Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It is capable of infecting both humans and animals, but is most frequently encountered as a commensal of the alimentary tract, genital tract, or less commonly, as a part of the skin flora. The clinical manifestations in human disease range from superficial skin-infections and tonsillitis, to severe necrotising fasciitis and bacteraemia. The incidence of invasive disease has been reported to be rising. Several different animal species are susceptible to infection by S.dysgalactiae, but bovine mastitis and infectious arthritis in lambs (joint ill) have been most frequently reported. Streptococcus dysgalactiae is currently divided into the subspecies Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDSD); the former mostly associated with human disease, and the latter almost exclusively encountered in veterinary ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain
Introduction . Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a β-hemolytic streptococcus that causes severe invasive streptococcal infections, especially in the elderly and people with underlying diseases. SDSE strains are primarily characterized by Lancefield group G or C antigens. Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We have previously reported the prevalence of Lancefield group A SDSE (GA-SDSE) strains in Japan and have analysed the draft genome sequences of these strains. As GA-SDSE is a rare type of SDSE, only one complete genome has been sequenced to date. Aim. The present study is focused on genetic characteristics of GA-SDSE strains. In order to examine molecular characteristics, we also tested growth inhibition of other streptococci by GA-SDSE. Methodology. We determined the complete genome sequences of three GA-SDSE strains by two new generation sequencing systems (short-read and long-read sequencing data). Using the sequences, we also conducted a comparative analysis of GA-SDSE and group C/G
Previous evidence for the presence of an M or M-like protein on group G streptococci has been based on the ability of these strains to survive in human blood. In addition, cross-reactions between group A and group G streptococci have been demonstrated, but they have relied either on whole bacterial cell vaccine-induced polyclonal sera or crude protein extracts of these cells. In this study two monoclonal antibodies prepared against the purified, native group A streptococcal M6 protein demonstrated a high degree of cross-reactivity with group G streptococcal clinical isolates (9 and 19 of 22 strains examined, respectively). Ten of these strains exhibited resistance to phagocytosis when rotated in human blood. In addition, immunoblot analysis of crude mutanolysin extracts of group G streptococci with one of the M6 monoclonal antibodies illustrated a remarkable similarity in the protein pattern of these extracts as compared with those of group A streptococcal M protein. The immunoblots further ...
Most streptococcal species are essentially non-pathogenic and are part of the normal commensal microflora of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract of humans (and other animals). Streptococcus salivarius is a predominant oral streptococcal species in humans that is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy oral microbial ecosystem. A notable characteristic of this species is that they commonly produce Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS). Streptococcus salivarius strain Pirie resembles strain K12, the prototype BLIS-producing S. salivarius, in that it inhibits all nine standard indicators when tested in a streptococcal bacteriocin fingerprinting scheme. Another similarity to strain K12 is the presence of the class I bacteriocins salivaricin A genes in strain Pirie. However, strain Pirie differs from strain K12 in having a broader spectrum of inhibitory activity against other members of the commensal oral microflora, including most strains of S. ...
AIM: To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. METHODS: Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caramel smell for presumptive identification was examined, and the relation of the S milleri species, Lancefield group, and SDS-PAGE protein analysis to severity of infection and infection site was investigated. Lower respiratory tract and genital tract specimens, strict anaerobes, group D streptococci, and strains identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae were excluded. RESULTS: Most streptococci occurring in pure or significant growth density were S milleri ...
Cubicin® is a lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive infections, particularly Staph and MRSA infections and the following infections: Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of the following Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, and Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only). S. aureus are bloodstream infections (bacteremia), including those with right-sided infective endocarditis, caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant isolates ...
Streptococcus equinus is a Gram-positive, nonhemolytic, nonpathogenic, lactic acid bacterium of the genus Streptococcus. It is the principal Streptococcus found in the alimentary canal of a horse, and makes up the majority of the bacterial flora in horse feces. S. equinus is seldom found in humans. S. equinus, which is always abundant in the feces of horses, was first isolated from the air in 1906 by Andrewes and Horder due to the presence of dried horse manure, common in most cities at the time. In 1910, Winslow and Palmer verified the findings of Andrewes and Horder and reported further findings in both cattle and human feces. After the bacterium was discovered in 1906, the term Streptococcus equinus became a convenient wastebasket into which nonhemolytic streptococci that do not ferment lactose and mannitol were categorized. The classification of all streptococci that fail to ferment lactose into one large category has made the classification of S. equinus very difficult. However, as shown ...
The gene sequence for the circular chromosomes of twelves pecies of streptococci have been sequenced: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae 2603 V/R , Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ1066, Streptococcus thermophilus LMG 18311, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The genome of Streptococcus pyogenes is 1,852,442 base pairs long, containing 1,752 predicted protein-coding genes. Researchers have identified more than 40 virulence-associated genes on the S. pyogenes genome, which fits in with its ability to cause a variety of human diseases. Researchers also found numerous genes that encode proteins that aid in molecular mimicry, when the bacterium disguises itself by posing as a cell that is a part of the host. The genome of S. pneumoniae is 2,038,615 base pairs long with 2,043 predicted protein-coding regions. S. pneumoniae has a high capacity for DNA uptake, and consequently its genome contains many genes that are most likely derived from other bacteria. More than 53% ...
The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (replacing HGT) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (additive HGT). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY-SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify group C Streptococcus (e.g., S. equisimilis, S. zooepidemicus, S. dysgalactiae) a species of coccoid bacterium by detecting specific nucleic-acid information of the target bacteria. Group C Streptococcus may cause endocarditis, bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and mild upper respiratory tract infections; S. equisimilis is the most common group C bacterial pathogen in humans, but other group C species such as S. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae may also cause infections.. Entry Terms : Streptococcus dysgalactiae Detection/Identification Reagents , Strepcoccus zooepidemicus Detection/Identification Reagents , Streptococcus equisimilis Detection/Identification Reagents , Streptococcus C Detection/Identification Reagents , Meningococcal Meningitis Diagnostic Reagents , Bacterial Endocarditis Diagnostic Reagents , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Bacteria, Streptococcus C. UMDC code : 21674 ...
The letter before the laboratory description, e.g. Group A or Group B etc., refers to a molecule or antigen on the bacterial cell wall. It was first discovered in 1933 by Rebecca Lancefield, an American Microbiologist born in 1895, and became known as Lancefield grouping. Lancefield grouping only applies to Beta-haemolytic streptococci. Do not group the alpha or non-haemolytic streptococci; in these bacteria the grouping antigens may lead to a misidentification (and false significance) of the microorganism e.g. a non-haemolytic streptococcus that groups with an A is not S. pyogenes and does not have the same significance as S. pyogenes. If you do this you will end up mismanaging patients! Take my word for it… dont group alpha and non-haemolytic streptococci… just dont do it, its wrong ...
Kikuchi, T.; Desmazeaud, M.; Bergere, J.L., 1973: Proteolytic action of lactic streptococci. I. The action of mesophilic lactic streptococci on N constituents of milk
United States Patent Hajime Okamoto; Susumu Shoin; Saburo Koshimura, all of Kanazawa-shl, Japan [72] Inventors Kanazawa-shi, Japan [32] Priority Mar. 1, 1968 J p [31] 43/ 13043 [54] PROCESS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI 5 Claims, No Drawings [52] U.S. Cl 195/96, 195/1 14, 424/493 [51] Int. Cl. ....A6lk 21/00, Cl2d 1/20 [50] Field of Search 195/66, 96, 66 B, 1 I4, 30 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,477,914 ll/l969 Okamoto etal. l95/96 Primary ExaminerAlvin E. Tanenhultz Assistant Examiner Robert M. Elliott AtlomeyBrowdy and Neimark ABSTRACT: A process for the cultivation of hemolytic streptococci by cultivating hemolytic streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus hemolylicus ATCC 21060) in a meat infusion broth or the medium containing an extract containing watersoluble components in a yeast autolysate as a major component of pH 7.0-7.5 containing oxaloacetic acid or salts thereof and, if desired, ribonucleic acid or ribonuclease core at about 37C. for 14-20 hours, in order ...
Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during ...
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(oleh Ardy Prian Nirwana, S.Pd.Bio & Yusianti Silviani, S.Pd.Bio) Streptococcus adalah bakteri spheris Gram positif yang khasnya berpasangan atau membentuk rantai selama pertumbuhannya. Beberapa kelompok streptococcus adalah flora normal manusia. Streptococcus menghasilkan berbagai enzim dan substansi ekstraseluler. Streptococcus merupakan kelompok bakteri yang heterogen, dan tidak ada sistem yang dapat mengklasifikasikannya. Dua puluh spesies, termasuk Streptococcus…
Unscramble streptococci, Unscramble letters streptococci, Point value for streptococci, Word Decoder for streptococci, Word generator using the letters streptococci, Word Solver streptococci, Possible Scrabble words with streptococci, Anagram of streptococci
Unscramble streptococci, Unscramble letters streptococci, Point value for streptococci, Word Decoder for streptococci, Word generator using the letters streptococci, Word Solver streptococci, Possible Scrabble words with streptococci, Anagram of streptococci
Of all bacteria isolated from the mice, heat-killed Streptococcus sp. and heat-killed E. coli bound to immobilized MGL1. The binding was significantly reduced by the addition of 100 mmol/L Gal but not mannose (Figure 4A). The binding was also abrogated by the addition of 5 mmol/L EDTA, indicating that the interaction between the bacteria Dovitinib side effects and MGL1 was calcium-dependent (Figure 4B). To evaluate the interaction of bacteria with MGL1 on cell surfaces, uptake of fluorescent-labeled bacteria by CHO cells transfected with Mgl1 was examined. These cells engulfed Streptococcus sp., but not E. coli or Enterococcus sp. (Figure 4C), suggesting that Streptococcus sp. was one of the candidates of bacteria that interact with MGL1 during the pathogenesis of experimental colitis.. Figure 4 MGL1 binding to intestinal commensal bacteria. A: Commensal bacteria were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of DSS-treated mice on day 7. Heat-killed bacterial bodies were applied on microtiter plates ...
Oral bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of mixed oral bacteria (Streptococcus, round) with some bacilli bacteria (rod-shaped). - Masterfile - Premium Royalty-Free, Code: 679-08425093
The principal source of streptococci in milk is the cows udder. The udder streptococci fall into two broad groups; those of the larger group agree in cultural characters and agglutination affinities with mastitis streptococci; the smaller group is composed of low acid-producing streptococci. The streptococci of the latter group produce clear zones of hemolysis about surface and deep colonies in horse blood agar plates. They attack dextrose, lactose, saccharose, and maltose, but do not ferment raffinose, inulin, mannite, or salicin. Acid production in dextrose by the members of this group is about the same as that produced by human streptococci under the same conditions. The limiting hydrogen ion concentration for these pleomorphic udder streptococci in dextrose serum bouillon is within the limits of the limiting hydrogen ion concentration observed by Avery and Cullen for human streptococci. All the streptococci from the vagina, saliva, skin, and feces have been non-hemolytic. Those from the saliva form
In the Kilians opinion [1] the change of the well-established name Streptococcus cricetus may be a source of confusion. So, with reference to the first Principle of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), Kilian requested that the original name Streptococcus cricetus be conserved [2]. The Judicial Commission denied this request, and no Opinion will be issued upon this request [3]. Publication: Kilian M. Necessary changes of bacterial names? ASM News 1998; 64:670 ...
The ability of epithelial cells to sense the external environment and communicate this information to the local immune system, thereby initiating appropriate responses, is essential for the maintenance of health and prevention of the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Our studies have shown that an oral probiotic commensal strain of S. salivarius is able to inhibit inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells by downregulating the NF-κB pathway. This is consistent with an emerging paradigm that indicates the downregulation of epithelial immune responses by commensal bacteria (8, 13, 24, 38, 48). Not only did S. salivarius K12 inhibit baseline synthesis of IL-8, but it also suppressed IL-8 secretion when cells were stimulated with pathogenic P. aeruginosa, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium flagellin, or the immunomodulatory host defense peptide LL-37. Most previous studies have focused on IL-8 and IL-6 responses, but here it was demonstrated that this commensal bacterium ...
The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected] Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been successful, but their use has increased infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Oral streptococci often harbor capsular polysaccharide (PS) synthesis loci (cps). Although this has not been observed in nature, if pneumococcus can replace its cps with oral streptococcal cps, it may increase its serotype repertoire. In the current study, we showed that oral Streptococcus strain SK95 and pneumococcal strain D39 both produce structurally identical capsular PS, and their genetic backgrounds influence the amount of capsule production and shielding from nonspecific killing. SK95 is avirulent in a well-established in vivo mouse model. When acapsular pneumococcus was transformed with SK95 cps, the transformant became virulent and killed all mice. Thus, cps from oral Streptococcus strains ...
Summary: Biochemical, menaquinone, fatty acid and DNA analyses were conducted on a number of streptococci of serological group D. The results indicate that S. faecalis, S. faecium, S. casseliflavus and taxa previously designated S. avium, S. durans and S. faecalis var. malodoratus are distinct species. Strains previously labelled S. faecium var. mobilis were shown to be identical with S. casseliflavus. The results also indicate that some group D streptococci recently isolated from chickens constitute a new species.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of New cell surface protein involved in biofilm formation by Streptococcus parasanguinis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Streptococcus salivarius, Gram-positive, coccoid, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Streptococcus salivarius forms chains of cells which are bound together by the capsular material seen around each cell (shown as surface stipulation in this image). It is the principal commensal bacterium of the oral cavity and a normal inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract in humans. It is the first bacterium that colonizes dental plaque, before being joined by numerous other species of various genera. It creates favourable conditions so other species can begin to colonize. The bacterium colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless. Magnification: x5,335 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0162
Strains from subclinical mastitis, from the genital tract and tonsils of cattle, from tonsils of a goat and a cat and from the crop and the respiratory tract of canaries were found to constitute a new streptococcal species, for which the name Streptococcus pluranimalium sp. nov. is proposed. Sequencing of 16S rRNA showed that Streptococcus thoraltensis and Streptococcus hyovaginalis were its closest known phylogenetic relatives. The new species showed some phenotypic resemblance to the poorly described species Streptococcus acidominimus, but whole-cell protein analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the new species was only distantly related to the type strain of S ...
Group G hemolytic streptococcal cell walls which have been treated with trypsin are composed of a group-specific polysaccharide moiety and a mucopeptide matrix. The mucopeptide contains N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, and glycine, a composition similar to that of other groups of streptococci. The Group G carbohydrate is composed of rhamnose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose. Serological studies suggest that the monosaccharide of L-rhamnose is a major component of the determinant of antigenic specificity.. ...
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Streptococcus Group B Antibody (HSB11-209.5), MA1-10703, from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Bacteria; Applications: ELISA Shop Streptococcus Group B Mouse anti-Bacteria,
Streptococci are non-motile, microaerophilic, Grampositive spherical bacteria (cocci). They often occur as chains or pairs and are facultative or strict anaerobes. Streptococci give a negative catalase test, while staphylococci are catalase-positive. Because they are unable to synthesize cytochromes, streptococci cannot carry out oxidative phosphorylation. They are able to ferment sugars, but the end product is always lactic acid. Therefore, streptococci are very acid tolerant and count among the lactic acid bacteria order.. There are many natural sources of streptococci, including humans and diverse animals where they often colonize the mucosal surfaces of the mouth, intestinal tract, nasal passages and pharynx. The presence of streptococci in drinking water indicates fecal contamination. Food sources with high risk of contamination include milk and dairy products, eggs, steamed lobster, ground ham, potato salad, custard, rice pudding and shrimp salad. In most streptococcal food poisoning ...
Not much is known about the genome of Streptococcus salivarius other than its genome size is estimated to be 1800kb long. Its genome is yet to be sequenced [6], but it is in progress. But a closely related species of S. salivarius, S. thermophilus has been sequenced. Its genome size has been determined to be 1796kb on a single circular chromosome [7]. S. thermophilus is a lactic acid bacterium used for making milk and yogurt in the dairy industry. It is important to sequence S. thermopilus because it is phylogenetically close to pathogenic streptococci. The genome was sequenced using random shotgun sequencing and followed up by multiplex PCR [7]. S. thermophilus has a 39% G-C content, 6 Ribosomal RNAs, and 67 tRNAs [7]. It is also known that 10% of the genes are not functional due to frameshifts, nonsense mutations, deletions, or pseudogenes. Frameshifts can occur in a genenome when 1 or 2 nucleotides are deleted or inserted next to each other. This would cause a shift in the reading frame, ...
HGT between oral streptococci.The presence of longer branches in ilvC, glcK, and pepO S. salivarius split graphs (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material) are consistent with the importation of divergent genes from other species (27). This hypothesis is supported by the higher levels of homology of cluster II alleles of ilvC and pepO loci with S. pneumoniae and S. parasanguinis alleles, respectively, than with the other S. salivarius allele clusters. S. pneumoniae and S. parasanguinis are oral streptococci which might come in contact with S. salivarius and S. vestibularis in the buccal cavity. Evaluation of the extent of HGT in ilvC and pepO genes by sequence analysis indicated that exchange of 725- and 1,783-bp internal gene fragments, respectively, took place (Fig. 5a and b). Differences in chromosomal localization and high levels of nucleotide divergence between tkt genes from S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are also consistent with an HGT event. Detailed cluster analysis of these ...
Name: Streptococcus dysgalactiae (ex Diernhofer 1932) Garvie et al. 1983. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov., nom. rev.. Etymology: Gr. pref. dys, bad, hard; Gr. n. gala galaktos, milk; N.L. n. dysgalactia, loss or impairment of milk secretion; N.L. gen. n. dysgalactiae, of dysgalactia Gender: masculine Type strain: ATCC 43078; CCUG 27301; CIP 102914; DSM 20662; LMG 15885; LMG 16023; NCDO 2023; NCFB 2023; NCIMB 702023 See detailed strain information at ...
species of spherical, gram-positive bacteria Streptococci (from phylum Firmicutes) that forms chains and colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans just a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless in most circumstances. It is considered to be a good oral bacteria fighting bad odor and disease-causing species yet, if it gets into bloodstream (what, fortunately, rarely happens), it could be associated with sepsis in people with neutropenia (a deficiency in white blood cells). Streptococcus salivarius secretes a glucosltransferase (Gtf) which forms a glucan from sucrose and it uses sucrose (but not glucose) to build a capsule around itself. This bacteria can ferment the glucose yielding lactic acid. S. salivarius is also known to secrete an enzyme called urease. Urease can catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide ...
Looking for b-hemolytic streptococci? Find out information about b-hemolytic streptococci. any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they... Explanation of b-hemolytic streptococci
The proteinase activity of strains of group A streptococci isolated from patients in acute and convalescent phases of illness was found to be remarkably constant. Sulfadiazine therapy of patients did not affect proteinase production by the infecting streptococci.. The ability to produce streptococcal proteinase would appear to be related to the strain and not necessarily to the serological type.. No relationship could be found between the capacity of group A streptococci of different serological types to produce proteinase and the various clinical responses to infection with these microorganisms.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Group A Streptococcus, Streptococcus Pyogenes.
Species of streptococci are well represented among the bacteria found in the oral cavity, which has been estimated to harbor around 500 different species of bacteria, though there remain many taxa of uncertain status and many microscopically observable microbes that have not yet been isolated in laboratory culture. These oral streptococci seem to be ubiquitous among all the human populations studied. When they have been sought, identical or closely related streptococci have also been found in a wide variety of animal species, so streptococci are clearly part of the normal commensal flora of mammals; this chapter considers the problems that arise when this commensal relationship breaks down and the oral streptococci become opportunistic pathogens. The chapter talks about acquisition of oral streptococci, mechanism of colonization, immunological processes in the mouth, and metabolism of dental plaque. The oral streptococci are normal commensals of the human mouth and as such play a beneficial role in
The streptococci are a diverse group of Gram-positive pathogenic cocci that cause clinical disease in humans and domestic animals. They are traditionally classified on the basis of serological reactions, particularly Lancefield grouping based on cell-wall carbohydrates, and haemolytic activity on blood agar. Six groups can be defined by genetic analysis: pyogenic streptococci, milleri or anginosus group, mitis group, salivarius group, mutans group, and bovis group....
Isolated from blood drawn from an 8-year-old girl who had a history of ventricular septal defect since the neonatal period and was hospitalized for fever of unknown origin in Nagasaki University Hospital, Japan ...
Background Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of...
Watch Worlds Best Lecture on Heart Failure - 7 DAYS FREE TRIAL Streptococcus: Streptococcus is a is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria and they grow in chains or pairs. Most are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes. CLASSIFICATION: Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. Alpha-hemolytic streptococci These cause oxidization of iron ...
Streptococcus is a diverse genus in the Firmicutes phylum and the Bacterial Kingdom. The bacteria under the streptococcus are spherical in shape, or cocci, and Gram-positive. They usually are found to grow in pairs or chains and are oxidase- and catalase-negative. Many species of streptococcus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that they usually make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via aerobic respiration in the presence of exygen, but are capable of producing ATP via fermentation if there is no oxygen present. While some species of streptococcus are normally found in the human flora, many species are capable of bringing about various diseases and can be potent. Such diseases range from strep throat (S. pharyngitis) to pneumonia (S. pneumoniae) to even necrotizing human flesh (S. pyogenes). Unfortunately, many of these species has been able to reproduce as antibiotic-resistant strains, which lead to the cause of some epidemics. Two species of this genus, S. agalactiae and S. mutans are ...
Looking for online definition of Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the Medical Dictionary? Streptococcus dysgalactiae explanation free. What is Streptococcus dysgalactiae? Meaning of Streptococcus dysgalactiae medical term. What does Streptococcus dysgalactiae mean?
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (previous name Streptococcus thermophilus ) is a Gram-positive bacterium and a homofermentative facultative anaerobe, of the Streptococcus viridans viridans group.European Bioinformatics Institute: [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/bacteria/Streptococcus_thermophilus.html Bacteria Genomes - Streptococcus Thermophilus] It tests negative for cytochrome, oxidase, and catalase, and positive for alpha-hemolytic activity. It is not motile and does not form endospores. It is also classified as a lactic acid bacterium. S. thermophilus is found in fermented milk products, and is generally used in the production of yogurt,Synonyms : Streptococcus salivarius thermophilus, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, NCIMB 8510, NCDO 573, LMG 6896, JCM 17834, DSM 20617, CIP 102303, CCUG 21957, ATCC 19258. Direct sub-taxa of Streptococcus thermophilus: Streptococcus thermophilus 1F8CT, Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275, Streptococcus thermophilus CNCM ...
Beta hemolytic streptococci, particulary group A, are the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of pharyngoamigdalitis. Other beta hemolytic streptococci also produce this pathology. An increase of positive cultures for group A streptococci was detected during 2004 in relation to previous years. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rates of beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, C and G during a period of 5 years. Pharyngeal exudates were obtained from children (aged 6 months to 18 years) and adults. Swabs were cultured on Columbia agar plates containing 5% sheep blood. Lancefield grouping was performed using a latex immunoagglutination test. Group A beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently from pediatric population than from adults. Groups A, C and G beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently during 2004 than in previous years. Group G beta hemolytic was more prevalent in adult population than in patients less than 18
Esculin hydrolysis was first described by Rochaix in 1924.(8) Swan first introduced the use of Bile Esculin Agar in 1954.(9) In 1970, Facklam and Moody determined that the use of the bile esculin test was a reliable way of identifying group D streptococci from non-group D streptococci.(3) When using BEA in biochemical testing of group D streptococci, they found that all group D streptococci will blacken this medium.(3) Other researchers have used BEA for the presumptive identification of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia spp., among the Enterobacteriaceae. This medium contains esculin, ferric citrate to provide ferric ions, and 4% oxbile to inhibit most other strains of non-group D streptococci. Esculin is hydrolyzed by group D streptococci to form dextrose and esculin. This compound reacts with the ferric ions contained within the medium, turning the medium from its original amber color to a dark brown to black. Thus the tolerance to the presence of bile and the hydrolysis of ...
Looking for online definition of Streptococcus salivarius in the Medical Dictionary? Streptococcus salivarius explanation free. What is Streptococcus salivarius? Meaning of Streptococcus salivarius medical term. What does Streptococcus salivarius mean?
Streptococcus infantarius; Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex; Streptococcus thermophilus; Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; Dairy fermentation; Lactose metabolism; Africa; Camel; Health risk; Streptococcus virulence ...
Front. Microbiol. 9:614. Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Sgg (formerly known as S. bovis type I) is the main causative agent of septicemia and infective endocarditis (IE) in elderly and immunocompromised persons. It belongs to the few opportunistic bacteria, which have been strongly associated to colorectal cancer (CRC). A literature survey covering a period of 40 years (1970-2010) revealed that 65% of patients diagnosed with an invasive Sgg infection had a concomitant colorectal neoplasia. Sgg is associated mainly with early adenomas and may thus constitute an early marker for CRC screening. Sgg has been described as a normal inhabitant of the rumen of herbivores and in the digestive tract of birds. It is more rarely detected in human intestinal tract (2.5-15%). Recent molecular analyses indicate possible zoonotic transmission of Sgg. Thanks to the development of a genetic toolbox and to comparative genomics, a number of factors that are important for Sgg pathogenicity have been ...
Objective: To determine the proportion of children with or without pharyngitis in Blantyre with a positive throat swab culture for Streptococcal pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus). To measure the age-stratified (,5, 5+ year olds) prevalence of Group A Streptococcus (GrAS), Group C Streptococcus and Group G Streptococcus detected in the oro-pahrynx of children attending the QECH with or without symptoms of pharyngitis.. Methods: 1000 throat swabs from children presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi were collected.. Results: A total of 22 (2.2%) samples had laboratory confirmation of presence of bacteria: 20 grew GrAS, 1 Group C streptococcus and 1 Group G streptococcus. 82% of the which were greater than 5years. 36.5% of the participants had symptoms of pharyngitis during the time of swab collection and 13(3.6%) of them had laboratory confirmed presence of bacteria with 11 (3%) being GrAS. 4.8% of the participants with the presence of GrAS had Tonsillar erythema, Tonsillar ...
Streptococcus parauberis is a pathogen of cattle and fish, closely related Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus iniae. We report the genomes of seven S. parauberis strains recovered from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay. The availability of these genomes will allow comparative genomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay S. parauberis strains versus S. parauberis cultured from other animal hosts and geographic regions.
Three hundred fifty-two blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from 43 U.S. medical centers during 1993 and 1994 were characterized. Included were 48 isolates of Streptococcus milleri, 219 S. mitis isolates, 29 S. salivarius isolates, and 56 S. sanguis isolates. High-level penicillin resistance (MIC, | or = 4.0 micrograms/ml) was noted among 13.4% of the strains; for 42.9% of the strains, penicillin MICs were 0.25 to 2.0 micrograms/ml (i.e., intermediate resistance). In general, amoxicillin was slightly more active than penicillin. The rank order of activity for five cephalosporins versus viridans group streptococci was cefpodoxime = ceftriaxone | cefprozil = cefuroxime | cephalexin. The percentages of isolates resistant (MIC, | or = 2 micrograms/ml) to these agents were 15, 17, 18, 20, and 96, respectively. The rates of resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 12 to 38%. Resistance to either chloramphenicol or ofloxacin was uncommon (i.e
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in a dairy herd. AU - Jayarao, B. M.. AU - Gillespie, B. E.. AU - Lewis, M. J.. AU - Dowlen, H. H.. AU - Oliver, S. P.. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - From 1987 to 1991, almost 36000 quarter samples of mammary secretion representing 1790 lactations of 510 dairy cows from a research herd were collected for bacteriological examination. The percentage of cows infected with Streptococcus uberis ranged from 12 to 16% of cows/year. S. uberis was isolated from 14.2% of lactations over the 5-year period. The prevalence of S. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) was significantly higher in cows with ≥4 lactations than in cows with 3 or fewer lactations. Regardless of lactation number, the prevalence of S. uberis was highest before parturition, during early lactation and near drying off. The prevalence of S. uberis infected quarters ranged from 1.3 to 2.3% of quarters/year; the prevalence rate for the 5-year period was 2% of ...
Oral streptococci are a heterogeneous group of human commensals, with a potential to cause serious infections. Activation of plasminogen has been shown to increase the virulence of typical human pathogenic streptococci such as S. pneumoniae. One important factor for plasminogen activation is the streptococcal α-enolase. Here we report that plasminogen activation is also common in oral streptococci species involved in clinical infection and that it depends on the action of human plasminogen activators. The ability to activate plasminogen did not require full conservation of the internal plasminogen binding sequence motif FYDKERKVY of α-enolase that was previously described as crucial for increased plasminogen binding, activation and virulence. Instead, experiments with recombinant α-enolase variants indicate that the naturally occurring variations do not impair plasminogen binding. In spite of these variations in the internal plasminogen binding motif oral streptococci showed similar ...
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Streptococcus salivarius SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Viridans streptococci CHARACTERISTICS: Gram-positive cocci ~ 2 µm occuring in pairs and short chains; facultative anaerobe; non- or alpha hemolytic on blood agar. SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Organisms colonize upper respiratory tract within first few hours after birth and are normal inhabitant of oral cavity, oropharynx and upper respiratory tract; infrequently pathogenic; Viridans streptococci species cause most dental caries and are the most frequent cause of subacute native valve bacterial endocarditis, typically associated with dental procedures; S. salivarius may cause septicemia in neutropenic patients EPIDEMIOLOGY: World wide; Dental caries common; persons with previously damaged heart valves are susceptible HOST RANGE: Humans INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Normal inhabitant of upper respiratory tract - trauma (dental ...
Looking for Streptococcus bovis? Find out information about Streptococcus bovis. any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they... Explanation of Streptococcus bovis
In this limited patient population, prophylactic antimicrobial therapy should be directed against viridans group streptococci. During the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the percentage of strains of viridans group streptococci resistant to antibiotics recommended in previous AHA guidelines for the prevention of IE. Prabhu et al135 studied susceptibility patterns of viridans group streptococci recovered from patients with IE diagnosed during a period from 1971 to 1986 and compared these susceptibilities with those of viridans group streptococci from patients with IE diagnosed from 1994 to 2002. In that study, none of the strains of viridans group streptococci were penicillin resistant in the early time period compared with 13% of strains that were intermediately or fully penicillin resistant during the later time period. In that study, macrolide resistance increased from 11% to 26% and clindamycin resistance from 0% to 4%.. Among 352 blood culture isolates of viridans ...
In this limited patient population, prophylactic antimicrobial therapy should be directed against viridans group streptococci. During the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the percentage of strains of viridans group streptococci resistant to antibiotics recommended in previous AHA guidelines for the prevention of IE. Prabhu et al135 studied susceptibility patterns of viridans group streptococci recovered from patients with IE diagnosed during a period from 1971 to 1986 and compared these susceptibilities with those of viridans group streptococci from patients with IE diagnosed from 1994 to 2002. In that study, none of the strains of viridans group streptococci were penicillin resistant in the early time period compared with 13% of strains that were intermediately or fully penicillin resistant during the later time period. In that study, macrolide resistance increased from 11% to 26% and clindamycin resistance from 0% to 4%.. Among 352 blood culture isolates of viridans ...
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AMADO, Cristina et al. Streptococcus gallolyticus (ex S. bovis) bacteremia and its relationship with colonic or hepatobiliary disease and endocarditis. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.4, pp.430-434. ISSN 0716-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182015000500009.. Background: Bacteremia due to Streptococcus bovis (now S. gallolyticus) has been traditionally associated to colon or hepatobiliar disease and endocarditis but there is no information on this matter in Chile. Aims: To describe clinical features of adult patients suffering bacteremia by S. bovis/S. gallolyticus, identify the source of the bacteremia and the frequency of endocarditis. Methods: Retrospective-descriptive study using laboratory records. Results: Between January 2003 and August 2014, 23 S. bovis/S. gallolyticus bacteremic events were identified among 22 patients. Mean age was 72.7 years (range 46-96). Co-morbidities were frequent (9.1 to 47.6%). The primary source of bacteremia was intestinal in 52.2%; ...
In our research, we determine the effect of low-level laser irradiation with nanoparticles on Streptococcus salivarius. Photodynamic killing of periodontopathogenic bacteria may be an alternative to the systemic application of antibacterial drugs used in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The application of photosensitizing nanoparticles and their excitation by visible light of blue spectra enables effective killing of periodontopathogens. This data combined with the results demonstrates that TiO2, AgTiO2 and S/TiO2 can inhibit the proliferation of Streptococcus salivarius due to its high photocatalytic activity, which irreversibly damages the cell walls and membranes ...
Objectives: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is becoming the method of choice for bacterial identification. However, correct identification by MALDI-TOF of closely related microorganisms such as viridans streptococci is still cumbersome, especially in the identification of S. pneumoniae. By making use of additional spectra peaks for S. pneumoniae and other viridans group streptococci (VGS). We re-identified viridans streptococci that had been identified and characterized by molecular and phenotypic techniques by MALDI-TOF. Methods: VGS isolates (n = 579), 496 S. pneumoniae and 83 non-S. pneumoniae were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS and the sensitivity and specificity of MALDI-TOF MS was assessed. Hereafter, mass spectra analysis was performed. Presumptive identification of proteins represented by discriminatory peaks was performed by molecular weight matching and the corresponding nucleotides sequences against different protein databases. ...
Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus can cause infections of the throat and skin. ... The two most prominent infections of GAS are both non-invasive: strep throat
Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in
Different mechanisms of erythromycin resistance predominate in group C and G streptococcus (GCS and GGS, respectively) isolates collected from 1992 to 1995 in Finland. Of the 21 erythromycin-resistant GCS and 32 erythromycin-resistant GGS isolates, 95% had the mefA or mefE drug efflux gene and 94% had the ermTR methylase gene, respectively. ...
Author summary Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death. The recognition that microbial agents can contribute to the development of CRC raises hope for improving CRC diagnosis and treatment by incorporating both microbial and patient characteristics into clinical strategies. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Sg) has been implicated in CRC for decades. Patients with Sg infections display a much higher risk of having CRC compared to the general population. Despite this, the precise role of Sg in the development of CRC-i.e., whether this organism plays an active role in the development of tumor or its presence is merely a consequence of the tumor environment being favorable for its colonization of the colon-was unknown. Here using in vitro cell cultures and mouse models of CRC, we demonstrate that Sg actively promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, suggesting that it is not an innocent
Nucleics announces a project to sequence the Streptococcus gordonii DL1 genome using the ASIN genome sequencing technology developed by Nucleics. Streptococcus gordonii is an oral pathogen that can cause severe heart valve damage. This project is being performed in collaboration with Professor N A Jacques from Institute of Dental Research in Sydney. Approximately 25% of the genome sequence was completed in a pilot project in December 2000.. The ASIN technology was sold to Takara Biomedicals in March 2000, however, Nucleics retains the right to use the technology internally for non-commercial projects.. ...
The 739-codon rel(Seq) gene of Streptococcus equisimilis H46A is bifunctional, encoding a strong guanosine 3,5-bis(diphosphate) 3-pyrophosphohydrolase (ppGppase) and a weaker ribosome-independent ATP:GTP 3-pyrophosphoryltransferase [(p)ppGpp synthetase]. To analyze the function of this gene, (p)ppGpp accumulation patterns as well as protein and RNA synthesis were compared during amino acid deprivation and glucose exhaustion between the wild type and an insertion mutant carrying a rel(Seq) gene disrupted at codon 216. We found that under normal conditions, both strains contained basal levels of (p)ppGpp. Amino acid deprivation imposed by pseudomonic acid or isoleucine hydroxamate triggered a rel(Seq)-dependent stringent response characterized by rapid (p)ppGpp accumulation at the expense of GTP and abrupt cessation of net RNA accumulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. Tetracycline added to block (p)ppGpp synthesis caused the accumulated (p)ppGpp to degrade rapidly, with a ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
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Bacteriotherapy with Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB and Streptococcus oralis 89a oral spray for children with recurrent streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis.
Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) protein was one of the first cell wall-anchored adhesins identified in Gram-positive bacteria. It mediates attachment of S. mutans to tooth surfaces and has been a focus for immunization studies against dental caries. The AgI/II family polypeptides recognize salivary glycoproteins, and are also involved in biofilm formation, platelet aggregation, tissue invasion and immune modulation. The genes encoding AgI/II family polypeptides are found among Streptococcus species indigenous to the human mouth, as well as in Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. suis. Evidence of functionalities for different regions of the AgI/II proteins has emerged. A sequence motif within the C-terminal portion of Streptococcus gordonii SspB (AgI/II) is bound by Porphyromonas gingivalis, thus promoting oral colonization by this anaerobic pathogen. The significance of other epitopes is now clearer following resolution of regional crystal structures. A new picture emerges of ...
Potassium tellurite media gave the highest detrimental effects on the generation number of all tested faecal streptococci species. This applies to all investigated vehicles. However, drastic tellurite effects became more conspicuous with certain vehicles than with others. This is particularly true with acid and alkaline foods and water, especially with strains like Streptococcus bovis, Str. faecium, and Str. durans. Again, tellurite becomes more influencial with regard to old cells rather than young cells in the logarithmic phase. On the other hand, the use of thallous acetate as a concentration agent secured better results than either the tellurite or azide almost with all tested vehicles. Yet, sodium azide may be regarded as holding an intermediate position between tellurite and thallous acetate in terms of vehicles, Streptococcus species, and age of pollution. A lower number of generation resulted with all tested faecal streptococci species, using liquid media bearing more than one ...
AbstractDairy cows are especially vulnerable to intramammary infection by the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus uberis in the dry period. Use of immunotherapeutic agents at drying off could increase cellular defences in the gland and prevent establishment of new S. uberis infections. This study inves
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius ATCC ® BAA-1024D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from strain DSM 13084 (ATCC BAA-1024) TypeStrain=False Application:
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius ATCC ® 9759D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from B2 (ATCC 9759) TypeStrain=False Application:
Abstract Prophages (viral genomes integrated within a host bacterial genome) are abundant within the bacterial world and are of interest because they often confer various phenotypic traits to their hosts, such as by encoding genes that increase pathogenicity. Satellite prophages are parasites of parasites that rely on the bacterial host and another helper prophage for survival. We analysed |1,300 genomes of 70 different Streptococcus species for evidence of prophages and identified nearly 800 prophages and satellite prophages, the majority of which are reported here for the first time. We show that prophages and satellite prophages were widely distributed among streptococci, were two clearly different entities and each possessed a structured population. There was convincing evidence that cross-species transmission of prophages is not uncommon. Furthermore, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading human pathogen worldwide, but the genetic basis for its pathogenicity and virulence is not yet
Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARgamma signaling...