in 10% of the strains, the result of an additional Tsp509I site. The lack of variation for the ...
Few data exist on the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in many countries and in non-invasive disease overall. Here, data are presented from 772 paediatric isolates from children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections isolated from the PROTEKT global surveillance study during 1999-2000. Overall, 60.0 % of isolates were covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine formulation (PCV7), with greater coverage in the USA compared with Europe (69.6 vs 55.5 %, P = 0.014). Geographically dispersed clones of serogroups 3, 11 and 15 accounted for most of the isolates outside PCV7 coverage. Overall, macrolide, penicillin and cotrimoxazole non-susceptibility rates were high; however, all isolates were susceptible to telithromycin. Although only 7.4 % of isolates were resistant to amoxycillin/clavulanate, a higher prevalence of resistance was found in isolates from the USA and South Korea. This study shows the feasibility and importance of serotyping antibiotic surveillance study
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... Summary Global Markets Directs, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 - Market research report and industry analysis - 9643878
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mevalonate analogues as substrates of enzymes in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway of Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kudoh, Takashi. AU - Park, Chan Sun. AU - Lefurgy, Scott T.. AU - Sun, Meihao. AU - Michels, Theodore. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Silverman, Richard B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (1). In 2000, the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. childhood vaccine schedule, followed by the PCV13 in 2010 (2). Conjugate vaccines were shown to be immunogenic and prevented pneumococcal disease in children and even in immunocompromised patients (3). However, it has been known that vaccine use modifies the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and colonization, and investigations have documented increases in the rates of carriage and infections caused by non-PCV7 and later non-PCV13 serotypes (1, 4-6).. Recently, the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered in the United States (2011-2012) was investigated (7). Serotypes 19A, 3, and 35B were found to be the most prevalent serotypes among S. pneumoniae recovered ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
Genom Data. 2017 Feb 27;12:38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.gdata.2017.02.013. eCollection 2017.. Impact of aspirin on the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.. Afzal M1, Shafeeq S2.. Author information. Abstract. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a medicine used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Here, we for the very first time reported the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of aspirin-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of 5 mM aspirin in chemically-defined medium (CDM) using microarray analysis. Our results showed that expression of several genes was differentially expressed in the presence of aspirin. These genes were further grouped into COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups) functional categories based on the putative functions of the corresponding proteins. Most of affected genes belong to COG category E (Amino acid transport and metabolism), G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), J (Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis), and I (Lipid ...
Abstract(#br) Background(#br) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 is among the most common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in The Gambia. We anticipate that introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) into routine vaccination in The Gambia will reduce serotype 5 IPD. However, the emergence of new clones that have altered their genetic repertoire through capsular switching or genetic recombination after vaccination with PCV-13 poses a threat to this public health effort. In order to monitor for potential genetic changes post-PCV-13 vaccination, we established the baseline population structure, epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns of serotype 5 before the introduction of PCV-13.(#br) Methods(#br)Fifty-five invasive S. pneumoniae... serotype 5 isolates were recovered from January 2009 to August 2011 in a population-based study in the Upper River Region of The Gambia. Serotyping was done by latex agglutination and confirmed by ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections among children in India. India introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in several states in 2017, and is expected to expand to nationwide coverage in the near future. To establish a baseline for measuring the impact of PCV in India, we assessed overall and serotype-specific nasopharyngeal carriage in two pediatric populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Palwal District, Haryana, from December 2016 to July 2017, prior to vaccine introduction. Children 2-59 months of age with clinical pneumonia seeking healthcare and those in the community with no clear illness were targeted for enrollment. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected and tested for pneumococcus using conventional culture and sequential multiplex PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance using an E test. Children were considered colonized if pneumococcus was isolated by culture or PCR. The prevalence of
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases ...
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 12;16(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1335-3.. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation in children and adolescents with asthma: impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and evaluation of potential effect of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.. Esposito S1, Terranova L2, Patria MF3, Marseglia GL4, Miraglia Del Giudice M5, Bodini A6, Martelli A7, Baraldi E8, Mazzina O9, Tagliabue C10, Licari A11, Ierardi V12, Lelii M13, Principi N14.. Author information. Abstract. BACKGROUND:. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a group of school-aged children and adolescents with asthma because these results might indicate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of such patients and the potential protective efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).. METHODS:. Oropharyngeal samples were obtained from 423 children with documented asthma (300 males, 70.9 %), and tested for the ...
Neutrophils, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, comprise a crucial component of innate immunity, controlling bacterial and fungal infection through a combination of both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Indeed, neutrophils are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the method by which neutrophils kill the pneumococcus as well as other Gram-positive bacteria, is not fully understood. We investigated human neutrophil killing of the pneumococcus in a complement-dependent opsonophagocytic assay. In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae. Supernatant from degranulated neutrophils killed the pneumococcus, suggesting a role for granular products. When neutrophil granule proteases were inhibited with either a protease mixture, or specific serine protease inhibitors 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, ...
Abstract. A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S.
We monitored the timing of acquisition of nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 125 healthy infants during their first 2 years of life. S. pneumoniae was isolated at least once from 59 (47%) of 125 infants aged between 2 and 18 months. Twenty-four infants (19%) were colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae at some time during the study. During the course of this investigation, we identified sequential pneumococcal isolates of the same serotype from 5 infants, in which the penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increased over time. For 4 of the 5 infants, sequential isolates were identical, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequential S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates from some healthy infants demonstrated drift in penicillin MIC values over time, from penicillin-susceptible to penicillin-resistant.. ...
A novel form of phosphocholine (PC), p-nitrophenyl-6-(O-phosphocholine)hydroxyhexanoate (EPC) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has been compared with unencapsulated, avirulent Streptococcus pneumoniae (R36a) and with the traditional thymus-dependent form of PC, diazophenylphosphocholine (DPPC)-conjugated KLH for its vaccine potential against virulent S. pneumoniae. Immunization with any of these three PC-containing Ags protects normal mice against a lethal challenge with 10(4) S. pneumoniae, whereas only EPC-KLH provides total protection to Xid mice. DPPC-KLH and unencapsulated S. pneumoniae confer less than 40% protection in Xid mice. Passive transfer of a PC-specific hybridoma Ab made from EPC-KLH-immunized Xid mice also provided protection against lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Protective anti-PC Ab were capable of binding to the surface of virulent bacteria, whereas anti-PC Ab incapable of binding to the bacterial surface failed to protect. Furthermore, serum Ab from EPC-KLH ...
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its impact on the outcome among hospitalized patients of pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community. Consecutive patients with culture-proven pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively studied with regard to the...
Process for producing purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate and process for manufacturing a pneumococcal vaccine. An abbreviated process for producing a solution containing substantially purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate broth is described. ultrafiltration and diafiltration of s. clarified pneumoniae followed by adjusting the ph to less than 4.5, preferably about 3.5, precipitating at least 98% of the protein in the solution without seriously affecting the polysaccharide yield. In addition, following ultrafiltration, diafiltration and acidification at a pH of less than 4.5, activated carbon filtration precipitates at least 90% of the remainder of the protein, without seriously affecting polysaccharide yield. exemplarily, the serotypes of s. Non-limiting pneumoniae which may be purified using the abbreviated process of the invention are 1, 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7f, 9v, 14, 18c, 19a, 19f and 23f. in one embodiment,
The bacterial chromosome is compacted in a manner optimal for DNA transactions to occur. The degree of compaction results from the level of DNA-supercoiling and the presence of nucleoid-binding proteins. DNA-supercoiling is homeostatically maintained by the opposing activities of relaxing DNA topoisomerases and negative supercoil-inducing DNA gyrase. DNA-supercoiling acts as a general cis regulator of transcription, which can be superimposed upon other types of more specific trans regulatory mechanism. Transcriptomic studies on the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has a relatively small genome (~2 Mb) and few nucleoid-binding proteins, have been performed under conditions of local and global changes in supercoiling. The response to local changes induced by fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which target DNA gyrase subunit A and/or topoisomerase IV, involves an increase in oxygen radicals which reduces cell viability, while the induction of global supercoiling changes by novobiocin (a DNA gyrase
We have analyzed by gene amplification and sequencing mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants obtained during therapy or in vitro. Mutations leading to substitutions in ParC were detected in the two mutants obtained in vivo, BM4203-R (substitution of a histidine for an aspartate at position 84 [Asp-84--,His]; Staphylococcus aureus coordinates) and BM4204-R (Ser-80--,Phe), and in two mutants obtained in vitro (Ser-80--,Tyr). An additional mutant obtained in vitro, BM4205-R3, displayed a higher level of fluoroquinolone resistance and had a mutation in gyrA leading to a Ser-84--,Phe change. We could not detect any mutation in the three remaining mutants obtained in vitro. Total DNA from BM4203-R, BM4204-R, and BM4205-R3 was used to transform S. pneumoniae CP1000 by selection on fluoroquinolones. For the parC mutants, transformants with phenotypes indistinguishable from those of the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococci isolated at 14 different centers in Turkey between January 2011-April 2012. Totally 79 clinical isolates from invasive infections were investigated, which were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (33, 42%), blood (31, 39%) and the other sterile body fluids (15, 19%). Susceptibility to penicillin, cefotaxime and erythromycin was determined by E-test (bioMerieux, France) according to CLSI standards. Latex agglutination method was used for determination of serogroups. Serotypes were determined by the capsular swelling (Quellung reaction) method (Denmark, Statens Serum Institute). It was found that most common serotypes among 79 strains were 19 F (12, 15%), 6 A (7, 9%), 23 F (5, 6%), 6 B (4, 5%), 19 A (4, 5%) and 3 (4, 5%). For all invasive pneumococcal diseases, during the first 2 years of age, the potential coverage rates ...
Knowledge of co-colonization with multiple pneumococcal serotypes is becoming very important in the light of both serotype replacement and switching as a result of vaccination. Co-colonization has been reported to occur in up to 30 % of carriers, especially in populations with high Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage rates. For the determination of co-colonization, single colonies of nasopharyngeal specimens are serotyped with the Quellung method, a costly method with a low sensitivity. Here we explore the use of a multiplex PCR to identify simultaneous carriage of the capsular serotypes targeted by the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. We applied this multiplex PCR to 50 primary cultures from the nasopharyngeal swabs of healthy Warao Amerindian children, a population with a high pneumococcal carriage rate, most of them with vaccine serotypes, and we identified a second serotype in 20 % (n=10) of the pneumococci carriers. These results were confirmed by detailed serotyping of multiple colonies isolated from the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae and atypical bacterial infections in children 2-5 years of age with community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Esposito, Susanna. AU - Bosis, Samantha. AU - Cavagna, Roberta. AU - Faelli, Nadia. AU - Begliatti, Enrica. AU - Marchisio, Paola. AU - Blasi, Francesco. AU - Bianchi, Ciro. AU - Principi, Nicola. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were compared with those associated with atypical bacterial infection and with mixed S. pneumoniae-atypical bacterial infection in 196 children aged 2-5 years. S. pneumoniae infections were diagnosed in 48 patients (24.5%); atypical bacterial infections, in 46 (23.5%); and mixed infections, in 16 (8.2%). Although white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in patients with pneumococcal infections, no other clinical, laboratory, or radiographic characteristic was significantly ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with high morbidity in children, especially when related with the respiratory tract and otitis infections. The most severe complication of pneumococcal infection is invasive pneumococcal disease, including sepsis or meningitis. Although these forms of pneumococcal infection are relatively infrequent, in the neonatal period they are related with high morbidity and mortality.. Diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia typically relies on performing a blood culture, which is followed by gram staining, subculturing on sheep blood agar, and biochemical tests such as the bile solubility and the optochin susceptibility tests. The detection of pneumococcus may, however, take up to three days using the conventional methods. Furthermore, S. pneumoniae has a strong tendency of autolysis, which may significantly delay or hamper the diagnosis. Additionally, issues remain in the differentiation between S. pneumoniae and the closely related viridans species. GenomEra® S. ...
The relative invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children after PCV introduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Few epidemiological data are available since the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy Italian infants and young children and to evaluate the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal colonization. In the trimester September-December 2011 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy children aged 3-59 months presenting for routine well careat 16 primary care pediatricians in Milan.SP carriage isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial resistance using EUCAST breakpoints. Among 1250 enrolled children, 618 had received at least 1 dose of PCV13, 292 at least 1 dose of PCV7, 94 a combination of the two vaccines and 246 were not vaccinated. The prevalence of SP carriage was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25-30).At multivariable analysis, age. ≥. 25 months (prevalence ratio [PR]. = 0.74) and use of antibiotics in the previous 3 months ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14兔多克隆抗体(ab79528)经Agg实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is important in resistance to various microorganisms and provides signals to the target cells through two different receptors, TNF-α receptor I (TNFRI) (p55 receptor) and TNFRII (p75 receptor). To delineate the significance of the two different signaling pathways in resisting infections with extracellular bacteria, we examined the resistance of mice to Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotype 6B). TNF-α needs to be present early in infections, since one injection of wild-type mice with anti-TNF-α leads to an increased susceptibility of these mice to S. pneumoniae. TNF-α signaling through the p55 receptor (but not the p75 receptor) is crucial in resisting S. pneumoniae infections, because intraperitoneal injection of 100 CFU/mouse killed p55-deficient mice by day 2 of infection, whereas 1,000,000 CFU/mouse was needed to kill half of the control mice. p55-deficient mice do not show evidence of a deficient acute- phase response. All three types of mice (p55 ...
Background: To date, more than 90 Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) capsular serotypes are known. The prevalence of these serotypes varies according to the geographical area and the regional vaccination program. Due to the lack of regular vaccination programs for S. pneumoniae in developing countries, serotyping of the prevalent isolates is useful in selecting the correct vaccine. The present study aimed to evaluate common serotypes of pneumococcal meningitis in Bojnurd, Iran.Methods: All cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) samples suspected for bacterial meningitis were analyzed. The samples were collected during 2014-2018 in the Laboratory of Imam Reza Hospital (Bojnurd, Iran). Due to the high rate of false-negative cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of lytA and psaA genes of S. pneumoniae. In addition, the modified Marimons PCR method was used for serotyping the bacteria. The data were analyzed using Pearsons Chi-square test. Results: Out of the 901 CSF samples, 106
Objective To determine the penicillin resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and to identify clonal relationships of isolates resistant to penicillin by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC ® 700669D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Streptococcus pneumoniae strain Spain 23F-1 TypeStrain=False Application:
Definition of quellung reaction in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of quellung reaction. What does quellung reaction mean? Information and translations of quellung reaction in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media, as well as an important cause of sinusitis, septic arthritis, osteomy...
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Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumonococcus), a cause of pneumonia in humans. The spherical bacteria secrete a viscous material to form a capsule around their cell wall. The role of the capsule is uncertain, but is associated with virulence in pathogenic organisms. It gives the bacteria protection against the immune system of an invaded host (animal or human). Capsulated organisms resist phagocytosis (engulfing) by scavenging macrophages and continue to multiply. Magnification: x6000 at 35mm size, x12,000 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B236/0037
2GUP: Structural Genomics, the crystal structure of a ROK family protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 in complex with sucrose
Despite good access to antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. S. pneumoniae causes several acute, invasive and noninvasive clinical infections; it is one of the leading causative agents in COPD exacerbations; and it is the most frequently detected pathogen responsible for community- acquired pneumonia (CAP). Pneumococcal pneumonia is accompanied by bacteraemia (bacteria in the blood) in 10-30% of cases.. S. pneumoniae is gaining resistance to the in vitro activity of several antimicrobial agents and, even if questions remain regarding the clinical impact of this phenomenon, increasing numbers of reports indicate that antibiotic resistance can lead to more treatment failures, if not higher mortality.. Reported incidence rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in European and US studies indicate an overall incidence of 11-23.2 per 100 000 people, rising to 16.2-59.7 per 100 000 in adults over 65 years of age. The studies in question were ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), otherwise known as the pneumococcus, is a fascinating microbe that continues to pose a significant problem to public health. Currently there are no specific National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or British Thoracic Society (BTS) clinical guidelines referring to the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infection. NICE clinical guidelines suggest the use of lytic β-lactam antibiotic regimens for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis; infections for which S. pneumoniae is a likely causative organism. Lytic antibiotics have been shown to increase the release of pneumolysin (the highly inflammatory and damaging toxin of the pneumococcus), thus theoretically increasing host damage, which may lead to a decline of clinical outcomes in vulnerable patients. In light of this information, should the use of non-lytic antibiotics, such as quinolones, rifamycins and macrolides, be considered for the treatment of invasive
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global phylogenomic analysis of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages. AU - Hilty, Markus. AU - Wüthrich, Daniel. AU - Salter, Susannah J.. AU - Engel, Hansjürg. AU - Campbell, Samuel. AU - Sá-Leão, Raquel. AU - De Lencastre, Hermínia. AU - Hermans, Peter. AU - Sadowy, Ewa. AU - Turner, Paul. AU - Chewapreecha, Claire. AU - Diggle, Mathew. AU - Pluschke, Gerd. AU - McGee, Lesley. AU - Eser, Özgen Köseoʇlu. AU - Low, Donald E.. AU - Smith-Vaughan, Heidi. AU - Endimiani, Andrea. AU - Ffer, Marianne Kü. AU - Dupasquier, Mélanie. AU - Beaudoing, Emmanuel. AU - Weber, Johann. AU - Bruggmann, Rémy. AU - Hanage, William P.. AU - Parkhill, Julian. AU - Hathaway, Lucy J.. AU - Hlemann, Kathrin Mü. AU - Bentley, Stephen D.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal ...
Using data from an ongoing Swedish intervention project, the observed durations of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP) (MIC of penicillin G of ,= 0.5 mu g/ml) stratified by both pneumococcal serogroup and age of the carrier were compared. The means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting a gamma distribution to the observed duration of carriage for each age and serogroup stratum. The mean observed duration of carriage for all cases was 37 days (95% CI, 35 to 38 days). Children below the age of 5 years carried PNSP for significantly longer periods (43 days; 95% CI, 41 to 45 days) compared with older individuals (25 days; 95% CI, 24 to 27 days). There were also differences within the group of cases below the age of 5 years, as the duration of carriage became significantly shorter for each increasing age step: , 1, 1 to 2, and 3 to 4 years. In addition, patients , 5 years of age carried serogroups 9 and 14 for significantly ...
Taiwan has one of the highest levels of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcus in the world. Pneumococcal isolates not susceptible to penicillin first appeared in Taiwan in 1986; in 1995 an increase in the prevalence of nonsusceptibility to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides as well as multidrug resistance began to be recognized. With the persistence of antibiotic selective pressure, resistance in some antibiotics reached a high plateau (beta-lactam antibiotics) or continued to increase (macrolides), while novel resistance (fluoroquinolones) emerged in the last 3 years. Widespread distribution of some novel resistant 23F and 19F clones (and the international epidemic of 23F clones) contributes further to the rapid increase of resistance. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections and meningitis in adults and children, antibiotic-resistance in this organism is a serious ...