The aim of this study was to characterise invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains from Italy and to investigate the presence of heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (h-VISA). Eighty-two MSSA and 66 MRSA strains obt …
King and colleagues (1) cite clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid as alternatives to vancomycin for outpatient treatment of localized skin and soft-tissue infections due to MRSA. However, they point out the uncertain efficacy of these agents in MRSA infections and the problem of inducible clindamycin resistance. Missing from this list of alternatives, and from the susceptibility data included in the paper and in the Editors Notes, are the tetracyclines, of which minocycline is the most potent against staphylococci and with which there is the most clinical experience in treating MRSA infections (2) ...
We found that most MRSA infections in the HNELHD are now acquired in the community, and that young people, Indigenous Australians, and residents of aged care facilities are disproportionally affected by CA-MRSA infections (Box 6). Fewer than half the patients with MRSA isolates had been hospitalised during the preceding 12 months, and more than one-third of S. aureus isolates from residents of aged care facilities were MRSA (Box 2).. The prevalence of multi-resistant MRSA decreased significantly across the study period, and non-multi-resistant MRSA phenotypes predominated in both community and health care settings. EMRSA-15-like strains predominated in CA-MRSA isolates from people in aged care facilities, and the highest proportion of non-multi-resistant phenotypes was for CA-MRSA isolates from patients in major metropolitan areas.. Our findings reflect progress in reducing HO-MRSA rates, with MRSA isolation rates declining in the two largest hospitals. Reduced HO-MRSA rates have been documented ...
This single-center, case-control study documents a relative increase in methicillin resistance among 48 cases of Staphylococcus aureus-associated postpartum mastitis during 1998-2005. Of 21 cases with methicillin resistance, 17 (81%) occurred in 2005. Twenty (95%) isolates contained the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec type IV gene; this suggests that the increase is due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus ...
A 14-month-old infant was brought by his mother for evaluation of fever (temperature, 39.4ºC [103ºF]) and a tender, indurated, warm area with surrounding edema and a centrally located papule in the left groin.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A child with Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis and Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia. AU - Venugopalan, P.. AU - Alexander, P. C.. AU - Aithala, G.. AU - Koul, R. L.. AU - Shenoy, A. K.. PY - 1999/12. Y1 - 1999/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033388857&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033388857&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 10667006. AN - SCOPUS:0033388857. VL - 45. SP - 360. EP - 361. JO - Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. JF - Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. SN - 0142-6338. IS - 6. ER - ...
with M. Blaser, Y-H. Hsieh, and J. Wu), Pre-symptomatic influenza transmission, surveillance, and school closings, published online, April 28, 2010, Math. Mod. Nat. Phen.. (with E.M.C. DAgata and J. Pressley), Rapid emergence of co-colonization with community-acquired and hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the hospital setting, published online, April 28, 2010, Math. Mod. Nat. Phen.. (with J. Dyson, S.A. Gourley, and R. Villella-Bressan), Existence and asymptotic properties of solutions of a nonlocal evolution equation modelling cell-cell adhesion, SIAM J. Math. Anal., Vol. 42, No. 4 (2010), 1784-1804.. (with E.M.C. DAgata and J. Pressley), The effect of co-colonization with community-acquired and hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains on competitive exclusion, J. Theoret. Biol., Vol. 264 (2010), 645-656.. (with B. Ayati, C. Edwards, and J. Wikswo), A mathematical model of bone remodeling dynamics for normal and tumor bone ...
We determined the agr type, multilocus sequence type, protein A gene type (spa typing), toxin gene profile, and antimicrobial drug resistance profile of 469 isolates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (PVL-positive CA-MRSA). The isolates had been collected from around the world from 1999 through 2005 by the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci. We found that some continent-specific clones described in 2003, such as clone ST8, have now spread all over the world. Likewise, some PVL-positive CA-MRSA have spread to several countries on various continents. New clones have emerged (e.g., ST377) on new genetic backgrounds. PVL-positive CA-MRSA that were usually susceptible to most antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents have acquired new resistance determinants (e.g., to gentamicin) in certain countries. The major trait shared by all these clones is a short staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element of type ...
Recent CDC studies show that people who inject drugs are at high risk for dangerous, costly infections from skin bacteria and fungi. The CDC-funded Emerging Infections Programs Healthcare-Associated Infections/Community Interface found that people who inject drugs are at 16-times higher risk of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Moreover, the proportion of invasive MRSA infections among people who inject drugs more than doubled from 2011 through 2016. Additional field investigations conducted by CDC staff in New York, New Mexico, and Colorado identified drug preparation or injection practices that greatly increase infection risk. This information is giving CDC and partners insights into how these dangerous infections can be prevented-for example, by educating people about wound care and early warning signs of serious infections associated with injection drug use.. CDC also teams up with partners to track emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations ...
CIDRAP News) - The latest data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that hospitals have cut their incidence of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in half since 2005, but the decline in community-associated MRSA infections has been far more modest. ...
CIDRAP News) - The latest data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that hospitals have cut their incidence of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in half since 2005, but the decline in community-associated MRSA infections has been far more modest. ...
SAN DIEGO-In dialysis patients, invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections occur much more frequently than in the general population, a study found.
Genus and species should be expanded and italicized in the title or subtitle and an initial capital letter should be used for the genus but not the species name, just as in the text. (See also , Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Biological Nomenclature.)Elimination of a Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Nurse With Atopic Dermatitis |
Genus and species should be expanded and italicized in the title or subtitle and an initial capital letter should be used for the genus but not the species name, just as in the text. (See also , Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Biological Nomenclature.)Elimination of a Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Nurse With Atopic Dermatitis |
Frank, L. A., Kania, S. A., Kirzeder, E. M., Eberlein, L. C. and Bemis, D. A. (2009), Risk of colonization or gene transfer to owners of dogs with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Veterinary Dermatology, 20: 496-501. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00826.x ...
We conducted a retrospective, observational, population-based study to investigate the effect of staphylococcal infections on the hospitalization of children in California during 1985-2009. Hospitalized children with staphylococcal infections were identified through the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database. Infections were categorized as community onset, community onset health care-associated, or hospital onset. Infection incidence was calculated relative to all children and to those hospitalized in acute-care facilities. A total of 140,265 records were analyzed. Overall incidence increased from 49/100,000 population in 1985 to a peak of 83/100,000 in 2006 and dropped to 73/100,000 in 2009. Staphylococcal infections were associated with longer hospital stays and higher risk for death relative to all-cause hospitalizations of children. The number of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections increased, and the number of methicillin-susceptible S.
Staphylococci are among the most important human pathogens and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing septicaemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and post-operative infections. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus is regarded as the most virulent species, while S. epidermidis, once considered harmless, is emerging as an important agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in association with indwelling medical devices.The emergence of methicillin- and vancomycin- resistance among clinical isolates of S. aureus has made treatment of staphylococcal infections difficult and has revived research on vaccination and other strategies to prevent and treat staphylococcal infections especially in patients who are at high risk.The pathogenicity of staphylococci is due to the expression of a large plethora of virulence factors. Such determinants, which are mainly cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that confer to the pathogen the ability to attach
Staphylococcal infections in hospitals by Great Britain. Standing Medical Advisory Committee. Subcommittee on Staphylococcal Infections in Hospitals.; 1 edition; Subjects: Hospitals, Staphylococcal infections; Places: Great Britain
ICD-9 code 041.19 for Staphylococcus infection in conditions classified elsewhere and of unspecified site other staphylococcus is a medical classifica
Prior to the recent outbreak in Cedar Key, no one there had heard of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA, which is used to describe those examples of the organism that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Methicillin was an antibiotic used many years ago to treat patients with Staphylococcus infections. It is now no longer used except as a means of identifying this particular type of infection.
During the last decade staphylococcal infections have become a problem of increasing concern. Most of the acute bacterial infections of man respond promptly and predictably to the antimicrobial agents now available. Nevertheless, infections due to staphylococci have remained a serious therapeutic problem. It is generally believed that the incidence of staphylococcal infection has increased since the introduction of antimicrobials, although only a few studies to document this impression have appeared in the literature.9, 42, 64. Despite the apparent close biologic relationship between staphylococci and other gram-positive cocci which produce acute human infections, there is increasing evidence to suggest that staphylococci ...
The high recurrence rate of S. aureus skin and soft tissue (SSTI) caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), suggests that long-lasting immunity is not generated in many individuals. If immune-based therapies are to provide an alternative to antibiotics, understanding the key immune responses that promote protection against CA-MRSA is essential. Previous reports in mice found that IL-17A/F production by γδ T cells mediated early neutrophil recruitment and host defense (within the first 24 hours) against a skin challenge with a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus laboratory strain. To elucidate the role of IL-17A/F in host defense against a CA-MRSA SSTI, IL-17A/F-deficient and wt mice were inoculated intradermally with a bioluminescent derivative of a CA-MRSA clinical isolate (USA300 LAC). Remarkably, IL-17A/F-deficient mice did not have an early immune defect, but rather they developed significantly larger lesions and increased bacterial burden compared with wt mice at days 7
McMurray, Claire Louise (2016) Factors influencing the nasal carriage by staphylococci. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Evans, Jason Thomas (2012) Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Midlands. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Smith, Helen Elizabeth (2013) The interrelationship of strain diversity, virulence and patient ethnicity for tuberculosis in the Midlands, UK. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Thomson, Calum Bryson (2017) The molecular epidemiology and characteristics of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 22 in a local, national and international context. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. ...
Global Staphylococcal Infection Drugs Market 2019 by Company, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024 is an inclusive, professional analysis which demonstrates Staphylococcal Infection Drugs market data. The report covers data that makes the record a resource for analysts, managers, industry experts as well as important people. The report involves key insights pertaining to industry deliverables, particularly market trends, market share, market competitors and recognized players, market size, current valuation, and revenue estimations for the forecast period. It then identifies the market growth rate during the forecast timeline. The report has forecast the strong rise of this market in product sections and every geography. Additionally, the foremost challenges and growth opportunities are presented in the research study.. DOWNLOAD FREE SAMPLE REPORT: https://www.mrinsights.biz/report-detail/185155/request-sample Moreover, assessment of the technical barriers, other issues, as well as ...
Management of infection is a major clinical problem. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium which colonises approximately one third of the adult human population. Staphylococcal infections can be life-threatening and are frequently complicated by multi-antibiotic resistant strains including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) imaging has been used to identify infection sites; however, it is unable to distinguish between sterile inflammation and bacterial load. We have modified [18F]FDG by phosphorylation, producing [18F]FDG-6-P to facilitate specific uptake and accumulation by S. aureus through hexose phosphate transporters, which are not present in mammalian cell membranes. This approach leads to the specific uptake of the radiopharmaceutical into the bacteria and not the sites of sterile inflammation. [18F]FDG-6-P was synthesised from [18F]FDG. Yield, purity and stability were confirmed by RP-HPLC and iTLC. The specificity of [18F]FDG-6-P for the bacterial
Dyon-Tafani, V. ; Lefort, S. ; Josse, J. ; Valour, F. ; Diot, A. ; Sabuco, J.F. ; Coyne, S. ; Ferry, T. ; Mourez, M. ; Laurent, F ...
emscope:(USP_PRODUCAO),scope:(USP_EBOOKS),scope:(PRIMO),scope:(USP),scope:(USP_EREVISTAS),scope:(USP_FISICO),primo_central_multiple_fe ...
Staphylococcal (staph) infections are common in the skin but can spread to deeper tissues, causing serious complications including sepsis. Learn about the symptoms, treatment and why its important to seek medical advice here - using content verified by certified doctors.
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This is a highly useful study on several axes. First, remarkably, there has not been agreement over whether and how much of a problem MRSA poses in post-surgical settings, particularly when compared to drug-sensitive staph. This study provides careful, thoughtful, well-documented proof that combating MRSA infection is worthwhile. (NB, MRSA infections did not increase the risk of death relative to MSSA infections, which should remind us both of the often-forgotten virulence of MSSA, and also that MRSAs perils can lie in extended illness and disability as much or more as in early death.) Second, by putting a very specific number on the cost of a post-surgical MRSA infection, it gives healthcare administrators a benchmark against which they can judge the cost of a prevention program. Weve all heard complaints that prevention programs can be costly and their benefit is hard to measure in a bottom-line way. With this very specific number, that complaint should no longer be valid ...
MRSA is a super-scary, drug-resistant staph infection, and even Peyton Manning suffered, as I reported recently. MRSA is one of the superbugs, which a...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infectious diseases and was endemic in hospitals by the late 1960s. Beginning with its first report in the late 1990s, the rapid emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) worldwide responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from minor skin infections to fatal necrotizing pneumonia has been found in previously healthy individuals without established risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Recently, various virulence determinants unique to CA-MRSA have been uncovered, which explain how the pathogen spreads easily and causes severe CA-MRSA infections among humans. However, the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA infection is currently a matter of much debate because of conflicting data from epidemiologic studies of CA-MRSA infections and various murine disease models. Identifying specialized pathogenic traits of CA-MRSA and the concerted regulation of ...
Characterization and Comparison of 2 Distinct Epidemic Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones of ST59 ...
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) USA300 has spread rapidly across North America, and CA-MRSA is also increasing in Australia. However, the dominant Australian CA-MRSA strain, ST93-IV [2B] appears distantly related to USA300 despite strikingly similar clinical and epidemiological profiles. Here, we compared the virulence of a recent Australian ST93 isolate (JKD6159) to other MRSA, including USA300, and found that JKD6159 was the most virulent in a mouse skin infection model. We fully sequenced the genome of JKD6159 and confirmed that JKD6159 is a distinct clone with 7616 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distinguishing this strain from all other S. aureus genomes. Despite its high virulence there were surprisingly few virulence determinants. However, genes encoding a-hemolysin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and a-type phenol soluble modulins were present. Genome comparisons revealed 32 additional CDS in JKD6159 but none appeared to encode new ...
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first reported in Western Australia in the early 1990s from indigenous peoples living in remote areas. Although a statewide policy of screening all hospital patients and staff who have lived outside the state for MRSA has prevented the establishment of multidrug-resistant epidemic MRSA, the policy has not prevented SCCmec type IV and type V MRSA clones from becoming established. Of the 4,099 MRSA isolates analyzed (referred to the Gram-positive Bacteria Typing and Research Unit) from July 2003 to December 2004, 77.5% were community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Using multilocus sequence/staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec typing, 22 CA-MRSA clones were characterized. Of these isolates, 55.5% were resistant to ,1 non-β-lactam antimicrobial drug. Five Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive CA-MRSA clones were identified. The emergence of multidrug-resistant CA-MRSA clones and the detection of PVL toxin genes in clones ...
Boucher, H, Miller, L, Razonable, R. Serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. vol. 51. 2010. pp. S183-S197. Miller, LG, Perdreau-Remington, F, Rieg, G, Mehdi, S, Perlroth, J, Bayer, A, Tang, A, Phung, T, Spellberg, B. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Los Angeles. N Eng J Med. vol. 352. 2005. pp. 1445-1453. Cosgrove, SE, Fowler, VG. Optimizing therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. vol. 28. 2007. pp. 624-631. Moran, GJ, Krishnadasan, A, Gorwitz, RJ, Fosheim, G, McDougal, LK, Carey, R, Talan, D. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections among patients in the emergency department. N Eng J Med. vol. 355. 2006. pp. 666-674. Gordon, RJ, Lowy, FD. Pathogenesis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Clin Infect Dis. vol. 46. 2008. pp. S350-S359. Bishara, J, Leibovici, L, Gartman-Israel, D, ...
Adcock PM, Pastor P, Medley F, Patterson JE, Murphy TV. 1998. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two child care centers. J Infect Dis 178(2):577-580.. Bhat M, Dumortier C, Taylor BS, Miller M, Vasquez G, Yunen J, et al. 2009. Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York City and Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis 15(2):285-287.. Bosch T, van Luit M, Pluister GN, Frentz D, Haenen A, Landman F, et al. 2016. Changing characteristics of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from humans - emergence of a subclade transmitted without livestock exposure, the Netherlands, 2003 to 2014. Euro Surveill 21(21), doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.21.30236.. Chen AE, Cantey JB, Carroll KC, Ross T, Speser S, Siberry GK. 2009. Discordance between Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and skin infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28(3):244-246.. CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). 2015. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility ...
Difficult-to-treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are of concern in people living with HIV infection as they are m
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro efficacy of antimicrobial agents against high-inoculum or biofilm-embedded meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with vancomycin minimal inhibitory concentrations equal to 2 μg/mL (VA2-MRSA). AU - Tang, Hung Jen. AU - Chen, Chi Chung. AU - Ko, Wen Chien. AU - Yu, Wen Liang. AU - Chiang, Shyh Ren. AU - Chuang, Yin Ching. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates has been observed in recent years. The potential roles of vancomycin-based combination regimens as well as linezolid and tigecycline against five clinical MRSA isolates with vancomycin MICs of 2 μg/mL (VA2-MRSA) were evaluated and compared in vitro. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by the agar dilution method. Anti-MRSA activities of linezolid, tigecycline, vancomycin, minocycline, rifampicin and fosfomycin alone as well as of three vancomycin-based combinations were studied by time-kill method and using ...
The epidemic of USA300-0114 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the USA has been remarkable for its virulence and for its ability to cause infections in both the community and healthcare settings. Although it has mainly been associated with skin and soft tissue infections, particularly furunculosis, it has also caused severe life-threatening conditions such as necrotizing pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. This strain or a closely related Latin American variant has now spread to multiple countries on five continents, where associated clinical and epidemiological features have been in keeping with those seen in the USA. Furthermore, it has become the dominant community-associated MRSA strain in five countries. It is now a major international epidemic strain, but whether it will supplant established community-associated strains in other countries remains to be seen ...
Background. Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SABSI) arising from a urinary tract source (UTS) is poorly understood. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis in 3 major teaching hospitals in Spain of prospectively collected data of hospitalized patients with SABSI. SABSI-UTS was diagnosed in patients with urinary tract symptoms and/or signs, no evidence of an extra-urinary source of infection, and a urinary S. aureus count of ,= 10(5) cfu/mL. Susceptibility of S. aureus strains and patient mortality were compared between SABSI from UTS (SABSI-UTS) and other sources (SABSI-other). Results. Of 4181 episodes of SABSI, we identified 132 (3.16%) cases of SABSI-UTS that occurred predominantly in patients who were male, had high Charlson comorbidity scores, were dependent for daily life activities, and who had undergone urinary catheterization and/or urinary manipulation before the infection. SABSI-UTS was more often caused by MRSA strains compared with SABSI-other (40.9% vs 17.5%; P , ...
This MyHospitals web update presents information [email protected] Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections for 677 Australian public hospitals and around 70 private hospitals in [email protected]
Report Publication; Hospital Performance: Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in 2015-16, In Focus ; Released 2017; Golden Staph
Background Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA) has traditionally been related to skin and soft tissue infections in healthy young patients. However, it has now...
CAMERA2-combination antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial Journal Articles Refereed ...
The reports market outlook delivers an understanding of the country-specific revenue and share by analyzing the performance of the current therapies and potential uptake of new products. The in-depth analysis helps to recognize the growing demand of the market by evaluating the annual cost of therapy, compliance rate, competition with other therapies, covered patient segment, impact of emerging technology in the forecast period. The views from the key opinion leaders adds more value to the analysis. This segment provides the relevant graphs and tables to have an effective outline of the Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections market ...
Hospital Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections Pipeline 2017, report provides comprehensive insights about marketed and pipeline drugs across this Mechanism of action.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Staphylococcus aureus colonization among healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital. AU - Johnston, Cecilia P.. AU - Stokes, Amy K.. AU - Ross, Tracy. AU - Cai, Mian. AU - Carroll, Karen C.. AU - Cosgrove, Sara E.. AU - Perl, Trish M.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - We describe the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among 200 healthcare workers. The prevalence of S. aureus was 28%, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 2%. The incidence of MRSA colonization was extremely low. This study suggests that the risk of MRSA transmission to healthcare workers is low in a hospital where MRSA is endemic.. AB - We describe the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among 200 healthcare workers. The prevalence of S. aureus was 28%, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 2%. The incidence of MRSA colonization was extremely low. This study suggests that the risk of MRSA transmission to healthcare workers is ...
Defining the burden of morbidity and mortality due to invasive staphylococcus aureus disease and the Impact of drug resistance in Thailand ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Should healthcare workers be screened routinely for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? A review of the evidence. AU - Hawkins, G.. AU - Stewart, S.. AU - Blatchford, O.. AU - Reilly, Jacqui. N1 - ,p,Originally published in: Journal of Hospital Infection (2011), 77 (4), pp.285-289.,/p,. PY - 2011/4/1. Y1 - 2011/4/1. N2 - Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is considered endemic in the UK National Health Service (NHS), and routine MRSA screening of hospital inpatients has recently been introduced in both Scotland and England. The UK National Screening Committee states that public pressure for widening the eligibility criteria of a proposed screening programme should be anticipated and any related decisions scientifically justifiable. A literature review was conducted to examine whether MRSA screening in Scotland should be expanded to include the routine screening of healthcare workers (HCWs). There are no published prevalence studies reporting the overall ...
Objective: Increasing length of hospital stay is associated with methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition. The exact risk of becoming colonized with MRSA on a given day has not been clearly elucidated. We determined the hazard of MRSA acquisition in relation to the length of time spent in an intensive care unit in which only standard precautions were used for MRSA‐colonized and MRSA‐infected patients.. Methods: This study took place at a tertiary referral hospital intensive care unit in which patients were screened for MRSA at hospital admission, at hospital discharge, and twice weekly during intensive care unit stay. We analyzed the hazard of MRSA acquisition by using a statistical smoothing kernel for hazard with a width of 5 days. Patients were stratified according to age, sex, medical unit, and length of hospital stay.. Results: Of the patients who were at risk of colonization or infection, 12.8% acquired MRSA. The mean length of stay in the intensive care unit ...
Here are some True/False questions on Staphylococcus aureus. Click at the bottom of the page for answers and short explanations.. 1) Most people are colonised with Staphylococcus aureus? T/F. 2) The nuc gene is found in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus? T/F. 3) Methicillin is a commonly used antibiotic in many parts of the world? T/F. 4) Staphylococcus aureus can ferment mannitol? T/F. 5) Coagulase is not thought to be an important virulence factor for Staphylococcus aureus? T/F. 6) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia has a 30 day mortality of 15-20%? T/F. 7) Staphylococcus aureus can cause food poisoning? T/F. 8) Staphylococcus aureus is a motile organism? T/F. 9) Staphylococcus aureus can be intracellular in nasal epithelial cells? T/F. 10) Staphylococcus aureus is acommon contaminant in blood cultures? T/F. Click here for answers and short explanations. ...
Blumenthal KG, Shenoy ES, Huang M, Kuhlen JL, Ware WA, Parker RA, Walensky RP. The Impact of Reporting a Prior Penicillin Allergy on the Treatment of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159406 ...
Background: Early identification of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers may be helpful for clinical and epidemiological reasons. Aim: To identify and compare risk factors of previously unknown MRSA carriage on admission to 13 surgical wards in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain. Methods: The study was a prospective observational cohort study which enrolled consecutive patients screened for MRSA on admission to surgical wards. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities and possible risk factors for MRSA were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict probabilities of previously unknown MRSA colonization on admission based on patient characteristics. Prediction rules for MRSA carriage were developed and evaluated using the c-statistic. Findings: Of 2901 patients enrolled, admission screening identified 111 (3.8%) new MRSA carriers. Independent risk factors for MRSA carriage were urinary catheterization (odds ratio: 4.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-9.9), nursing
Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection is responsible for significant morbidity, with mortality rates as high as 60 % if not treated appropriately. We describe a rapid method to detect MRSA in blood cultures using a combined three-hour short-incubation BRUKER matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS BioTyper protocol and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay, the Alere Culture Colony Test PBP2a detection test. We compared this combined method with a molecular method detecting the nuc and mecA genes currently performed in our laboratory. One hundred and seventeen S. aureus blood cultures were tested of which 35 were MRSA and 82 were meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). The rapid combined test correctly identified 100 % (82/82) of the MSSA and 85.7 % (30/35) of the MRSA after 3 h. There were five false negative results where the isolates were correctly identified as S. aureus, but PBP2a was not detected by the Culture Colony Test. The combined
Humans and several other mammals harbor Staphylococcus aureus as a component of their nasal and skin microbiome. Although this organism is a commensal in 25 to 33% of humans in developed countries (1), it can cause opportunistic infections that range in severity from mild skin infections to severe systemic infections (2, 3). Treatment of these infections is challenging due to the rapid acquisition of antimicrobial resistance genes, including the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) element, which carries the mecA gene, conferring methicillin resistance (4, 5). These isolates, deemed methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), have become a significant public health burden in the United States, annually causing thousands of infections, which result in significant health care costs and losses in productivity (6, 7).. MRSA isolates are classified by the source from which they are acquired to form the following categories: hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), community-acquired MRSA ...
Because of high incidence, morbidity, and antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. Strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin are now recognized. Increasing incidence of unrecognized community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections pose a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of complex S. aureus infections is rising, new antimicrobial agents, including daptomycin and linezolid, are available as treatment. S. aureus is a common pathogen in skin, soft-tissue, catheter-related, bone, joint, pulmonary, and central nervous system infections. S. aureus bacteremias are particularly problematic because of the high incidence of associated complicated infections, including infective endocarditis. Adherence to precautions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, especially handwashing, is suboptimal.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection, and these infections still have a high mortality. In certain clinical situations and for the planning of future prophylactic precautions, it is important to identify patients at risk of S. aureus bloodstream infection. Nearly all patients with S. aureus bloodstream...
TMP-SMX: TMP-SMX is a potentially useful bactericidal antibiotic used for the treatment of CA-MRSA infections. Although this agent is not FDA approved for the general treatment of staphylococcal infections, several successful cases of its use as MRSA treatment have been reported.10,15 TMP-SMX is a two-component antibiotic that works through inhibition of folic acid synthesis at two separate pathways, thereby inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis.24 Although large, randomized studies have yet to be conducted to directly evaluate TMP-SMXs efficacy in CA-MRSA, a recent literary analysis of reported data proposed its potential use in high dosages for susceptible MRSA isolates. The analysis concluded that TMP-SMX was useful for a majority of patients and, therefore may therefore be especially beneficial as an oral option for patients with susceptible isolates.10 Conversely, another small retrospective analysis that reviewed 39 outpatients with MRSA infections found a higher rate of recurrence in the ...
BACKGROUND This study was conducted to evaluate the ongoing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a 10-bed trauma intensive care unit (TICU) in a large teaching hospital. METHODS Surveillance cultures for MRSA were obtained on admission to the TICU. Colonized or infected patients were placed on contact precautions. On February 21, 2003, 19 burn patients were admitted to the TICU after a local mass casualty event. Universal barrier precautions were implemented for all patients, and point-prevalence surveys (nares cultures) were used to detect MRSA acquisition. RESULTS During March 2003, 58% of the burn patients developed MRSA infection or colonization. Six of 133 health care workers (HCWs) had positive MRSA screening cultures. Seven patients and 4 HCWs harbored the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clone A. Two patients and 1 HCW harbored clone B. Once the colonized HCWs were successfully decolonized, a sustained reduction in MRSA infections occurred. CONCLUSION
The role of IFN-gamma in the regulation of host resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was studied using IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gamma R-/-) mice in a model of S. aureus-induced septicemia and arthritis. IFN-gamma R-/- mice and wild-type controls were inoculated intravenously with a toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-producing S. aureus LS-1 strain. IFN-gamma R-/- mice displayed significantly more frequent and more severe arthritis compared with wild-type littermates (p , 0.01) throughout the course of infection. Notably, IFN-gamma R-/- mice developed severe sepsis with high mortality early after the inoculation with staphylococci. However, the mortality of wild-type mice became significantly higher at later stages of the disease compared with IFN-gamma R-/- mice (p , 0.05). This differential outcome of sepsis-related mortality was associated with deficiencies of bacterial elimination from blood and parenchymatous organs and correlated well to serum levels of IL-6 and spleen IL-1 beta and ...
Trends in Staphylococcus aureus infections are not well described. To calculate incidence in overall S. aureus infection and invasive and noninvasive infections according to methicillin susceptibility and location, we conducted a 10-year population-based retrospective cohort study (1999-2008) using patient-level data in the Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System. We found 3,674 S. aureus infections: 2,816 (77%) were noninvasive; 2,256 (61%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); 2,517 (69%) were community onset, and 1,157 (31%) were hospital onset. Sixty-one percent of noninvasive infections were skin and soft tissue infections; 1,112 (65%) of these were MRSA. Ten-year averaged incidence per 100,000 veterans was 749 (± 132 SD, range 549-954) overall, 178 (± 41 SD, range 114-259) invasive, and 571 (± 152 SD, range 364-801) noninvasive S. aureus infections. Incidence of all S. aureus infections significantly increased (p<0.001), driven by noninvasive, MRSA, and community
This case reports the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a colony of cetaceans maintained under human care. MRSA isolates of the same strain were cultured from multiple organs of two dolphins that died with septicaemia. Following these mortalities and in consideration of the zoonotic potential of this pathogen, a decolonisation protocol was developed and applied to reduce the risk of exposure to humans and animals. After monitoring for MRSA presence in the animals, environment and staff, a strict sanitation protocol was applied for 15 months, with the aim of controlling MRSA. This protocol reduced the incidence of this pathogen and its involvement in acute clinical cases. The transmission between cetaceans and the implication of human reservoirs are discussed as important issues for veterinarians, facility managers and public health officials. ...
Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent infection. Estimates of colonization duration vary widely among studies, and factors
METHODS:. A total of 19 S. hominis isolates were collected from children at the Childrens Medical Centre, Tehran, Iran, from March 2012 to February 2013. MRSHo susceptibility against 13 antimicrobial and 3 antiseptic agents was determined using disk diffusion (DAD) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. All isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for 15 distinct resistance genes, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACMEs). Biofilm production of the isolates was determined using a colorimetric microtiter plate assay. ...
In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) clinical and colonizing isolates of dogs and cats to profile contributing factors associated with their isolation. Nasal and rectal samples were collected from dogs and cats between 2015 and 2017 to identify colonizing isolates. Clinical isolates collected between 2003 and 2016 were retrieved from a Queensland university veterinary diagnostic laboratory. All isolates were identified using standard microbiological and molecular methods and were characterized by whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships and differences in epidemiological factors were investigated. Seventy-two MRSP isolates out of 1,460 colonizing samples and nine MRSP clinical isolates were identified. No MRSA was isolated. ST496 and ST749 were the most commonly isolated sequence types with different SCCmec types. ST496 clones spread both ...
The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population in the Hospital Universitario Nuestra Se ora de Candelaria over a 5-year period (1998 to 2002) was marked by shifts in the circulation of pandemic clones. Here, we investigated the emergence of high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mupr). In addition to clonal spread, transfer of ileS2-carrying plasmids played a significant role in the dissemination of Hi-Mupr among pandemic MRSA lineages. Most hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates are members of five MRSA pandemic lineages or clonal complexes (CCs), namely, CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, and CC45. Mupirocin constitutes the cornerstone of avoidance of MRSA carriage and ulterior infection, but resistance has emerged, and its spreading is worrisome, with transferable high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mupr) being of clinical significance. Hi-Mupr is associated with an additional isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase that is encoded by the ileS2 gene. The ileS2 gene ...
Background. The impact of bacterial clonality on infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is unclear. Methods. Three hundred seventy-nine S. aureus isolates (125 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 254 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) were genotyped by spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. For MRSA isolates, the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element was also typed. Three clinical categories were identified: nasal carriage only (n = 118), uncomplicated infection (n = 104), and bacteremia with hematogenous complications (n =157). Results. By use of eBURST, 18 clonal complexes (CCs) were found in 371 isolates. Eight CCs accounted for 89% of isolates and occurred in all clinical categories. CC5 (P = .0025) and CC30 (P = .0308) exhibited a significant trend toward more frequent hematogenous complications. Isolates within spa types 2 and 16 showed the same significant trend and grouped within CC5 and CC30, respectively. SCCmec II isolates also showed the same ...
BioAssay record AID 569544 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of compound MIC to LVFX MIC for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 10-04.
The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro
OBJECTIVE To evaluate leptomeningeal and subpial inflammatory responses of experimental Staphylococcus aureus bacteriemia following intraperitoneal and intravenous applications and to compare the inflammatory reactions in different regions of central nervous system. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty anesthetized rats were divided into four groups equal in number. The rats in group-I were given 1 ml suspension of Staphylococcus aureus intraperitoneally. Group-II was the control group of group I; it was administrated 1 ml 0.9% NaCl in water intraperitoneally. The rats in group-III were given the same amount of bacteria intravenously. Group IV was the control group of the group-III; it was administrated 1 ml 0.9% NaCl solution intravenously. The rats were sacrificed on the 21st day. Inflammatory changes of different regions of the central nervous system were examined under transmission electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was done by using variance analysis, Bonferroni, Tamhane post hoc, Students t and
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of clinically significant Staphylococcus aureus and its association with biofilm production. The antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm production by S. aureus isolated from invasive sites such as deep tissue and bone, deep seated pus, blood and other sterile body fluids were studied. The prevalence of multidrug resistant strains and the associated risk factors and co-morbidities were noted. Samples were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and biofilm production was detected by using microtiter plate assay. Of the total 80 clinically significant invasive S. aureus strains, resistance to penicillin was observed in 70(88.6%) isolates and 38 (47.5%) isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to erythromycin was observed in 42(52.5%) isolates and 14(17.5%) isolates were resistant to clindamycin. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was 79.5%(n=63). Resistance to ...
Introduction Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. Methods A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390) to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151). Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of β-lactamases in human and bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains having borderline resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs) with proteomic methods. AU - Keseru, Judit Szilvia. AU - Szabó, István. AU - Gál, Zsuzsanna. AU - Massidda, Orietta. AU - Mingoia, Marina. AU - Kaszanyitzky, Éva. AU - Jánosi, Szilárd. AU - Hulvely, Julianna. AU - Csorba, Attila. AU - Buzás, Krisztina. AU - Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva. AU - Medzihradszky, Katalin F.. AU - Biró, Sándor. PY - 2011/1/10. Y1 - 2011/1/10. N2 - Methicillin and oxacillin-hydrolyzing enzymes of 6 borderline methicillin-resistant and 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human clinical samples and 4 borderline methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis were investigated. As previous studies suggested the involvement of an additional enzyme besides the penicillinase BlaZ in the determination of borderline resistance, we analyzed ...
By Achim J. Kaasch, Gavin Barlow, Jonathan D. Edgeworth, Vance G. Fowler, Martin Hellmich, Susan Hopkins, Winfried V. Kern, Martin J. Llewelyn, Siegbert Rieg, Jesús Rodriguez-Baño, Matthew Scarborough, Harald Seifert, Alex Soriano, Robert Tilley, M. Estée Tőrők, Verena Weiß, A.Peter R. Wilson and Guy E. Thwaites ...
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Researchers at TGen and the United States Centers Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have collaboratively developed a panel of assays for rapidly and consistently typing Staphylococcus aureus strains, and subtyping the strains within clonal complex 8 (CC8). The developed technology is an improvement over previously used typing methods and can be used as a method for source tracking of the bacteria within a facility (e.g., hospitals, medical service centers) to perform surveillance of infections and determine the origin of the infections. The efficient typing system allows for wide use in clinical laboratories for robust tracking of both methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) infections to help focus resources effectively, assess the possibility of an outbreak or transmission event, and inform infection prevention and control. CC8 strains of S. aureus are prevalent pathogens in the United States causing infection in both immunocompromised and healthy ...
Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the ...