Background. Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are confined mainly to a few sero-groups. Capsular transformation may serve as a mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance to new serotypes. Methods. Antibiogram and molecular typing, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were performed on 46 nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid (MEF) isolates expressing serotype 11A, 45 MEF isolates expressing serotype 15B/C (recovered during 1998-2003 from Israeli children ...
Gene target information for rpmG - 50S ribosomal protein L33 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for rpsT - 30S ribosomal protein S20 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence, determinants, and molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates colonizing the nasopharynx of healthy children in Rome. AU - Petrosillo, N.. AU - Pantosti, A.. AU - Bordi, E.. AU - Spanó, A.. AU - Del Grosso, M.. AU - Tallarida, B.. AU - Ippolito, G.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine the factors favouring Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization of healthy children attending daycare centres and to describe the circulation of penicillin-nonsusceptible strains using molecular techniques. A single nasopharyngeal swab was obtained from 610 children attending daycare centres in the southeast area of Rome. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped, and antibiotic susceptibility was assayed by the E test. The genetic determinants of erythromycin resistance were detected by a duplex polymerase chain reaction, and the penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The overall ...
Rapid and sensitive detection of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal isolates is very critical in the treatment of various pneumococcal diseases, especially pneumococcal meningitis. Direct detection of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal isolates from clinical specimens without conventional culture methods could make targeted antimicrobial treatment against antibiotic-resistant pneumococci possible from the start of therapy.. On the basis of the pbp2b sequences determined in this study and retrieved from a public database (GenBank), we developed a multiplex PCR method to detect penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates. Two forward primers (149-F1, 5′-TTA TGC AGT TGC TTT GAA T-3′; 155-F2, 5′-AAC CCW AAR ACA GGT GCT-3′; nucleotides 447 to 465 and 463 to 480 in R6, respectively) and one reverse primer (322-R, 5′-GTT ATC AAA CTG CCC AAA GGC-3′; nucleotides 963 to 984 in R6) were used in the multiplex PCR. Primer 149-F1 is specific for group II isolates, while primer 155-F2 corresponds to ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children and the elderly. The ability to effectively treat pneumococcal infection has been compromised due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, particularly to β-lactam drugs. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco. Isolates were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Ibn Rochd University Hospital Centre of Casablanca. Serogrouping was done by Pneumotest Kit and serotyping by the Quellung capsular swelling. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disk diffusion and E-test methods. The PNSP were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by genotyping of pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x genes. A total of 361 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 2007
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a child-care center. AU - Boken, Daniel J.. AU - Chartrand, Stephen A.. AU - Goering, Richard V.. AU - Kruger, Robert. AU - Harrison, Christopher J.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. N2 - We obtained nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae from 54 children ages 2 to 24 months attending an Omaha child-care center (CCC) in April 1994. Thirty-two (59%) of the 54 children were colonized with S. pneumoniae belonging to serotypes 23, 19, 6 and 11. Seventeen (53%) of the pneumococcal isolates were highly resistant to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration ≥2.0 mUg/ml; HR-SP) and 7 (22%) were intermediately resistant to penicillin (0.12 ≤minimal inhibitory concentration ≤ 1.0 mUg/ml; IR-SP). Within each pneumococcal capsular serotype, there were 1 to 3 DNA subtypes based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis. A single pulsed field gel electrophoresis strain predominated in most CCC rooms, ...
BACKGROUND: In April 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 for use in the United States. We evaluated rates of pneumococcal colonization, by serotype and antibiotic resistance, in Massachusetts communities where serial cross-sectional surveillance has been conducted for the past decade.. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from children 0 to ,7 years of age and seen by primary care providers for well child or acute illness visits in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2011. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by Quellung reaction and classified as PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F), additional PCV13 serotypes (1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A), or non-PCV13 serotypes. Changes in colonization and impact of PCV13 were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for known risk factors and accounting for clustering by community.. RESULTS: Introduction of PCV13 did not affect the rate of overall pneumococcal colonization (31% in 2011). Colonization with ...
The pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is a surface-exposed protein of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It belongs to a group of proteins designated the lipoprotein receptor I antigen family. The gene encoding PsaA from an encapsulated strain of pneumococcal serotype 6B was cloned and sequenced. The peptide sequence was compared to that of homologs found in S. pneumoniae serotype 2, viridans streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. Identity values among the deduced peptides ranged from 57 to 98%. The polymorphism of psaA was examined among the 23 encapsulated vaccine serotypes by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Ten different enzymes were used to analyze 80 strains representing the 23 serotypes in a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. This analysis showed that restriction sites within the gene were highly conserved, with only a minor variation occurring in 10% of the strains, the result of an additional Tsp509I site. The lack of variation for the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Possible overestimation of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization rates due to misidentification of oropharyngeal streptococci. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Few data exist on the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in many countries and in non-invasive disease overall. Here, data are presented from 772 paediatric isolates from children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections isolated from the PROTEKT global surveillance study during 1999-2000. Overall, 60.0 % of isolates were covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine formulation (PCV7), with greater coverage in the USA compared with Europe (69.6 vs 55.5 %, P = 0.014). Geographically dispersed clones of serogroups 3, 11 and 15 accounted for most of the isolates outside PCV7 coverage. Overall, macrolide, penicillin and cotrimoxazole non-susceptibility rates were high; however, all isolates were susceptible to telithromycin. Although only 7.4 % of isolates were resistant to amoxycillin/clavulanate, a higher prevalence of resistance was found in isolates from the USA and South Korea. This study shows the feasibility and importance of serotyping antibiotic surveillance study
We investigated changes in serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities among 386 isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from numerous hospitals in Korea from 1996 to 2008. Serotypes 19F (9.8 %), 23F (8.3 %), 19A (7.8 %), 6A (7.5 %), 3 (7.3 %), 9V (6.5 %), 6B (6.2 %), 14 (4.9 %), 1 (3.9 %), 11A (3.9 %) and 4 (3.1 %) represented 69.2 % of all isolates. While the overall proportion of PCV7 serotypes was stable over time, we observed modest decreases in children <5 years old and in adults ≥65 years old between 1996-1999 and 2007-2008. An increased prevalence of non-PCV7 serotypes in these age groups was primarily attributable to an increase in serotypes 3, 6A and 19A. Most invasive S. pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance rates to erythromycin (74.9 %), tetracycline (71.1 %) and clindamycin (61.7 %). Between 1996-2003 and 2004-2008, non-susceptibility rates to cefotaxime and multi-drugs (three or more classes) in PCV7 serotypes showed a declining trend, while in non-PCV7
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mevalonate analogues as substrates of enzymes in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway of Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kudoh, Takashi. AU - Park, Chan Sun. AU - Lefurgy, Scott T.. AU - Sun, Meihao. AU - Michels, Theodore. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Silverman, Richard B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and ...
Additional file 1: of Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes among children in India prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a cross-sectional study
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the competence regulator gene target comX. AU - Habets, M.N.. AU - Cremers, A.J.. AU - Bos, M.P.. AU - Savelkoul, Paul H.. AU - Eleveld, M.J.. AU - Meis, J.F.. AU - Hermans, P.W.. AU - Melchers, W.J.. AU - de Jonge, M.I.. AU - Diavatopoulos, D.A.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for an estimated 1.6 million deaths worldwide every year. While rapid detection and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics is preferred, this is often difficult due to the amount of time that detection with blood cultures takes. In this study, a novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae was developed. To identify novel targets, we analysed the pneumococcal genome for unique, repetitive DNA sequences. This approach identified comX, which is conserved and present in duplicate copies in Streptococcus pneumoniae but not in other bacterial species. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (1). In 2000, the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. childhood vaccine schedule, followed by the PCV13 in 2010 (2). Conjugate vaccines were shown to be immunogenic and prevented pneumococcal disease in children and even in immunocompromised patients (3). However, it has been known that vaccine use modifies the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and colonization, and investigations have documented increases in the rates of carriage and infections caused by non-PCV7 and later non-PCV13 serotypes (1, 4-6).. Recently, the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered in the United States (2011-2012) was investigated (7). Serotypes 19A, 3, and 35B were found to be the most prevalent serotypes among S. pneumoniae recovered ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activities of cethromycin (ABT-773), a new ketolide, against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that are not susceptible to penicillin or macrolides. AU - Mason, Edward O.. AU - Lamberth, Linda B.. AU - Wald, Ellen R.. AU - Bradley, John S.. AU - Barson, William J.. AU - Kaplan, Sheldon L.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Pneumococcal resistance to antimicrobials presents problems to physicians for empirical treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Three hundred thirty-three isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae selected for nonsusceptibility to penicillin (MIC ,0.1 μg/ml) from the middle ear (n = 325) or mastoid (n = 8) of children seen between 1994 and 2000 at four childrens hospitals in the United States were tested by broth microdilution for susceptibility to nine antibiotics. Using NCCLS 2002 breakpoints, resistance to the following drugs was as indicated: amoxicillin, 1%; azithromycin, 71%; cefprozil, 71%; ceftriaxone, 2%; cefdinir, 98%; erythromycin, 70%; ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
Genom Data. 2017 Feb 27;12:38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.gdata.2017.02.013. eCollection 2017.. Impact of aspirin on the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.. Afzal M1, Shafeeq S2.. Author information. Abstract. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a medicine used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Here, we for the very first time reported the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of aspirin-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of 5 mM aspirin in chemically-defined medium (CDM) using microarray analysis. Our results showed that expression of several genes was differentially expressed in the presence of aspirin. These genes were further grouped into COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups) functional categories based on the putative functions of the corresponding proteins. Most of affected genes belong to COG category E (Amino acid transport and metabolism), G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), J (Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis), and I (Lipid ...
Abstract(#br) Background(#br) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 is among the most common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in The Gambia. We anticipate that introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) into routine vaccination in The Gambia will reduce serotype 5 IPD. However, the emergence of new clones that have altered their genetic repertoire through capsular switching or genetic recombination after vaccination with PCV-13 poses a threat to this public health effort. In order to monitor for potential genetic changes post-PCV-13 vaccination, we established the baseline population structure, epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns of serotype 5 before the introduction of PCV-13.(#br) Methods(#br)Fifty-five invasive S. pneumoniae... serotype 5 isolates were recovered from January 2009 to August 2011 in a population-based study in the Upper River Region of The Gambia. Serotyping was done by latex agglutination and confirmed by ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections among children in India. India introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in several states in 2017, and is expected to expand to nationwide coverage in the near future. To establish a baseline for measuring the impact of PCV in India, we assessed overall and serotype-specific nasopharyngeal carriage in two pediatric populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Palwal District, Haryana, from December 2016 to July 2017, prior to vaccine introduction. Children 2-59 months of age with clinical pneumonia seeking healthcare and those in the community with no clear illness were targeted for enrollment. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected and tested for pneumococcus using conventional culture and sequential multiplex PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance using an E test. Children were considered colonized if pneumococcus was isolated by culture or PCR. The prevalence of
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases ...
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 12;16(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1335-3.. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation in children and adolescents with asthma: impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and evaluation of potential effect of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.. Esposito S1, Terranova L2, Patria MF3, Marseglia GL4, Miraglia Del Giudice M5, Bodini A6, Martelli A7, Baraldi E8, Mazzina O9, Tagliabue C10, Licari A11, Ierardi V12, Lelii M13, Principi N14.. Author information. Abstract. BACKGROUND:. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a group of school-aged children and adolescents with asthma because these results might indicate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of such patients and the potential protective efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).. METHODS:. Oropharyngeal samples were obtained from 423 children with documented asthma (300 males, 70.9 %), and tested for the ...
Neutrophils, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, comprise a crucial component of innate immunity, controlling bacterial and fungal infection through a combination of both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Indeed, neutrophils are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the method by which neutrophils kill the pneumococcus as well as other Gram-positive bacteria, is not fully understood. We investigated human neutrophil killing of the pneumococcus in a complement-dependent opsonophagocytic assay. In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae. Supernatant from degranulated neutrophils killed the pneumococcus, suggesting a role for granular products. When neutrophil granule proteases were inhibited with either a protease mixture, or specific serine protease inhibitors 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of nontypeable and atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae pediatric isolates from 1994 to 2010. AU - Ing, Jessica. AU - Mason, Edward. AU - Kaplan, Sheldon. AU - Lamberth, Linda B.. AU - Revell, Paula A.. AU - Luna, Ruth Ann. AU - Hulten, Kristina G.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and acute otitis media in children. Although optochin susceptibility, bile solubility, and Quellung testing are the standards for identifying and differentiating pneumococci, there are several reports of nontypeable pneumococci that give inconsistent results with one or more of these tests. We characterized 52 isolates previously labeled as nontypeable pneumococci. Microbiological methods included repeating the Quellung reaction using a new and expanded group of antisera, optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests, and automated Vitek 2 identification. Molecular methods included PCR detection ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an ...
Abstract. A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibacterial activity of a competence-stimulating peptide in experimental sepsis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Oggioni, Marco R.. AU - Iannelli, Francesco. AU - Ricci, Susanna. AU - Chiavolini, Damiana. AU - Parigi, Riccardo. AU - Trappetti, Claudia. AU - Claverys, Jean Pierre. AU - Pozzi, Gianni. PY - 2004/12/1. Y1 - 2004/12/1. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major cause of human disease, produces a 17-mer autoinducer peptide pheromone (competence-stimulating peptide [CSP]) for the control of competence for genetic transformation. Due to previous work linking CSP to stress phenotypes, we set up an in vivo sepsis model to assay its effect on virulence. Our data demonstrate a significant increase in the rates of survival of mice, reductions of blood S. pneumoniae counts, and prolonged times to death for mice treated with CSP. In vitro the dose of CSP used in the animal model produced a transitory inhibition of growth. When a mutant with a mutation in the CSP sensor ...
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a cell-surface protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae that is present on a number of clinical isolates as well as on the nonencapsulated laboratory strain Rx1. PspA was originally identified by monoclonal antibodies that can protect mice against intravenous challenge with some pneumococcal strains. A gene, pspA, required for the production of PspA was inactivated with use of insertional inactivation. By immunizing CBA/N (Xid) mice with congenic PspA+ and PspA- pneumococci, it was possible to demonstrate that PspA can elicit protective antipneumococcal antibodies. This result may be significant to future vaccine research, since Xid mice, like children, are not responsive to the present pneumococcal vaccine. When pspA was inactivated in three virulent, encapsulated strains of pneumococci, all three strains showed a reduction in virulence and two became totally avirulent: the 50% lethal dose was less than 10 colony-forming units (cfu) for the parents and ...
View supplemental data for amantadine - Comparative genomic analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates: Identification of genes contributing to invasive pneumococcal disease
We monitored the timing of acquisition of nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 125 healthy infants during their first 2 years of life. S. pneumoniae was isolated at least once from 59 (47%) of 125 infants aged between 2 and 18 months. Twenty-four infants (19%) were colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae at some time during the study. During the course of this investigation, we identified sequential pneumococcal isolates of the same serotype from 5 infants, in which the penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increased over time. For 4 of the 5 infants, sequential isolates were identical, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequential S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates from some healthy infants demonstrated drift in penicillin MIC values over time, from penicillin-susceptible to penicillin-resistant.. ...
A novel form of phosphocholine (PC), p-nitrophenyl-6-(O-phosphocholine)hydroxyhexanoate (EPC) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has been compared with unencapsulated, avirulent Streptococcus pneumoniae (R36a) and with the traditional thymus-dependent form of PC, diazophenylphosphocholine (DPPC)-conjugated KLH for its vaccine potential against virulent S. pneumoniae. Immunization with any of these three PC-containing Ags protects normal mice against a lethal challenge with 10(4) S. pneumoniae, whereas only EPC-KLH provides total protection to Xid mice. DPPC-KLH and unencapsulated S. pneumoniae confer less than 40% protection in Xid mice. Passive transfer of a PC-specific hybridoma Ab made from EPC-KLH-immunized Xid mice also provided protection against lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Protective anti-PC Ab were capable of binding to the surface of virulent bacteria, whereas anti-PC Ab incapable of binding to the bacterial surface failed to protect. Furthermore, serum Ab from EPC-KLH ...
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its impact on the outcome among hospitalized patients of pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community. Consecutive patients with culture-proven pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively studied with regard to the...
Process for producing purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate and process for manufacturing a pneumococcal vaccine. An abbreviated process for producing a solution containing substantially purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate broth is described. ultrafiltration and diafiltration of s. clarified pneumoniae followed by adjusting the ph to less than 4.5, preferably about 3.5, precipitating at least 98% of the protein in the solution without seriously affecting the polysaccharide yield. In addition, following ultrafiltration, diafiltration and acidification at a pH of less than 4.5, activated carbon filtration precipitates at least 90% of the remainder of the protein, without seriously affecting polysaccharide yield. exemplarily, the serotypes of s. Non-limiting pneumoniae which may be purified using the abbreviated process of the invention are 1, 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7f, 9v, 14, 18c, 19a, 19f and 23f. in one embodiment,
The bacterial chromosome is compacted in a manner optimal for DNA transactions to occur. The degree of compaction results from the level of DNA-supercoiling and the presence of nucleoid-binding proteins. DNA-supercoiling is homeostatically maintained by the opposing activities of relaxing DNA topoisomerases and negative supercoil-inducing DNA gyrase. DNA-supercoiling acts as a general cis regulator of transcription, which can be superimposed upon other types of more specific trans regulatory mechanism. Transcriptomic studies on the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has a relatively small genome (~2 Mb) and few nucleoid-binding proteins, have been performed under conditions of local and global changes in supercoiling. The response to local changes induced by fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which target DNA gyrase subunit A and/or topoisomerase IV, involves an increase in oxygen radicals which reduces cell viability, while the induction of global supercoiling changes by novobiocin (a DNA gyrase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children. AU - Dube, Felix S.. AU - Kaba, Mamadou. AU - Whittaker, Elizabeth. AU - Zar, Heather J.. AU - Nicol, Mark P.. PY - 2013/6/26. Y1 - 2013/6/26. N2 - Background:A better understanding of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to assess the impact of vaccination and the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. We compared the recovery of S. pneumoniae from nylon flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs.Methods:The recovery of S. pneumoniae from mocked specimens using flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs were compared by culture. The yield from paired nasopharyngeal (NP) samples obtained from healthy children sampled with flocked and Dacron swabs was also determined using culture and lytA-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Results:Using mock specimen, the percentage recovery of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (serotype 19F) strain from the flocked ...
Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen found among lung cancer patients that has shown increased resistance towards various antibiotics. Reports on bacterial colonization especially S. pneumoniae colonization in patients with lung cancer are scarce.The study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae isolated from lung cancer patients with pneumonia infection not undergoing any surgical procedure.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples for blood culture and PCR were collected from 152 lung cancer patients with pneumonia. Blood culture and BAL specimens were cultured to isolate S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration assay.Of the 152 blood samples, 85 (55.9%) samples from blood culture method and 97 (63.8%) samples from BAL specimens were positive for bacterial growth. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant organism
EMIROGLU, Melike et al. Recurrent meningitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a girl with cochlear implant and head trauma despite 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2019, vol.117, n.4, pp.e373-e376. ISSN 0325-0075. http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.e373.. Recurrent bacterial meningitis is a very rare phenomenon in children. Skull base fractures and cochlear implant are the important predisposing factors and, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated agent. Implementation of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) has reduced the occurence of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Vaccination breakthrough is typically related to underlying predisposing conditions. Herein, we reported recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a patient with a cochlear implant who experienced a head trauma after being fully vaccinated with PCV13. The patient experienced three meningitis episodes within one year. S.pneumoniae was determined on CSF culture in the ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious cause of morbidity among children in developed countries. The real impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal pneumonia is difficult to assess accurately. Children aged ≤16 years with clinical and radiological pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter prospective study. Children aged ≤16 years admitted for a minor elective surgery was recruited as controls. Nasopharyngeal samples for PCR serotyping of S. pneumoniae were obtained in both groups. Informations on age, gender, PCV7 vaccination status, day care/school attendance, siblings, tobacco exposure were collected. In children with CAP (n=236), 54% of the nasopharyngeal swabs were PCR-positive for S. pneumoniae compared to 32% in controls (n=105) (p=0.003). Serotype 19A was the most common pneumococcal serotype carried in children with CAP (13%) and in controls (15%). Most common serotypes were non-vaccine types (39.4% for CAP and 47.1% for controls) and serotypes
We have analyzed by gene amplification and sequencing mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants obtained during therapy or in vitro. Mutations leading to substitutions in ParC were detected in the two mutants obtained in vivo, BM4203-R (substitution of a histidine for an aspartate at position 84 [Asp-84--,His]; Staphylococcus aureus coordinates) and BM4204-R (Ser-80--,Phe), and in two mutants obtained in vitro (Ser-80--,Tyr). An additional mutant obtained in vitro, BM4205-R3, displayed a higher level of fluoroquinolone resistance and had a mutation in gyrA leading to a Ser-84--,Phe change. We could not detect any mutation in the three remaining mutants obtained in vitro. Total DNA from BM4203-R, BM4204-R, and BM4205-R3 was used to transform S. pneumoniae CP1000 by selection on fluoroquinolones. For the parC mutants, transformants with phenotypes indistinguishable from those of the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococci isolated at 14 different centers in Turkey between January 2011-April 2012. Totally 79 clinical isolates from invasive infections were investigated, which were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (33, 42%), blood (31, 39%) and the other sterile body fluids (15, 19%). Susceptibility to penicillin, cefotaxime and erythromycin was determined by E-test (bioMerieux, France) according to CLSI standards. Latex agglutination method was used for determination of serogroups. Serotypes were determined by the capsular swelling (Quellung reaction) method (Denmark, Statens Serum Institute). It was found that most common serotypes among 79 strains were 19 F (12, 15%), 6 A (7, 9%), 23 F (5, 6%), 6 B (4, 5%), 19 A (4, 5%) and 3 (4, 5%). For all invasive pneumococcal diseases, during the first 2 years of age, the potential coverage rates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of tebipenem, a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kobayashi, Reiko. AU - Konomi, Mami. AU - Hasegawa, Keiko. AU - Morozumi, Miyuki. AU - Sunakawa, Keisuke. AU - Ubukata, Kimiko. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - The in vitro activity of tebipenem (TBM), a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates (n = 202) was compared with those of 15 reference agents. The isolates were classified into five genotypic classes after PCR identification of abnormal pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes: (i) penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) isolates with no abnormal pbp genes (n = 34; 16.8%), (ii) genotypic penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) isolates with only an abnormal pbp2x gene [gPISP (2x)] (n = 48; 23.8%), (iii) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp1a and pbp2x genes (n = 32; 15.8%), (iv) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp2x and pbp2b genes (n = 16; 7.9%), and (v) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of A-80556 using microdialysis in a Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis model. AU - Destache, Christopher J.. AU - Pakiz, Catherine B.. AU - Stoysich, Anne M.. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements This study was sponsored in part by a grant from Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, USA. We thank Jeff Alder, Ph.D for reviewing this manuscript before submission. This study was approved by the Animal Research Committee of Creighton University Health Sciences (ARC #0212).. PY - 1996/12. Y1 - 1996/12. N2 - Using microdialysis in a rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new fluoroquinolone, A-80556, were determined. A-80556 (10 mg/kg iv) was administered to four rabbits. Saline was given to four separate control animals. A microdialysis probe perfused the CSF (2 μL/min) and effluent was collected at 0-0.25, 0.25-1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-6 h after injection of A-80556. Seven blood samples ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A retrospective analysis of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in Trinidad.. AU - Williams, K. P.. AU - Monteil, M. A.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - A retrospective analysis of culture-positive cases of S pneumoniae from normally sterile body fluids is reported. Over 40% of patients were 5 years old or less while 28% of patients were 50 years old or more. Meningitis (44%) was the commonest clinical presentation followed closely by pneumonia (31%). The commonest predisposing disorder was human immunodeficiency virus infection though there were no identifiable risk factors in the majority of patients. Mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease was significantly higher in elderly patients compared with other age groups (p = 0.0003). In this study, all S pneumoniae isolates, for which there were antibiotic sensitivity data, were penicillin and/or amoxycillin sensitive.. AB - A retrospective analysis of culture-positive cases of S pneumoniae from normally sterile body ...
Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (psaA) gene is universally confirmed as one of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesion genes, but it is disputed whether the psaA gene is a Streptococcus pneumoniae species-specific gene. In the present study, the presence of the psaA gene in 34 streptococcus mitis group isolates was identified by the PCR approach and a comparison of sequencing PCR products (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 as the control strain). Also, the evolutionary scenarios of these psaA genes in these streptococcus mitis group isolates were analyzed by a phylogenetic tree based on the housekeeping genes (sodA and rnpB) and psaA genes. As a result, a high degree of conservation of open reading frame sequences in all six Streptococcus pneumoniae strains (100% similarity) and in the other species of the streptococcus mitis group (92.6-100% similarity) was revealed. Further genetics research based on housekeeping genes and psaA gene phylogenies showed that the psaA gene was of vertical inheritance only in
Copyright: © 2017 Bittaye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intermediate resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin in children in day-care centers. AU - Doyle, M. G.. AU - Morrow, A. L.. AU - Van, R.. AU - Pickering, L. K.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - This study was performed to determine the prevalence, serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 3 years of age in day-care centers in Houston, TX. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained on two occasions, in March and May, 1989, from 140 children in 4 day-care centers. All penicillin- resistant S. pneumoniae organisms isolated in this study had minimum inhibitory concentrations to penicillin of between 0.1 and 0.5 μg/ml and were thus intermediately resistant. No highly resistant S. pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥1.0 μg/ml) was isolated in this study. Nasal carriage of S. pneumoniae occurred in 39% of children; carriage of intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae occurred in 4% of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine-mediated protection against serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunodeficient mice. AU - Tian, Haijun. AU - Groner, Avi. AU - Boes, Marianne. AU - Pirofski, Liise Anne. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) vaccines are less immunogenic in immunocompromised than immunocompetent individuals. However, neither the efficacy of PPS vaccines in immunocompromised individuals nor the host cellular subsets required for vaccine efficacy against pneumococcal disease have been directly investigated. In this study, we vaccinated CD4-deicient (CD4 -/-), CD8-deficient (CB8-/-), and secretory immunoglobulin M-deficient (sIgM-/-) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (Wt) mice with a conjugate of PPS of serotype 3 and tetanus toxoid (PPS3-TT) and determined the antibody response and efficacy of vaccination against systemic and pulmonary challenge with ...
A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos. Further studies
OBJECTIVES: The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008.. METHODS: Averages were derived from all studies from all countries that had available data.. RESULTS: Before widespread immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the overall mean annual incidence of IPD in children aged ,2 years was 44.4/100 000. The mean case fatality rate for IPD was 3.5%, and resistant rates were approximately 23% for penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentration , or =2mg/l), 41% for erythromycin, and 9% (, or =5 years) for third-generation cephalosporins. The most common serotypes causing IPD were 14, 6B, 19F, and 23F, all of which are included in PCV7. Vaccine serotype coverage ranged from 37% to 100% for PCV7, with mean increases in coverage of 7% and 16% for investigational 10- and 13-valent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endophthalmitis caused by streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Miller, John J.. AU - Scott, Ingrid. AU - Flynn, Harry W.. AU - Smiddy, William E.. AU - Corey, Richard P.. AU - Miller, Darlene. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Purpose To investigate clinical settings, management strategies, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Records were reviewed of all patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2003. Main outcome measures Visual acuity and antibiotic sensitivities. Results Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients met study inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 7 months (range, 3 months to 10 years). Clinical settings included acute postoperative (10 eyes), corneal stitch abscess (5), corneal ulcer (3), bleb-associated (4), post-trauma ...
A double-blind, randomized study involving 264 toddlers attending day care centers was conducted to document the effect of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the carriage rate of pneumococci. Of 3750 cultures done on nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects during a 2-year follow-up period after vaccination, 65% were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In all age windows, the rate of carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci was lower among subjects who received the pneumococcal vaccine than among control subjects, because the acquisition rate was lower in the former group. The effect was most pronounced among subjects aged ⩽36 months. The sample size enabled us to study protection against carriage of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F; significant protection against all serotypes except 19F was seen in the pneumococcal-vaccine group. The rate of carriage of serotype 6A (not included in the vaccine) was also reduced significantly, but the rate of carriage of serotype ...
Ubukata and coworkers (32) have designed a similar system whereby they detected penicillin resistance with DNA extracted from clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. Their system is based on three sets of primers designed for amplification of thepbp2B gene from penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, as well as two classes of mutations of thepbp2B gene which are present in penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Japan. The primer used to detect penicillin-susceptible strains in their study most likely also amplifies DNA from resistant strains (on the basis of pbp2B sequence data of Smith and Klugman [31]), since the primer sequence covers an area of the pbp2B gene which is not unique only to penicillin-susceptible isolates. In fact, it is identical to sequences which are also found in penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates. In our study we describe four resistance primers which expand the genetic variabilities of resistance detected in the pbp2B gene.. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by ...
Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
We observed that differences in the in vivo growth kinetics of pneumococcal strains of capsular types 3, 4, 5, and 6 were reminiscent of differences that we had previously reported for type 2 strain D39 and its pneumolysin-deficient mutant, PLN. Capsular type 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 exhibits exponential growth in the blood of XID mice until the death of the mice at 24 to 36 h. In contrast, PLN reaches a plateau in growth that is maintained for several days. Capsular type 3 and 5 strains exhibited exponential growth and caused rapid death of XID mice following intravenous challenge, similar to the observation with D39. Strains of capsular types 4 and 6 exhibited growth kinetics reminiscent of PLN. Since the observed differences in the pathogenesis of types 3 and 5 compared to 4 and 6 were reminiscent of the effects of pneumolysin deficiency in type 2, we examined the levels of in vitro pneumolysin production for the entire panel of strains. The onset of pneumolysin production in most ...
CNS infection is a life-threatening condition in developing countries and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported as the most common cause of bacterial meningitis; however, there is limited data on pneumococcal meningitis in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study aimed to isolate and identity S. pneumoniae strains from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens collected as part of routine testing from patients with clinically diagnosed central nervous system infection at a national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2017. S. pneumoniae isolation and identification were performed using conventional culture and molecular tools. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were monitored through minimum inhibitory concentration testing. From 147 CSF specimens, one S. pneumoniae strain was identified from a patient with bacterial meningitis symptoms. The isolate was serotype 6B (ST5661) and susceptible to 18 antimicrobial agents tested, including penicillin, tetracycline, and the macrolide group. Our data
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission in Portuguese and Finnish day-care centres. AU - Pessoa, Delphine. AU - Hoti, Fabian. AU - Syrjänen, Ritva. AU - Sá-Leão, Raquel. AU - Kaijalainen, Tarja. AU - Gomes, M. Gabriela M. AU - Auranen, Kari. PY - 2013/4/18. Y1 - 2013/4/18. N2 - Background: Day-care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage is highest in DCC attendees but varies across countries and is found to be consistently lower in Finland than in Portugal. We compared key parameters underlying pneumococcal transmission in DCCs to understand which of these contributed to the observed differences in carriage prevalence.Methods: Longitudinal data about serotype-specific carriage in DCC attendees in Portugal (47 children in three rooms; mean age 2 years; range 1-3 years) and Finland (91 children in seven rooms; mean age 4 ...
The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance and vaccine escape in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae can be largely attributed to competence-induced transformation. To better understand why competence-induced transformation is so effective, we studied the dynamics of this process at the single-cell level. We show that within isogenic populations, all cells become naturally competent and bind exogenous DNA. In addition, we find that transformation is highly efficient and that the chromosomal location of the integration site or whether the transformed gene is encoded on the leading or lagging strand has limited influence on recombination efficiency. Indeed, we have observed multiple recombination events in single recipients in real-time. However, because of saturation of the DNA uptake and integration machinery and because a single stranded donor DNA replaces the original allele, we find that transformation efficiency has an upper threshold of approximately 50% of the population.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae are fastidious bacteria. Care must be taken during transport of specimen. Specimens must be transported promptly to the laboratory preferably within 1-2 hours.. Blood can only be transported after collecting in a culture broth containing appropriate anticoagulant. The inoculated medium can be held at room temperature (20°C- 25 °C) for 4 - 6 hours before incubation at 37 °C. The samples during transportation should be protected from extremes of temperature (less than 18 °C, more than 30 °C) and direct sunlight.. SOP for processing clinical specimens for laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae will be continued in the following posts: ...
After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A superbug (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration-approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) that expressed the 19A capsule, and 8 (88%) of the 9 multidrug-resistant strains were serotype 19A, including the Legacy strain with the new ST-2722. In genetic relatedness, ST-2722 belonged to a cluster of reported strains of S. pneumoniae in which all strains had 6 of the same alleles as ST-156. The multidrug-resistant strains related to ST-156 expressed different capsular serotypes: 9V, 14, 11A, 15C, and 19F ...
Background: Little is known about pneumococcal carrier states in older adults. The main aim of this study was to evaluate pneumococcal colonization patterns among older adults in two centres in Milan, Italy, before the widespread use of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in this age group, to investigate demographic and clinical features that are associated with pneumococcal colonization and to estimate the potential coverage offered by PCV13. Results: Among 417 adults ≥65 years old (171, 41.1 %, ≥75 years), 41 (9.8 %) were pneumococcal carriers. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that pneumococcal colonization was significantly less common among individuals with underlying co-morbidities than among those without (odds ratio [OR] 0.453, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.235-0.875, p = 0.018; adjusted OR 0.503, 95 % CI 0.255-0.992, p = 0.047). Moreover, among these patients, those with cardiac disease had a significantly lower risk of colonization (OR 0.308, 95 % CI ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both an aggressive pathogen and a normal part of the human respiratory microbiome. Clinicians and microbiologists have struggled to develop tests that can identify pneumococcal respiratory infection and accurately distinguish colonization from invasive disease. Molecular methods hold the promise of an improved ability to rapidly detect microorganisms in respiratory secretions and to make an accurate diagnosis; however, interpretation of diagnostic testing for S. pneumoniae remains problematic. Molecular assays, such as those targeting the pneumolysin gene, may cross-react with other streptococcal species, confounding detection and quantification. Assays that target the autolysin gene appear to be more specific. Even when accurately identified, however, the significance of S. pneumoniae DNA detected in clinical samples is difficult to determine. Here we will discuss the challenges faced in the interpretation of molecular testing for S. pneumoniae, and some strategies ...
The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected] Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been successful, but their use has increased infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Oral streptococci often harbor capsular polysaccharide (PS) synthesis loci (cps). Although this has not been observed in nature, if pneumococcus can replace its cps with oral streptococcal cps, it may increase its serotype repertoire. In the current study, we showed that oral Streptococcus strain SK95 and pneumococcal strain D39 both produce structurally identical capsular PS, and their genetic backgrounds influence the amount of capsule production and shielding from nonspecific killing. SK95 is avirulent in a well-established in vivo mouse model. When acapsular pneumococcus was transformed with SK95 cps, the transformant became virulent and killed all mice. Thus, cps from oral Streptococcus strains ...
Pre o de Broncho-vaxom, laborat rio Takeda, droga: Lisado bacteriano + Diplococcus pneumoniae + Haemophilus influenzae + Klebsiella ozanae + Klebsiella pneumoniae + Neisseria catarrhalis + Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus. Encontre pre os atualizados de todos os medicamentos / rem dios / princ pios ativos comerciais e gen ricos.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk for infections due to their baseline disease and the subsequent immunocompromising regimen. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has a high mortality and morbidity, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. A polysaccharide vaccine covering 23 different serotypes of pneumococcus (PPSV23) is currently recommended to immunocompromised patients to reduce their risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (such as bacteremia, meningitis, or pneumonia). Its immunogenicity is however limited, both in magnitude and duration, even in healthy individuals. Several studies have investigated the immunogenicity of PPSV23 in patients with IBD and have reported a marked inhibitory effect of immunosuppressive therapy on vaccine responses.. A pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV) was originally developed to protect young children and demonstrated as highly effective and safe. PCV13 contains polysaccharides from thirteen different serotypes, ...
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. Quellung is the German word for swelling and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. The pneumococcal Quellung reaction was first described in 1902 by the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen in all age groups worldwide that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from life threatening septicaemia and meningitis to less severe sinusitis and otitis media. The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organisms disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. In this study two main approaches were taken to investigate virulence gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Firstly, the feasibility of Recombinase based In vivo Expression Technology, RIVET, for use in S. pneumoniae to study gene expression in vitro, and then in vivo was assessed. However, the system was found to be unsuitable for use in this study. Secondly, the requirement for and the role of virulence gene regulators identified by Signature Tagged Mutagenesis were investigated. The requirement for different virulence gene regulators varied according to the murine ...
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov Primary Objective: Evaluation of the - Carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of children Secondary O...
The invention described herein provides human antibodies produced in non-human animals that specifically bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3). The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also provided in addition to methods of treating, inhibitng or preventing S. pneumoniae infection or conditions or disorders caused by such infection by administering to a patient the pharmaceutical compositions described herein.
Discussion This study prospectively surveyed the nasopharyngeal colonization of children attending a single DCC. Very high rates of carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae are documented. Our findings supports earlier studies from similar centers over the last decade.9-21 Recent research established daycare attendance as an important factor influencing the epidemiology of many infectious diseases.26-28 A number of studies have demonstrated a strong association between daycare attendance and increased carriage of S. pneumoniae, especially of resistant strains.13,28,29 Study findings demonstrated that daycare attendance and patterns of antibiotic use may be important factors influencing the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Every child in the study acquired a pneumococcus strain. Carriage occurred in 47% of children cultured. We found that the carriage rate increased with age, reflecting an increase in the number of types acquired. At baseline, it was observed that ...
We found that neutrophils from influenza-infected mice were not able to either phagocytose bacteria or produce ROS in response to incubation with S. pneumoniae as readily as those from uninfected mice. In addition, neutrophil-depleted mice infected with influenza for 6 days were more susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection than either uninfected depleted mice or depleted mice infected with influenza for 3 days. Lung cytokine levels, such as IL-10, were elevated in mice infected with influenza for 6 days followed by S. pneumoniae. These data indicate that influenza-induced changes in neutrophil-independent mechanisms increase susceptibility to a S. pneumoniae infection. We developed a novel ex vivo tracheal explant system to determine whether influenza-induced tissue damage increases adherence of S. pneumoniae. Using this system, we were able to model an influenza infection from the initial stages of infection to denudation and repair of the respiratory epithelium. We found that adherence was only ...
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. They are given by injection either into a muscle or just under the skin.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the major human pathogens and one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, and meningitis. Aside from the threats posed by emerging antibiotic resistance and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, the mortality rate among those patients with severe pneumococcal disease who receive seemingly appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy remains unacceptably high. Because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of invasive disease, pneumolysin, one of the best-characterized virulence factors of the pneumococcus, represents not only a potential vaccine target, but also a target for adjunctive therapy to antibiotics in patients with acute pneumococcal disease. In this paper we review the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory properties of pneumolysin and their involvement in sub-version of host defenses and extra-pulmonary dissemination of the pneumococcus, as well as strategies, both immunological and ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping remains critical in the epidemiological surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The Quellung reaction is the gold standard for serotyping pneumococci. In recent years, some alternative serotyping procedures that include PCR, real-time PCR, sequencing analysis of specific genes, and whole genome sequencing, have been developed.1 Some of these techniques are reduced to a limited number of detectable serotypes2 or require expensive equipment (sequencing analysis).1 Recently, a commercial assay S. PneumoStrip test (Operon S.A., Zaragoza, Spain) for pneumococcal serotyping in strains isolated in culture, based on PCR followed by reverse strip hybridisation, has been reported as easy, sensitive and specific procedure.3 The targets of the test are 76 serotypes (42 individually and 34 in pairs). The objective of this work was to assess the performance of the S. PneumoStrip test for the detection of S. pneumoniae serotypes directly in ...
Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is known to have a completely different chemical structure compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus: the polyglycerophosphate in the backbone is replaced in the pneumococcal LTA by a pentamer repeating unit consisting of one ribitol and a tetrasaccharide carrying the unusual substituents phosphocholine andN-acetyl-D-galactosamine. NeitherD-alaninenorN-acetyl D-glucosamine, which play central roles in the biological activity of the staphylococcal LTA, has been reported. The extraction using butanol is more gentle compared with the previously reported chloroform-methanol extraction and results in a higher yield of LTA. We characterized the LTA of two different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: R6 (serotype 2) and Fp23 (serotype 4). NMR analysis confirmed the structure of LTA from R6 but showed that its ribitol carries an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine substituent. The NMRdata for the LTA from Fp23 indicate that this LTA additionally contains ribitolbound ...
UAB.edu The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx and can cause pneumonia. Then, it can spread from the lungs to the bloodstream and cause organ damage. This opportunistic pathogen commonly infects young children, those who are immunocompromised and the elderly. In 2015, S. pneumoniae infections worldwide killed an estimated 192,000 to 366,000 children under age 5. To understand how this pathogen adapts to different locations in the body, and also how the host responds to the invading microbe, researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Yale University School of Medicine measured bacterial and host gene expression at five different sites in a mouse model -- the nasopharynx, lungs, blood, heart, and kidneys -- using three genetically different strains of S. pneumoniae. Their resulting in vivo atlas of host-pathogen interactions at disease-relevant anatomical sites is now published in Proceeding of the National Academy of
Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Khan, Rabia; Ferreira, Daniela M.; Mitsi, Elena; German, Esther; Rørvik, Gro Herredsvela; Berild, Dag; Schenck, Karl; Kwon, Keehwan & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Antibodies reactive to commensal Streptococcus mitis show cross-reactivity with virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Frontiers in Immunology. ISSN 1664-3224. 9:747, s 1- 10 . doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00747 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv. Vis sammendrag Current vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterial species that afflicts people by causing a wide spectrum of diseases, do not protect against all pneumococcal serotypes. Thus, alternative vaccines to fight pneumococcal infections that target common proteins are under investigation. One promising strategy is to take advantage of immune cross-reactivity between commensal and pathogenic microbes for cross-protection. In this study, we examined the antibody-mediated cross-reactivity between S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis, a commensal species ...
The increasing number of penicillin-resistant clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has raised questions about the mechanism involved. We have isolated a large number of independent, spontaneous laboratory mutants with increasing resistance against either piperacillin or cefotaxime. Both clas …
Background: Bacterial adherence to buccal epithelial cells in chronic smokers has been reported to increase in vitro. However, it is unclear whether such adherence increases in hosts without epithelial changes linked to chronic smoking. Objective: This was an in vivo investigation of whether or not there was a change in the Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to buccal epithelial cells of rats exposed to different periods and degrees of environmental cigarette smoke. Method: Eighteen rats were divided into acute and chronic exposure groups, each containing 9 rats. Both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups each, which were exposed to low or high levels of cigarette smoke, or none at all. After the administration of smoke, S. pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) was inoculated into the buccal mucosa. One hour later, buccal epithelial cell samples were taken and the number of bacteria adhering to 40 buccal epithelial cells was counted. Pre- and postinoculation values and the groups administered smoke and ...
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) primarily affects children less than 5 years old, the elderly and certain at-risk groups; especially people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to analyze invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children and adolescents infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with relation to morbidity, the case fatality ratio, pneumococcus serotypes, susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and to the proportion of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that has already been licensed. METHODS: A total of 19 cases of IPD were identified among HIV seropositive patients aged from 1 month to 20 years and hospitalized between 1993 and 2000. Data were recorded on standardized charts containing information on age, clinical diagnosis and progression, serotypes and the susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone of the Sp strains ...
Conclusions A twofold increased risk of mortality was found with aspirin treatment in animal models of S pneumoniae infection. No relevant human studies were identified. It is difficult to generalise from animal models to clinical medicine, but based on these findings and the prevalence and severity of S pneumoniae infections worldwide, future study of the effects of antipyretic therapy in S pneumoniae infection in humans is recommended. ...