Induced sputum cell counts are a non-invasive, reliable method for evaluating the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Current reference values for induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults do not account for the effects of circadian rhythm, including diurnal variation. The objective of this study was to describe the diurnal variation in induced sputum cell counts, compared between early morning and late afternoon, in healthy adult individuals. 100 healthy adult subjects with no history of lung disease and normal bronchial reactivity proceeded with induced sputum testing at 7 am and 4 pm on different days. The order of testing was randomized. The cytotechnologist preparing and performing the cell counts was blinded to the sample collection time and subject characteristics. 65 subjects were included in the final analyses. There was no significant change in the total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collections. There was good inter
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Cystic Fibrosis Sputum DNA Has NETosis Characteristics and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Release Is Regulated by Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory ...
Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10%) episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30%) (Mtb group). The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%). Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and
Roflumilast is a targeted, oral, once-daily administered phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor with clinical efficacy in COPD. Results from in vitro studies with roflumilast indicate that roflumilast has anti-inflammatory properties that may be applicable for the treatment of COPD. In this cross-over study, 38 patients with COPD (mean (SD) age 63.1 (7.0) y, post-bronchodilator FEV1 61.0 (12.6) %predicted) received 500 μg roflumilast or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Induced sputum samples were collected prior to and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Differential and absolute cell counts were determined in whole sputum samples. Markers of inflammation were determined in sputum supernatants and blood. Spirometry was performed weekly. Roflumilast significantly reduced the absolute number of neutrophils and eosinophils per gram of sputum, compared with placebo, by 35.5% (95%CI 15.6, 50.7; p=0.0017) and 50.0% (26.8, 65.8; p=0.0005), respectively. The relative proportion of sputum neutrophils and ...
Objective - To improve the aetiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increased efforts were made to obtain expectorated sputum specimens from patients with CAP. Design - A prospective, clinical study. Patients were encouraged to cough spontaneously and to expectorate a sputum specimen. If unsuccessful, they were asked to inhale nebulized hypertonic saline to induce secretion and cough. Setting - One primary health care centre in Örebro, Sweden. Subjects - Patients attending the Health Centre with acute symptoms of CAP. Main outcome measures - Availability and quality of sputum specimen from patients with CAP in primary care. Results - 177 patients were included, 63% were women and the mean age was 51years. 28% were smokers and 46% showed infiltrates on chest X-ray. Sputum specimens were obtained from 125 patients. Fifty-nine were expectorated spontaneously and 66 were induced. Ninety-one of the specimens were found to be acceptable, whereas 34 were discarded. Potential ...
Rapid sputum tests are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) when other tests show that a person probably has TB. Rapid sputum tests are also called nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs).. One of the best ways to diagnose TB is through a sputum culture. A sputum culture is a test to find germs (such as TB bacteria) that can cause an infection. A sample of sputum is added to a substance that promotes the growth of bacteria. If no bacteria grow, the culture is negative. If bacteria grow, the culture is positive. If TB bacteria grow, then the person has tuberculosis. The test also can show if a lung infection is caused by some other kind of bacteria. A sputum culture can take 1 to 8 weeks to provide results.. Rapid sputum tests can tell if a person has TB within 24 hours. A test may be done when:footnote 1. ...
Sputum aspirators are suction machines that are used for the removal of mucus from the body by creating partial vacuum. These devices are prescribed by the physicians to remove mucus form the respiratory airway. Sputum is a thick mucus that is coughed up from the lower respiratory airways while coughing. Sputum is also called as phelgem that is thick, slippery and sticky substance which is produced by the throat, lungs or bronchial passages.. Phelgem which primarily constitutes sputum might also contain other substance such as dust, dead cells, blood cells and foreign particles like dust. Viral illness, infections of the upper airway passage or lungs, chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) can trigger the production of sputum. Furthermore, smoking or tobacco usage, gastroesophageal reflux disease and nasal discharge are other factors that can stimulate the production of sputum. Under serious conditions sputum are always used for microbial culture tests for ...
In this study, we assigned adult asthmatic patients into four groups based on their sputum cell profiles: G1, only eosinophilic; G2, mixed granulocytic, both eosinophilic and neutrophilic; G3, only neutrophilic; and G4, paucigranulocytic asthma. This is an easier diagnostic method in real practice, compared to flow cytometry techniques. G1 and G3 were the predominant groups, followed by G2 and G4. There have been variable differences in the prevalence of sputum cell profiles between studies, which are mainly due to differences in study populations, and the cut-offs of sputum eosinophil/neutrophil counts used. We used the same cut-off values as those of a previous study: , 3% eosinophils for eosinophilic asthma, and age-dependent cut-offs for neutrophils as neutrophilic asthma [21]. However, other studies have used different cut-off points for neutrophilic asthma: , 61% of sputum neutrophils [22] and a different cut-off point for eosinophilic asthma, , 1.1% of sputum eosinophils [18]. Another ...
Tuberculosis is on the increase in Africa. A key area of weakness in TB control efforts is the inability to make a rapid diagnosis. This is, in part, due to the inability to obtain representative biological samples and the non-availability of cheap, effective, rapid and field-friendly diagnostic tools. Indeed, in HIV positive patients, where the sensitivity of sputum smear is as low as 20%, culture results take several weeks and a significant proportion of patients do not expectorate sputum. Sputum induction for the diagnosis of TB has been evaluated in several studies, has been shown to have a good yield, feasibility and safety when performed correctly, and with diagnostic comparability to bronchoscopy. Few studies have evaluated the performance of induced sputum outside of the hospital environment and the tolerability, yield and performance outcome of sputum induction in a primary care facility has yet to be evaluated. The objective of this study is two-fold. We seek to evaluate, through a ...
Tuberculosis is on the increase in Africa. A key area of weakness in TB control efforts is the inability to make a rapid diagnosis. This is, in part, due to the inability to obtain representative biological samples and the non-availability of cheap, effective, rapid and field-friendly diagnostic tools. Indeed, in HIV positive patients, where the sensitivity of sputum smear is as low as 20%, culture results take several weeks and a significant proportion of patients do not expectorate sputum. Sputum induction for the diagnosis of TB has been evaluated in several studies, has been shown to have a good yield, feasibility and safety when performed correctly, and with diagnostic comparability to bronchoscopy. Few studies have evaluated the performance of induced sputum outside of the hospital environment and the tolerability, yield and performance outcome of sputum induction in a primary care facility has yet to be evaluated. The objective of this study is two-fold. We seek to evaluate, through a ...
Question - Pulmonary tuberculosis,sputum examination negative, taking Fixcom 4, orange urine, itchy. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Rifampin, Ask a Pulmonologist
Background- Sputum cytology is noninvasive and is the most easily obtainable of the cytologic techniques available. Spontaneous production of significant amounts of sputum often indicates pulmonary disease, both tuberculosis and other respiratory conditions present with similar symptoms. Objective- To describe cytomorphologic changes in sputum samples submitted by TB suspect patients. Settings and Design- Cross-sectional descriptive study. A total 196 TB suspect patients seen at Ngong Sub-District Hospital and Ongata Rongai Health Centre in Kajiado County between December 2011 and March 2012 were assessed for criteria and enrolled in the study. Materials and Methods- Two pre-fixed sputum (Spot and morning) samples were obtained from 196 consecutive pulmonary TB suspect patients, pooled, centrifuged and processed for H&E, Pap and Concentration ZN techniques. Statistical analysis- The data was presented in percentages and charts. The significance of difference was tested using Chi- square test. ...
blood in sputum - MedHelps blood in sputum Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for blood in sputum. Find blood in sputum information, treatments for blood in sputum and blood in sputum symptoms.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Mtb cells contain intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) in sputum and the levels vary between patients. Previous reports showed the essential role of nitric oxide (NO) in killing Mtb in vivo and that Mtb forms LBs in vitro upon NO treatment. These treated populations are tolerant to isoniazid and rifampicin, but the reasons for varing LB levels in vivo are not understood. The objective of this study was to determine the association between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentrations with the proportion of LB[superscript +ve] tubercle bacilli in sputum. The majority of TB patients (65%) showed ≤ 20.6 ppb FeNO concentration. FeNO concentration was weak but significantly associated with the proportion of LB[superscript +ve] tubercle bacilli in sputum. FeNO concentration was also significantly associated with the proportion of LB[superscript +ve] tubercle bacilli among HIV[superscript +ve] P[superscript -] and ...
Rationale: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult in patient who do not produce sputum spontaneously, or who have AFB smear (-) sputum. Bronchoscopy is helpful in these patients, but in many cases cannot be readily available. We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield of sputum induction test with bronchoscopy.. Methods: From February 1 to July 31, 2010, we included the patients suspected active pulmonary tuberculosis, who could not produce sputum spontaneously, or who had a pair of AFB smear (-) sputum. They underwent sputum induction test and bronchoscopy. We calculated the sensitivity of AFB smear, culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB-PCR of each test, and evaluated the concordance rate by kappa test.. Results: Sensitivities of AFB smear were 36.1% in sputum induction test and 33.3% in bronchoscopy. Sensitivities of culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 69.4% and 75.0%, and TB PCR were 52.8% and 58.3% in sputum induction and bronchoscopy, respectively. The results of ...
Background. It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods. We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1-59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen representative of the lower respiratory tract will contain smaller quantities of oropharyngeal flora and be more likely to have a predominance of potential pathogens compared to a specimen containing mainly saliva. The prevalence of potential pathogens cultured from induced sputum specimens and quantity of oropharyngeal flora
A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that are infecting the lungs or breathing passages. Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs. A sample of sputum is placed in a container with substances that promote the growth of bacteria or fungi. If no bacteria or fungi grow, the culture is negative. If organisms that can cause infection (pathogenic organisms) grow, the culture is positive. The type of bacterium or fungus will be identified with a microscope or by chemical tests. If bacteria or fungi that can cause infection grow in the culture, other tests may be done to determine which antibiotic will be most effective in treating the infection. This is called susceptibility or sensitivity testing. This test is done on a sample of sputum that is usually collected by coughing. For people who cannot cough deeply enough to produce a sample, a suction tube or needle may be inserted in the airway to collect the sputum. In a hospital ...
Background: The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment. Methods: Patients who were smear positive at screening were enrolled into the study. Paired sputum samples (one EMS and one spot) were collected at each trial visit pre- and post-treatment. Microscopy and culture on solid LJ and liquid MGIT media were performed on all samples; those missing corresponding paired results were excluded from the analyses. Results: Data from 1115 pre- and 2995 post-treatment paired samples from 1931 patients enrolled in the REMoxTB study were ...
Sputum /spju.təm/ is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose. Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors (see below). Any hint of yellow color suggests an airway infection (but does not indicate between the types of organisms causing it). Such color hints are best detected when the sputum is viewed on a very white background such as white paper, a white pot, or a white sink surface. The more intense the yellow color, the more likely it is a bacterial infection (bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, or pneumonia). The best sputum samples contain very little saliva, as saliva contaminates the ...
A community engagement project was designed and implemented to reach 10.6 million population in 13 districts of Uttarakhand state-India, to identify presumptive TB patients (PTBPs) and link to free diagnostics services, either through referral or sputum collection and transportation (SCT). The objective of this study is to determine additional yield of TB patients achieved by providing SCT services in comparison to referrals of PTBPs identified in hard-to-reach areas. This was before and after comparative study conducted between April-June 2014 (2Q2014-before) to July-September 2014 (3Q2014-after). SCT was advised for all PTBPs identified from community level interventions between July-September 2014 (3Q2014-after). In 3Q2014, additional 279 (34%) PTBPs were examined in the microscopy centre with an additional 36 (51%) new smear positive (NSP) patient diagnosed. A total of 46 NSP (128%) were contributed by SCT alone. Higher proportion (94%) of TB patients was initiated on treatment in 3Q2014 in
RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Recruitment 2018, RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Syllabus, RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Previous Papers, Sample Papers - Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Recruitment 2018, Syllabus, Sample Paper
We evaluated the intra- and inter-rater reliability and the agreement of the Sputum Color Chart for 3 evaluators from 6 categories of caregivers who can be routinely faced with sputum evaluation in their clinical practice. Our study highlighted a non-uniform reliability and agreement with the Sputum Color Chart. This observation was not related to the category of caregivers.. Sputum color is considered to be a key element in clinical evaluation of subjects with respiratory diseases. Indeed, sputum color appears to be regularly used in routine practice and in research.14,15 Changes in sputum are included in the widely accepted Anthonisen definition of exacerbations in COPD7 and in their evaluation.16 In a large study on COPD exacerbations, sputum color was used as a marker of exacerbation, and the authors demonstrated that sputum purulence was strongly associated with bacterial growth.17 Although this criterion has lower sensitivity and more limited applicability in children than in adults due to ...
in Thorax (2010), 65(12), 1039-1044. Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that ... [more ▼]. Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that identifies a sputum eosinophil count ,/=3% in an unselected population of patients with asthma has been poorly studied. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients with asthma aged 15-84 years recruited from the asthma clinic of University Hospital of Liege. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between sputum eosinophil count and FeNO, taking into account covariates such as inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), smoking, atopy, age and sex. Results Derived from ...
SHAFAQNA - The Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi answered a question about the duty of a person who is fasting when sputum enters his mouth whilst performing Salaat.. Question: What is the duty of a person who is fasting and performing Salaat when sputum enters his/her mouth?. The Grand Ayatollah Makarem: When sputum enters the mouth of a person who is fasting and performing Salaat, he/she must get rid of it and if it was not possible, cut the Salaat (of course can change the intention from Wajeb Salaat to Mostahab Salaat and leave the Salaat) and then after getting rid of sputum, perform the Salaat again.. Source: PERSIAN SHAFAQNA. ...
We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively.. ...
Background:We and others have shown that the gamma tocopherol (γT) isoform of vitamin E has multiple anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and that γT supplementation reduces eosinophilic and endotoxin (LPS)-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in animal models and healthy human volunteers.O
The 7-month continuation phase is recommended for the following 3 groups: patients with cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis caused by drug-susceptible organisms and with positive sputum culture at the end of the 2-month initial treatment phase; patients whose initial phase of treatment did not include pyrazinamide; and patients with positive sputum cultures at the end of the initial phase and are treated with isoniazid and rifapentine once weekly for the continuation phase ...
Background Home-initiated tuberculosis (TB) evaluation could improve test uptake and linkage to care among at-risk contacts of active TB index patients. However, there is a need to systematically explore why contacts accept, decline, or are unable to complete these services. We sought to describe the barriers to home-based sputum collection as part of enhanced household contact investigation for TB in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Using a parallel convergent mixed-methods design, we collected quantitative data describing home sputum collection among 82 household contacts of active TB patients and qualitative interviews from a sub-sample of 19 of those contacts. Data were analyzed in parallel to produce a more complete picture of the underlying barriers to home sputum collection. Results Men were significantly more likely than women to provide sputum when eligible (p=0.04). Contacts who reported risk factors for or symptoms of TB but no active cough where significantly less likely to provide sputum (p=0.05).
Background: Leukotriene-E4 (LTE4) and prostaglandin-D2 (PDG2) are lipid mediators associated with Type-2 inflammation in asthma. Both are increased in the urine of patients with asthma. We have assessed concentrations in induced sputum in patients with asthma and tested the hypothesis that concentrations vary according to the pattern of inflammation.. Methods: Induced sputum was obtained from 7 healthy volunteers and 44 patients with asthma (GINA steps 2-5), and processed according to our usual procedures. LTE4 and PGD2 were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Patients with asthma were stratified by induced sputum eosinophil count, with counts , 3% classified as eosinophilic.. Results: Geometric mean (log SD) LTE4 concentration was 218 (0.47), 1237 (0.44) and 5541 (0.94) pg/ml and PGD2 concentration 2289 (0.2), 3366 (0.33) and 4575 (0.3) pg/ml in controls, patients with non-eosinophilic and patients with eosinophilic asthma respectively (figure). LTE4 was significantly different ...
Sputum Evaluation (and Sputum Induction) - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information.
... is a thick fluid that is produced in the lungs and in the airways that lead to the lungs. Sputum is different than saliva.. A person who has an infection or disease of the respiratory system may cough up sputum. Some diseases can cause pus, blood, or bacteria to show up in the sputum.. ...
Our today topic is black sputum.We will talk about black sputum.We will discuss about black sputum reasons and treatments of black sputum.The wall of the respiratory system is covered by the protective mucus layer and all the way from the respiratory system to the lungs down to the lungs is established with small air bags. Continue reading ...
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Our today topic is black sputum.We will talk about black sputum.We will discuss about black sputum reasons and treatments of black sputum.
Tuberculosis has been & continues to be one of the most significant pathogens in term of human morbidity & mortality. Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis represents a significant proportion of mycobacterial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, however MOTT patients are initially treated with conventional antituberculous treatments, before the results of culture to identify the bacteria as non tuberculous are available, resulting in a period of time in which patients are treated with drugs to which the bacteria are frequently resistant. The reappearance of positive smear at the end of treatment may be due to relapse of tuberculosis or disease by non tuberculous mycobacteria (MOTT).. The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible role of MOTT in treatment failure cases of pulmonary TB. The study includes 50 patients with treatment failure on basis of persistant positive sputum culture for more than 5 months. Sputum examination by ZN stain, culture of mycobacterial ...
Background The accurate diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients, particularly with advanced immunosuppression, is difficult. Recent studies indicate that a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assay (Clearview-TB®-ELISA) may have some utility for the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients; however, the precise subgroup that may benefit from this technology requires clarification. The utility of LAM in sputum samples has, hitherto, not been evaluated. Methods LAM was measured in sputum and urine samples obtained from 500 consecutively recruited ambulant patients, with suspected TB, from 2 primary care clinics in South Africa. Culture positivity for M. tuberculosis was used as the reference standard for TB diagnosis. Results Of 440 evaluable patients 120/387 (31%) were HIV-infected. Urine-LAM positivity was associated with HIV positivity (p = 0.007) and test sensitivity, although low, was significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to uninfected patients (21% versus 6%; p|0.001), and also in HIV-infected
The influence of acetylation status of tuberculosis patients on the isoniazid serum concentrations and sputum conversion after intensive phase therapy
Find TB. SA has an extensive network of microscopy centres and diagnostic laboratories with the capacity for culture and drug susceptibility testing using the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube liquid culture system. In 2011, SA introduced Xpert MTB/RIF as a replacement for sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Between March 2011 and April 2013 ,1.3 million Xpert MTB/RIF tests were done in SA, which accounted for more than half of the global usage of Xpert MTB/RIF. SA also pioneered the use of dried culture spots for verification and external quality assurance of Xpert MTB/RIF[4] and implemented a central data monitoring system to remotely monitor the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, the proportion of positive tests and the proportion with rifampicin resistance.. Although nationwide implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF is almost complete, numerous challenges to its implementation remain. Xpert is not universally utilised and there has been poor adherence to the Xpert algorithm, ...
Invasive techniques have been extensively used for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Among them bronchoscopy is the most common. In the past few years an increasing interest has been focused on the application of non invasive techniques as a tool in the diagnostic procedure of airway diseases. Among them, induced sputum has received much attention. Airway inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Induced sputum has been used in the evaluation of the inflammatory process but significantly less in the diagnostic procedure. However, the clarification of pending methodological problems and mainly the non invasive nature of the procedure is very promising in terms of using induced sputum for the diagnostic assessment of respiratory diseases. Pneumon 2005, 18(1):53-61.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-related increase of airway neutrophils in older healthy nonsmoking subjects. AU - Pignatti, Patrizia. AU - Ragnoli, Beatrice. AU - Radaeli, Alessandro. AU - Moscato, Gianna. AU - Malerba, Mario. PY - 2011/8/1. Y1 - 2011/8/1. N2 - Background: Although an influence of advancing age on lung cellularity in healthy subjects has already been described, induced sputum reference values for cell counts in older healthy adults are not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age on the variation of sputum cell distribution in a considerable number of healthy subjects. A total of 70 nonatopic, nonsmoker healthy subjects aged ≥50 years underwent sputum induction and blood cell count. Sputum samples were processed and then were analyzed by optical microscopy. Differential cell counts were reported as percentages and amount of cells/mg. Results: Sputum cell distribution of healthy subjects aged ≥50 years was mainly composed of neutrophils. Both the ...
Your child will be asked to rinse his or her mouth out with water, then breathe deeply and cough deeply to produce sputum from the airway.. You or the health professional helping your child may need to tap gently on your childs chest to loosen the sputum in the lungs. If your child cant produce a sample, the lab technician may need to use a tongue depressor to stimulate a cough, or your child may need to inhale a mist solution to help produce a cough.. If your child is scheduled for a bronchoscopy (a test done with a small telescope to evaluate the upper airway and bronchi), a sputum screen is likely to be done at this time.. ...
Your child will be asked to rinse his or her mouth out with water, then breathe deeply and cough deeply to produce sputum from the airway.. You or the health professional helping your child may need to gently tap on your childs chest to loosen the sputum in the lungs. If your child cant produce a sample, the lab technician may need to use a tongue depressor to stimulate a cough, or your child may need to inhale a mist solution to help produce a cough.. If your child is scheduled for a bronchoscopy (a test done with a small telescope to evaluate the upper airway and bronchi), a sputum screen is likely to be done at this time.. ...
Question - Streaks of blood in sputum. Advised neosprin for injury inside nose. Chest Xray,CBC normal. Sputum blood streaks again. Causes?. Ask a Doctor about when and why X ray is advised, Ask an ENT Specialist
Sputum is the substance expelled from your respiratory tract when you cough or clear your throat. It may contain a variety of material, including mucus, cellular debris, blood, pus and bacteria. Your doctor may order a sputum culture or cytology study to screen and diagnose bacterial infections of the lungs such as tuberculosis.
Citation: Ghazala Ansari , Sputum smear examination an important diagnostic tool in tuberculosis, Challenge-Q. 1986; 27 (4): 16-8 ...
MAZZEI, Juan Antonio; ROCHER, Adriana E. y PALAORO, Luis. Value of sputum analysis in the management of inflammatory airway diseases. Medicina (B. Aires) [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.4, pp. 332-338. ISSN 0025-7680.. Cellular analysis of sputum either spontaneous or by induced sputum technique, has become a widespread tool for the evaluation and guidance of treatment of inflammatory diseases of the airway, primarily asthma, COPD and eosinophilic bronchitis. Induced sputum method is a validated, standardized and non-invasive technique, useful in patients with difficulties to expectorate. Its implementation is simple and cost effective. Numerous investigations have shown the effectiveness of basing treatment decisions on the inflammatory component of the airway by counting cells in sputum. Several studies have demonstrated that in patients with asthma, results of this analysis can guide in defining strategies to reduce exacerbations and to improve lung function even in patients with severe asthma, as ...
Bronchoendoscopic examination is not necessarily comfortable procedure and limited by its sensitivity, depending on the location and size of the tumor lesion. Patients with a non-diagnostic bronchoendoscopic examination often undergo further invasive examinations. Non-invasive diagnostic tool of lung cancer is desired. A 72-year-old man had a 3.0 cm × 2.5 cm mass lesion in the segment B1 of right lung. Cytological examination of sputum, bronchial washing and curetted samples were all "negative". We could confirm a diagnosis of lung cancer after right upper lung lobe resection pathologically, and also obtained concordant results by genomic analysis using cytological negative samples from airways collected before operation ...
Most EGPA patients test positive for ANCAs in sputum samples, even if they show no signs of them in their blood, researchers found in a study.
Nevertheless, in some cases, especially when safety is the issue, a sample has to suffice. This can have a major effect on mediator measurement, which must be considered when interpreting the data. 2). There is also a trend towards increased ECP in the spontaneous sample. The duration of sputum induction also plays a role. 4). 5. The reduction in the concentration of mediators with increased duration of induction may be related to dilution by the inhaled fluid. Standardization of the duration of induction is, therefore, strongly recommended when comparing mediators in different samples. 5. The reduction in the concentration of mediators with increased duration of induction may be related to dilution by the inhaled fluid. Standardization of the duration of induction is, therefore, strongly recommended when comparing mediators in different samples. 2 Comparisons of inflammatory indices in sputum obtained spontaneously or following induction. The difference (in logs) between induced (IS) and ...