Stereocilia are actin-based protrusions on auditory sensory hair cells that are deflected by sound waves to initiate the conversion of mechanical energy to neuronal signals. Stereocilia maintenance is essential because auditory hair cells are not renewed in mammals. This process requires both β-actin and γ-actin as knock-out mice lacking either isoform develop distinct stereocilia pathology during aging. In addition, stereocilia integrity may hinge on immobilizing actin, which outside of a small region at stereocilia tips turns over with a very slow, months-long half-life. Here, we establish that β-actin and the actin crosslinking protein fascin-2 cooperate to maintain stereocilia length and auditory function. We observed that mice expressing mutant fascin-2 (p.R109H) or mice lacking β-actin share a common phenotype including progressive, high-frequency hearing loss together with shortening of a defined subset of stereocilia in the hair cell bundle. Fascin-2 binds β-actin and γ-actin filaments
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a heterogenous group of RNAs, which can encode small proteins. The extent to which developmentally regulated lncRNAs are translated and whether the produced microproteins are relevant for human development is unknown. Using a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based pancreatic differentiation system, we show that many lncRNAs in direct vicinity of lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs) are dynamically regulated, predominantly cytosolic, and highly translated. We genetically ablated ten such lncRNAs, most of them translated, and found that nine are dispensable for pancreatic endocrine cell development. However, deletion of LINC00261 diminishes insulin+ cells, in a manner independent of the nearby TF FOXA2. One-by-one disruption of each of LINC00261s open reading frames suggests that the RNA, rather than the produced microproteins, is required for endocrine development. Our work highlights extensive translation of lncRNAs during hESC pancreatic ...
Multifunctional actin-bundling protein. Plays a major role in regulating the organization, dimension, dynamics and signaling capacities of the actin filament-rich microvilli in the mechanosensory and chemosensory cells (PubMed:9763424). Required for the assembly and stabilization of the stereociliary parallel actin bundles. Plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of inner ear hair cell stereocilia. Involved in the elongation of actin in stereocilia. In extrastriolar hair cells, required for targeting MYO3B to stereocilia tips, and for regulation of stereocilia diameter and staircase formation (By similarity).
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Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 2016 Annual Tables of Infectious Disease Data. Atlanta, GA. CDC Division of Health Informatics and Surveillance, 2017. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nndss/infectioustables.html ...
Because there is little knowledge in the areas of stereocilia development, maintenance, and function in the hearing system, I decided to pursue a proteomics-based approach to discover proteins that play a role in stereocilia function. I employed a modified "twist-off" technique to isolate hair bundle proteins, and I developed a method to purify proteins and to process them for analysis using multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). The MudPIT analysis yielded a substantial list of proteins. I verified the presence of 21 out of 34 (62%) existing proteins known to be present in stereocilia. This provided strong evidence that my proteomics approach was efficient in identifying hair bundle proteins. Next, I selected three proteins and localized them to murine cochlear stereocilia. StarD10, a putative phospholipid binding protein, was detectable along the shaft of stereocilia. Nebulin, a putative F-actin regulator, was located toward the base of stereocilia. Finally, twinfilin 2, ...
How could the Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) threaten our national icon, the New Zealand Kiwi (Apteryx) ? This submission to a well recognised Government Conservation Agency explains it all:...
Flow in the arterial system is mostly laminar, but turbulence occurs in vivo under both normal and pathological conditions. Turbulent and laminar flow elicit significantly different responses in endothelial cells (ECs), but the mechanisms allowing ECs to distinguish between these different flow regimes remain unknown. The authors present a computational model that describes the effect of turbulence on mechanical force transmission within ECs. Because turbulent flow is inherently noisy with random fluctuations in pressure and velocity, our model focuses on the effect of signal noise (a stochastically changing force) on the deformation of intracellular transduction sites including the nucleus, cell-cell adhesion proteins (CCAPs), and focal adhesion sites (FAS). The authors represent these components of the mechanical signaling pathway as linear viscoelastic structures (Kelvin bodies) connected to the cell surface via cytoskeletal elements. The authors demonstrate that FAS are more sensitive to signal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stereocilia-staircase spacing is influenced by myosin III motors and their cargos espin-1 and espin-like. AU - Ebrahim, Seham. AU - Avenarius, Matthew R.. AU - Grati, Mhamed. AU - Krey, Jocelyn F.. AU - Windsor, Alanna M.. AU - Sousa, Aurea D.. AU - Ballesteros, Angela. AU - Cui, Runjia. AU - Millis, Bryan A.. AU - Salles, Felipe T.. AU - Baird, Michelle A.. AU - Davidson, Michael W.. AU - Jones, Sherri M.. AU - Choi, Dongseok. AU - Dong, Lijin. AU - Raval, Manmeet H.. AU - Yengo, Christopher M.. AU - Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.. AU - Kachar, Bechara. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Hair cells tightly control the dimensions of their stereocilia, which are actin-rich protrusions with graded heights that mediate mechanotransduction in the inner ear. Two members of the myosin-III family, MYO3A and MYO3B, are thought to regulate stereocilia length by transporting cargos that control actin polymerization at stereocilia tips. We show that eliminating espin-1 (ESPN-1), an isoform of ...
Actin-bundling protein found in intestinal microvilli, hair cell stereocilia, and fibroblast filopodia. May play a role in the regulation of bone development.
In structure, they are longer than typical microvilli and have more of the characteristics of the cellular membrane proper. Like microvilli, they contain actin filaments, distinguishing them from microtubule-containing cilia. They are found in three regions of the body: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regeneration of Stereocilia of Hair Cells by Forced Atoh1 Expression in the Adult Mammalian Cochlea. AU - Yang, Shi Ming. AU - Chen, Wei. AU - Guo, Wei Wei. AU - Jia, Shuping. AU - Sun, Jian He. AU - Liu, Hui Zhan. AU - Young, Wie Yen. AU - He, David Z.Z.. PY - 2012/9/27. Y1 - 2012/9/27. N2 - The hallmark of mechanosensory hair cells is the stereocilia, where mechanical stimuli are converted into electrical signals. These delicate stereocilia are susceptible to acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. While hair cells in lower vertebrates and the mammalian vestibular system can spontaneously regenerate lost stereocilia, mammalian cochlear hair cells no longer retain this capability. We explored the possibility of regenerating stereocilia in the noise-deafened guinea pig cochlea by cochlear inoculation of a viral vector carrying Atoh1, a gene critical for hair cell differentiation. Exposure to simulated gunfire resulted in a 60-70 dB hearing loss and extensive damage and loss of ...
Inner ear hair cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sensory outer hair cells (stereocilia) from the organ of corti, in the cochlea of the inner ear. These cells are surrounded by a fluid called the endolymph. As sound enters the ear it causes waves to form in the endolymph, which in turn cause these hairs to move. The movement is converted into an electrical signal, which is passed to the brain. Each V-shaped arrangement of hairs lies on the top of a single cell. Magnification: x5,000 when printed 10cm tall. - Stock Image P434/0062
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry reveals slow protein turnover in hair-cell stereocilia. AU - Zhang, Duan Sun. AU - Piazza, Valeria. AU - Perrin, Benjamin J.. AU - Rzadzinska, Agnieszka K.. AU - Poczatek, J. Collin. AU - Wang, Mei. AU - Prosser, Haydn M.. AU - Ervasti, James M.. AU - Corey, David P.. AU - Lechene, Claude P.. PY - 2012/1/26. Y1 - 2012/1/26. N2 - Hair cells of the inner ear are not normally replaced during an animals life, and must continually renew components of their various organelles. Among these are the stereocilia, each with a core of several hundred actin filaments that arise from their apical surfaces and that bear the mechanotransduction apparatus at their tips. Actin turnover in stereocilia has previously been studied by transfecting neonatal rat hair cells in culture with a β-actin-GFP fusion, and evidence was found that actin is replaced, from the top down, in 2-3 days. Overexpression of the actin-binding protein espin causes elongation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Actin-binding protein, espin. T2 - A novel metastatic regulator for melanoma. AU - Yanagishita, Takeshi. AU - Yajima, Ichiro. AU - Kumasaka, Mayuko. AU - Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki. AU - Tsuzuki, Toyonori. AU - Matsumoto, Yoshinari. AU - Watanabe, Daisuke. AU - Kato, Masashi. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Espin is a multifunctional actin-bundling protein with multiple isoforms, and has special connections to hair cell stereocilia and microvillar specializations of sensory cells in the inner ear. However, there have been no reports showing the expression and function of Espin in cancers, including melanoma. Here, it is demonstrated that Espin expression is significantly increased in melanomas that spontaneously developed in RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Importantly, the invasion capacity of Espin-depleted Mel-ret melanoma cells derived from a tumor of the RET-mouse was dramatically less than that of control melanoma cells with reductions of lamellipodia, focal adhesion kinase ...
Will the Real Tip-Link Antigen Please Stand Up Zubair M. Ahmed, Richard Goodyear, Saima Riazuddin, Ayala Lagziel, P. Kevin Legan, Martine Behra, Shawn M. Burgess, Kathryn S. Lilley, Edward R. Wilcox, Sheikh Riazuddin, Andrew J. Griffith, Gregory I. Frolenkov, Inna A. Belyantseva, Guy P. Richardson, and Thomas B. Friedman. (see pages 7022-7034). The tip link sits at the business end of a hair cell, linking the top of a shorter stereocilia on the hair bundle to its taller neighbor and thus presumably gating the mechanosensitive channels. This week, Ahmed et al. set out to identify the protein previously known as the tip-link antigen (TLA). Using mass spectrometric analysis of TLA, the authors identified TLA as protocadherin-15. The isoforms of protocadherin-15 had distinct C-terminal domains (CD1, CD2, and CD3). The distribution of two of the isoforms suggested that they are part of the tip-link complex, probably serving as anchoring elements rather than the central strand. Protocadherin-15-CD3 ...
Using powerful electron microscopy techniques, Gleason and her colleagues confirmed previous findings in mice studies that showed abnormalities in the hair cells. The deaf zebra fish had fewer and shorter kinocilia as well as a reduced number of stereocillia. But the researchers also found that the tips of the stereocilia were much thinner than normal stereocilia and lacked a tethering protein that connects one stereocilium to the next. The findings, says Gleason, suggest that Tmie plays a bigger role in the transmission of sound than previously thought. "At the ultra-structural level, we specifically show that these mutant defects map to a very specific cog in the transduction machinery," says Gleason. "And thats exciting because we now have a clearer target for therapy. ...
Make a huge model cell in your classroom! A spectacular way to teach the cell! Students make the components and join them together to make an entire cell model. You can make the cell as big as you like by printing more parts. This bundle comprises the following 5 sets: Cell Membranes Cell Nucleus Mighty Mitochondria En
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the directionality of the stereocilia is different in the anterior and posterior canals (in contrast to the horizontal canals, depolarization occurs in a direction AWAY from the utricle in both cases ...
To become the very best version of yourself, youll need to maximize your two more important assets: your body and your mind! Through The Model Health Show.
Inner ear hair cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sensory hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. The crescent-shaped arrangements of hairs across top are the stereocilia. Each crescent lies atop a single cell. Magnification: x1000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image F004/3259
Dear members of Tinnitus Talk, As we are all hoping that a cure for (subjective) tinnitus will come in the near future, I created this thread to try...
General Information 1. What is growth hormone? Growth hormone (GH) is a single polypeptide hormone secreted from the cells of the pituitary gland. GHs in human are present as isomers of 27, 22, 20, 17, and 5 kDa. GH of 22 kDa, called somatropin, is the major component of GHs produced by human pituitary and used for the therapy. This kind of GH is composed of 191 amino acids and contains four -helices arranged in a left- handed bundle orientation. Two disulfide bridges are located at Cys53-Cys165 and Cys182-Cys189 in GH, and the Cys residues make up the loop structure of the GH molecule. The main effect of GH is to promote postnatal longitudinal growth. Hyposecretion of GH can lead to dwarfism. The growth-promoting effects of GH result from GHs diverse and pleiotropic effects on cellular metabolism and differentiation. GH is known to regulate the lipid, carbohydrate, nitrogen, and mineral metabolism within a cell. Many of GH actions are mediated by the activation of insulin-like growth
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a reverse-direction motor protein that moves toward the minus end of actin filaments and plays a role in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. The protein consists of a motor domain containing an ATP- and an actin-binding site and a globular tail which interacts with other proteins. This protein maintains the structural integrity of inner ear hair cells and mutations in this gene cause non-syndromic autosomal dominant and recessive hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014 ...
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Square and rounded shape. Connected and sporadic. Cell walls and no cell walls. Large, central vacuoles and small vacuoles. These are key characteristics that our students need to understand about plant and animal cells. Using the resources in this bundle will allow your students to explore, in...
A new manual showing how to make vehicle-logged streets more pleasant for people is being launched in Londons House of Commons this week - and it was co-authored by a kiwi.
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Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1Δ mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2Δ mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1ΔTmc2Δ mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, ...
Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1Δ mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2Δ mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1ΔTmc2Δ mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, ...
Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1Δ mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2Δ mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1ΔTmc2Δ mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, ...
Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1Δ mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2Δ mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1ΔTmc2Δ mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, ...
Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1Δ mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2Δ mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1ΔTmc2Δ mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, ...
A modifier variant can abrogate risk of a monogenic disorder. DFNM1 is a locus on chromosome 1 encoding a dominant suppressor of human DFNB26 recessive, profound deafness. Here, we report that DFNB26 is associated with a substitution (p.Gly116Glu) in the pleckstrin-homology-domain of GAB1, an essential scaffold in the MET/HGF pathway. A dominant substitution (p.Arg544Gln) of METTL13, encoding a predicted methyltransferase, is the DFNM1 suppressor of GAB1-associated deafness. In zebrafish, human METTL13 mRNA harboring the modifier allele rescues the GAB1 associated morphant phenotype. In mouse, GAB1 and METTL13 co-localize in auditory sensory neurons, and METTL13 co-immunoprecipitates with GAB1 and SPRY2, indicating at least a tripartite complex. Expression of MET-signaling genes in human lymphoblastoid cells of individuals homozygous for p.Gly116Glu GAB1 revealed dysregulation of HGF, MET, SHP2, and SPRY2, all of which have reported variants associated with deafness. However, SPRY2 was not ...
Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in the gene encoding transmembrane channel-like 1 (TMC1) cause hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction in both mice and humans, we investigated the contribution of Tmc1 and the closely related Tmc2 to mechanotransduction in mice. We found that Tmc1 and Tmc2 were expressed in mouse vestibular and cochlear hair cells and that GFP-tagged TMC proteins localized near stereocilia tips. Tmc2 expression was transient in early postnatal mouse cochlear hair cells but persisted in vestibular hair cells. While mice with a targeted deletion of Tmc1 (Tmc1Δ mice) were deaf and those with a deletion of Tmc2 (Tmc2Δ mice) were phenotypically normal, Tmc1ΔTmc2Δ mice had profound vestibular dysfunction, deafness, ...
Inner ear structures are compared among three major genera of the deep-sea fish family Melamphaidae (bigscales and ridgeheads). Substantial interspecific variation is found in the saccular otoliths, including the presence of a unique otolithic spur in the genera Melamphaes and Poromitra. The variation in the saccular otolith is correlated with an increase in the number of hair bundle orientation groups on the sensory epithelia from the genera Scopelogadus to Poromitra to Melamphaes. The diverse structural variations found in the saccule may reflect the evolutionary history of these species. The sensory hair cell bundles in this family have the most variable shapes yet encountered in fish ears. In the saccule, most of the hair bundles are 15-20 μm high, an exceptional height for fish otolithic end organs. These bundles have large numbers of stereovilli, including some that reach the length of the kinocilium. In the utricle, the striolar region separates into two unusually shaped areas that ...
Coreys research focuses on understanding the cellular and molecular basis of hearing. A specialized cell of the inner ear, called a hair cell, converts the mechanical stimulus of a sound wave into an electrical stimulus that is sent to the brain. These hair cells have a bundle of hair-like protrusions emanating from the top surface of the cell. These hairs are connected by fine filaments that are stretched every time the hair bundle is deflected by a sound vibration. The filaments are, in turn, connected directly to proteins called ion channels that respond to the stretch by producing an electrical current across the membrane ...
Providing clues to deafness, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a gene that is required for proper development of the mouse inner ear.
To date, it is still not clear how proteins regulate planar cell polarity (PCP) or the positioning of the basal body (BB) and cilia. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München have now taken an important step in elucidating this mechanism. Moritz Gegg and Professor Dr. Heiko Lickert of the Institute of Diabetes and Regeneration Research (IDR) have published their new findings in the journal "eLIFE".. "Epithelial cell layers line all of the inner and outer body and organ surfaces in the human body, for example in the lung, intestine, pancreas and in the inner ear," said Moritz Gegg. Cilia - small, hair-like, microtubule-based structures - project from BBs and are precisely positioned on many of these epithelial cells. "Only through this exact positioning can cilia movements be coordinated so precisely that for example mucus can be transported from the lung or sound can be perceived from sensory inner ear hair cells," added Heiko Lickert. Cilia are anchored by the basal bodies to the plasma membrane ...
Will we be able to restore hearing loss? It was recently found that we as humans do possess an ability to regenerate cells in our intestines. A similarity between these cells in the intestine and cells found in the cochlea led researchers to discover a drug that could regenerate cochlea cells.
We first reported that PCDH15 is essential for hearing and balance in the mouse and specifically for normal development of hair bundles (Alagramam et al., 2001a, 2001b; Pawlowski et al., 2006; Kikkawa et al., 2008). More recently, we showed that an in-frame deletion of 47 amino acids in EC9 of PCDH15 (associated with the av6J allele of Pcdh15 in the mouse) does not prevent formation of tip links, although the av6J links are apparently not stable over time (Alagramam et al., 2011). Similarly, a missense mutation in EC7 of mouse CDH23 does not affect the formation of tip links, although they are progressively lost (Schwander et al., 2009). In contrast, Pcdh15noddy homozygotes show that a point mutation in EC1 of PCDH15 disrupts bundle integrity, much like the null allele Pcdh15av3J. The hair bundle arrangement at P3 in Pcdh15noddy homozygotes was severely disrupted and misoriented; the kinocilia were often abnormally positioned as well. PCDH15 I108N was expressed in the hair bundle in Pcdh15noddy ...
Keywords: Vestibular, type II locks cell, morphology, mammal, synapse, JAX:000654, JAX:000664, RGD: 737903, Abdominal_10013626, Abdominal_10015251, Abdominal_2282417, Abdominal_2068506, Abdominal_2068336, Abdominal_477329, Abdominal_177520, Abdominal_10175616, Abdominal_2113875, Abdominal_399431, Abdominal_2079751, Abdominal_2286684 Intro In mammals, five vestibular body organs INO-1001 in the internal hearing encode motions of the mind and therefore regulate look, body motions, and body alignment. The saccule and utricle possess a toned physical epithelium known as a macula, and they respond to linear mind speeding and mind tilt. The anterior, posterior, and horizontal ampullae possess a even more complexly formed physical epithelium known as a crista, and they identify mind rotation in a range of aeroplanes. Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in ...
Keywords: Vestibular, type II locks cell, morphology, mammal, synapse, JAX:000654, JAX:000664, RGD: 737903, Abdominal_10013626, Abdominal_10015251, Abdominal_2282417, Abdominal_2068506, Abdominal_2068336, Abdominal_477329, Abdominal_177520, Abdominal_10175616, Abdominal_2113875, Abdominal_399431, Abdominal_2079751, Abdominal_2286684 Intro In mammals, five vestibular body organs INO-1001 in the internal hearing encode motions of the mind and therefore regulate look, body motions, and body alignment. The saccule and utricle possess a toned physical epithelium known as a macula, and they respond to linear mind speeding and mind tilt. The anterior, posterior, and horizontal ampullae possess a even more complexly formed physical epithelium known as a crista, and they identify mind rotation in a range of aeroplanes. Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in ...
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We measured robust MET currents in both IHCs and OHCs of Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− mice. The amplitude and sensitivity of these MET currents were smaller and more variable from cell to cell than those of control hair cells, but their kinetics and adaptation characteristics were normal, which appears to rule out an implication of these myosins in MET adaptation (Schneider et al., 2006). Incidentally, MET also occurred in the supernumerary stereocilia of circular OHC bundles, which display inward current responses when deflected in the direction opposite to the kinocilium. The MET currents of Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− hair cells were consistent with an altered mechanical response of hair bundles due to their abnormal shapes, whereas the MET channels are otherwise properly functioning. Finally, the absence of an abnormal auditory phenotype in Myo3a-cKO Myo3b−/− mice, which lack both myosins IIIa and IIIb from P13, precludes a crucial role of these myosins in the maintenance of MET at mature ...
Recessive mutations at the mouse pirouette (pi) locus result in hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction due to neuroepithelial defects in the inner ear. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have identified mutations in the gene Grxcr1 (glutaredoxin cysteine-rich 1) in five independent allelic strains of pirouette mice. We also provide sequence data of GRXCR1 from humans with profound hearing loss suggesting that pirouette is a model for studying the mechanism of nonsyndromic deafness DFNB25. Grxcr1 encodes a 290 amino acid protein that contains a region of similarity to glutaredoxin proteins and a cysteine-rich region at its C terminus. Grxcr1 is expressed in sensory epithelia of the inner ear, and its encoded protein is localized along the length of stereocilia, the actin-filament-rich mechanosensory structures at the apical surface of auditory and vestibular hair cells. The precise architecture of hair cell stereocilia is essential for normal hearing. Loss of function of Grxcr1 in