Field conditions vary widely across the Midwest right now and may put early planted corn at added risk for seedling diseases. In some areas cool soil temperatures and episodes of recent rainfall are especially favorable for some of the most common and damaging seedling diseases; in other areas, field conditions are quite dry. Numerous seedling diseases can occur and take advantage of any of these conditions. Be sure to monitor seedling emergence and stand establishment in the coming weeks so that if problems occur, they can be detected as early as possible.. Seedling diseases can be caused by any of several common soilborne organisms, such as Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia or plant parasitic nematodes. Seedling diseases are often difficult to diagnose because their symptoms are very similar. Sometimes diagnosis may be of limited value because management is the same for several seedling diseases. Microscopic examination and other laboratory analyses of the diseased seedlings often can identify ...
Conditions are favorable for soybean seedling disease in many areas. Wet soil, slow emergence, and delayed planting have been favorable for seedling diseases in many areas of southern and central Minnesota. Learn more about soybean seedling diseases from Dean Malvick in Minnesota Crop News.
Cover crops provide important water and soil quality benefits, but also require farmers to make additional management decisions. One of the choices that farmers have to make when using cover crops is when to kill the cover crop relative to the expected date of planting their next grain crop. The length of this interval between cover crop termination and planting of the next crop may influence how much the cover crop grows, as well as how the subsequent grain crop performs. We performed experiments to test the effects of various time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield. Shorter intervals increased seedling disease, and reduced corn emergence, shoot growth, and grain yield of corn following the cover crop compared with corn planted 10 or more days after rye termination or without the cover crop. The proportion of roots infected with Pythium spp. increased with shorter intervals. We also measured the proportion ...
Grapes come in many disease-resistant cultivars, but this does not mean they are all impervious to diseases. Even resistant varieties can develop grape diseases under the proper conditions. Sprays designed for grape diseases can prevent infection and eradicate existing diseases quickly to avert crop disasters. Use ...
Ive had a few questions this week about cotton seedling diseases and thought it worthwhile to share a section of the 2019 Georgia Cotton Production … Continue reading →. ...
Article Evaluation of the biosolids compost maturity in south Isfahan wastewater treatment plant. As a promising alternative for biosolids disposal, land application of composted biosolids has increased in the past decade (Goldstein and Steuteville, ...
In this study the comparative destruction of municipal biosolids using thermal hydrolysis (140 or 165 °C) and wet oxidation (220 °C) was followed by biological degradation via mesophilic anaerobic digestion (36 °C). Wet oxidation (WO) destroyed more than 93% of the VSS, while thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 140 and 165 °C destroyed 9% and 22%, respectively. Combined TH and anaerobic digestion resulted in approximately 50% VSS destruction. The ultimate methane potential of the combined fractions from the thermal hydrolysis at 140 and 165 °C improved by 12-13% relative to the untreated control sample. Methane production from the WO material was 53% of the control yield and wholly attributable to soluble organic carbon in the liquid fraction, indicating that the WO destroyed all putrescible carbon from the solids fraction. Point sampling during the BMP assay revealed that methanogenic development, not solids hydrolysis, was the kinetic barrier during anaerobic digestion in this study ...
Do not export Roundup Ready® Alfalfa seed or crop, including hay or hay products, to China pending import approval. In addition, due to the unique cropping practices do not plant Roundup Ready® Alfalfa in Imperial County, California, pending import approvals and until Forage Genetics International, LLC (FGI) grants express permission for such planting.. Forage Genetics International, LLC ("FGI") is a member of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS). FGI products are commercialized in accordance with ETS Product Launch Stewardship Guidance, and in compliance with FGIs Policy for Commercialization of Biotechnology-Derived Plant Products in Commodity Crops. Certain products have been approved for import into key export markets with functioning regulatory systems. Any crop or material produced from this product can only be exported to, or used, processed or sold in countries where all necessary regulatory approvals have been granted. It is a violation of national and international law to move ...
Synchytrium endobioticum is an obligate parasite of certain members of the order Solanaceae with potato (Solanum tuberosum) being the only cultivated host. In Mexico some wild Solanum species are also known as hosts.
Michigan State University Extension applies research from MSU to help Michigan residents solve everyday problems in agriculture, community development, nutrition, family finances, youth development and more.
you need : 24 figs, lemons 6, 1 tbsp.chopped rhubarb root, 1/2 teaspoon of burnt alum, wine vinegar.. Preparation and application: figs halved lemons into 8 pieces.All mix and pour the vinegar so that the entire mixture was covered with liquid.Infuse for 2 days in a dark place.Eat for 20 minutes before a meal to 2 pieces of figs 1 and lemon slice 3 times a day.The course of treatment - 24 days, then 2-week break, and you can repeat it.. you need : 50 g seedless raisins, wine vinegar.. Preparation and use: wash the raisins in hot water, pour the vinegar so as to cover it completely and leave for 30 minutes.Divide into 2 portions raisins and eat in the morning and evening.. ...
EPA and the states intent is to get rid of upwards of ten million tons of hazardous sludge biosolids with a minimum of paperwork. The public exposure to deadth, disease, cancer was not a consideration. EPA and the states have ignored all compost studies
Adetailed investigation of charcoalified Lochkovianmesofossils, undertaken to circumscribe diversity and disparity in early land vegetation, has revealed anumber of discoidal sporemasses, enveloped by a featureless cuticular layer. The specimens are interpreted as incompletely preserved terminal sporangia. Based on haptotypic features of the spores, two groups of sporangia are recognised: the first contains alete sculptured monads, the separated products of dyads that are assigned to the dispersed cryptospore genus Cymbohilates Richardson; the second contains laevigate and apiculate trilete monads, the products of tetrads that are assigned to the dispersed genera Ambitisporites Hoffmeister, Streelispora (Chaloner and Streel) Richardson and Lister, and Aneurospora Streel. A new genus, Lenticulatheca,with four newspecies, L.magna, L. mesodeca, L. variabilis, andL. allenii, has beenerected for the cryptospore producers, distinction being basedon species and varieties ofCymbohilates. The trilete ...
The conclusion that pro-ςE is associated with the cytoplasmic membrane and that this membrane association depends on the pro-amino acid sequence was independently reached in the concurrent investigation of Zhang et al. (37), who carried out subcellular fractionation experiments. That the pro-amino acid sequence also causes pro-ςE to become sequestered at the asymmetrically positioned septum is consistent with the previously reported observations of Ju et al. (6) who found that the NH2-terminal 55 amino acids of pro-ςE are sufficient to cause a fusion to GFP to become septum associated. Our present results confirm and extend the findings of Ju et al. by showing that pro-ςE is initially associated with the cytoplasmic membrane of the predivisional sporangium and that the nonrecombinant, native form of the proprotein becomes concentrated at the septum of the postdivisional sporangium.. In a parallel study on the properties of the prosequence of the late-stage mother cell-specific transcription ...
KNOX1 and KNOX2 [duplication] and LEAFY genes present, ethylene involved in cell elongation; chloroplast genome with close association between trnLUAA and trnFGAA genes [precursors for starch synthesis], tufA, minD, minE genes moved to nucleus; mitochondrial trnS(gcu) and trnN(guu) genes +.. Many of the bolded characters in the characterization above are apomorphies of more or less inclusive clades of streptophytes along the lineage leading to the embryophytes, not apomorphies of crown-group embryophytes per se.. All groups below are crown groups, nearly all are extant. Characters mentioned are those of the immediate common ancestor of the group, [] contains explanatory material, () features common in clade, exact status unclear.. POLYSPORANGIOPHYTA†. Sporophyte well developed, branched, branching dichotomous, potentially indeterminate; hydroids +; stomata on stem; sporangia several, terminal; spore walls not multilamellate [?here].. II. TRACHEOPHYTA / VASCULAR PLANTS. Sporophyte long lived, ...
KNOX1 and KNOX2 [duplication] and LEAFY genes present, ethylene involved in cell elongation; chloroplast genome with close association between trnLUAA and trnFGAA genes [precursors for starch synthesis], tufA gene moved to nucleus; mitochondrial trnS(gcu) and trnN(guu) genes +.. Many of the bolded characters in the characterization above are apomorphies of subsets of streptophytes along the lineage leading to the embryophytes, not apomorphies of crown-group embryophytes per se.. All groups below are crown groups, nearly all are extant. Characters mentioned are those of the immediate common ancestor of the group, [] contains explanatory material, () features common in clade, exact status unclear.. STOMATOPHYTES. Abscisic acid, L- and D-methionine distinguished metabolically; pro- and metaphase spindles acentric; class 1 KNOX genes expressed in sporangium alone; sporangium wall 4≤ cells across [≡ eusporangium], tapetum +, secreting sporopollenin, which obscures outer white-line centred ...
Synonym(s): Synedra nitzschioides Grunow 1862. Life-form: Cells united in zig-zag-like chains. Size: Apical axis 10 - 110 µm, transapical axis 2 - 4 µm. Resting spore:. Note:. Distinctive features: Valve ends similar in width and length. Marginal structure visible with LM as ribs. Similar species: T. frauenfeldii. Distribution: Worldwide. Literature: ...
A Tale of Two Forest Carbon Assessments in the Eastern United States: Forest Use Versus Cover as a Metric of Change, Woodall, C. W., Walters B. F., Russell M. B., Coulston J. W., Domke G. M., DAmato Anthony, and Sowers P. A. , Ecosystems, Jan-12-2016, Volume 19, Issue 8, p.1401 - 1417, (2016) ...
A Tale of Two Forest Carbon Assessments in the Eastern United States: Forest Use Versus Cover as a Metric of Change, Woodall, C. W., Walters B. F., Russell M. B., Coulston J. W., Domke G. M., DAmato Anthony, and Sowers P. A. , Ecosystems, Jan-12-2016, Volume 19, Issue 8, p.1401 - 1417, (2016) ...
The best mulch can make all the difference in your yard. With so many types of mulch available, it can be difficult to choose. From shredded bark to compost, we cover the mulch basics to help you select which one will work best in your landscape.
Mulch Film Suppliers ☆ Search 17 mulch film suppliers, manufacturers and exporters here at EC21 ☆ Choose quality mulch film suppliers now - EC21
Garden mulch choices can seem overwhelming. Heres a guide that gives the pros and cons of different mulch types, plus how much they cost.
sick of weeding? On 9/9/07 11:11 AM, in article 46e40d75$0$32536$ Oh ya! but Ive got a back log from when DS wasnt able to move much and needed Mom in the house. C how deep should mulch be, in order to prevent week growth? do you put landscaping cloth under your mulch?
The first inroads into the understanding of GAs were developments from the plant pathology field, with studies on the bakanae, or "foolish seedling" disease in rice. Foolish seedling disease causes a strong elongation of rice stems and leaves and eventually causes them to topple over.[4] In 1926, Japanese scientist Eiichi Kurosawa identified that foolish seedling disease was caused by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.[4] Later work at the University of Tokyo (notable from Yabuta, Sumiki and Hayashi) showed that a substance produced by this fungus triggered the symptoms of foolish seedling disease and they named this substance "gibberellin".[1][4] The increased communication between Japan and the west following World War II enhanced the interest in gibberellin in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US).[1] Workers at Imperial Chemical Industries in the UK and the Department of Agriculture in the US both independently isolated gibberellic acid [4] (with the Americans originally referring ...
In mosses, liverworts and hornworts, an unbranched sporophyte produces a single sporangium, which may be quite complex morphologically. Most non-vascular plants, as well as many lycophytes and most ferns, are homosporous (only one kind of spore is produced). Some bryophytes, most lycophytes, and some ferns are heterosporous (two kinds of spores are produced). These plants produce microspores and megaspores, which give rise to gametophytes that are functionally male or female, respectively. In some cases, both kinds of spores are produced in the same sporangium, and may even develop together as part of a spore tetrad. However, in most heterosporous plants there are two kinds of sporangia, termed microsporangia and megasporangia. A few ferns (Salviniaceae and Marsileaceae) and some lycophytes (the genera Selaginella and Isoetes and the extinct lepidodendrids) are heterosporous with two kinds of sporangia, as are all the seed plants. Sporangia can be terminal (on the tips) or lateral (placed along ...
Universal Cells to utilise CGT Catapults induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to create universally accepted cells for research and commercial use. London, UK, 5 October 2017 - The Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult (CGT Catapult) today announced a non-exclusive licensing agreement to provide its clinical-grade induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) line to Seattle based Universal Cells. Under the terms of the agreement, Universal Cells, a therapeutic gene editing company, will license CGT Catapults iPSC line for use in the continued research and development of its novel, clinic ready universal donor cell line.. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) lines hold great promise in the field of regenerative medicine because of their ability to propagate and be converted into any other cell in the body. Through this agreement, Universal Cells will use its proprietary gene editing technologies to edit CGT Catapults iPSC line with the aim of developing rejection free, off-the-shelf products that can be ...
The Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult (CGT Catapult) today announced a non-exclusive licensing agreement to provide its clinical-grade induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) line to Seattle based Universal Cells. Under the terms of the agreement, Universal Cells, a therapeutic gene editing company, will license CGT Catapults iPSC line for use in the continued research and development of its novel, clinic ready universal donor cell line.
Guildford and London, UK - 28 March 2013: ReNeuron and the Cell Therapy Catapult, which is focused on the development of the UK cell therapy industry to increase the nations health and wealth, are pleased to announce they have signed an agreement to work together on new cell therapy manufacturing technologies and assays. The Cell Therapy Catapult is a centre of excellence for regenerative medicine established in 2012 to stimulate innovation in this area.. The work is expected to be completed by the end of 2014 and will focus on ReNeurons lead CTX stem cell line. This cell line is used in ReNeurons ReN001 therapy for stroke (currently in Phase I clinical development), and in its ReN009 therapy for critical limb ischaemia, shortly to enter clinical development.. The collaboration will focus on the development and optimisation of the processes required to scale up manufacture of the CTX cell line, including rapid cell culture techniques, cryopreservation methodologies and the development of ...
Catapult is a partner in a strategic internal project at SINTEF aimed at development and production of new drugs in immunotherapy.. ...
0094] Ten days after the inoculation, the number of leaf disks exhibiting downy mildew development was determined for each modality tested (frequency of infection). Then, downy mildew lesions accompanied by whitish sporangia were rated according to a 0-4 scale, as previously described by Reuveni (Relationship between leaf age, peroxidase and b 1-3 glucanase activity and resistance to downy mildew in s, 1998. Journal of Phytopathology 146, 525-530): 0, no lesions; 1, 1-10% of the leaf disk area infected and sporulating; 2, 11-25%; 3, 26-50%; and 4, ,50% (intensity of the infection). The numbers of sporangia produced on leaf disks were estimated. Sporangia were washed from 10 leaf disks in a known volume of sterile distilled water containing 0.01% Tween 80, and counted with the aid of a haemocytometer (six counts per 10 leaf disks). The number of sporangia produced per square centimeter of leaf disk area was calculated (intensity of the sporulation). The experiment was conducted once, with three ...
Grape Disease Descriptions and Management. Black Rot -Black rot is one of the most serious diseases of grapes in the eastern United States. Crop losses can range from 5 to 80 percent, depending on the amount of disease in the vineyard, the weather, and cultivar susceptibility. The fungus, Guignardia bidwelli, can infect all green parts of the vine. Most damaging is the effect on fruit. Later fruit infections can destroy many grapes, even the entire crop. Symptoms - Reddish-brown, usually circular leaf spots first appear on the upper leaf surface. Soon after, the center of the spot becomes tan to light brown. Small black pimple-like bodies appear in the center of the spot, usually arranged in a loose ring just inside the dark border. Infected grapes become dark and shatter, leaving only the stem. Most serious fruit infections occur when the grape is pea-sized or larger. The final stage is a black, wrinkled mummy. Disease Cycle - The fungus over winters in mummified berries on the soil or in old ...
by Laryn Kragt Bakker This is the fourth chapter of Laryn Kragt Bakkers new novel, Clutching Dust and Stars (read chapters one, two and three), published by *culture is not optional and available for purchase now. Well be serializing the first part of the novel on catapult for the next several weeks.. He had already said the requisite curses, standing in the damp darkness of the parking garage beside a small pile of shattered safety glass next to his car. The small window behind the rear drivers side door had been smashed and the front door hung open. He examined the interior, making a preliminary list of what had been plundered: all of his CDs, a small day-pack, and his point-and-shoot camera. The dashboard was torn up but the stereo was still intact.. He said the curses again, feeling strangely hollow in his stomach but full in his head and chest-as though he had been drinking on an empty stomach. Top heavy. He decided that he was going to move to Bellingham.. He turned around and slowly ...
Find best value and selection for your Outdoor slingshot wrist support handle catapult hunting search on eBay. World's leading marketplace.
by Laryn Kragt Bakker This is the fourth chapter of Laryn Kragt Bakkers new novel, Clutching Dust and Stars (read chapters one, two and three), published by *culture is not optional and available for purchase now. Well be serializing the first part of the novel on catapult for the next several weeks.. He had already said the requisite curses, standing in the damp darkness of the parking garage beside a small pile of shattered safety glass next to his car. The small window behind the rear drivers side door had been smashed and the front door hung open. He examined the interior, making a preliminary list of what had been plundered: all of his CDs, a small day-pack, and his point-and-shoot camera. The dashboard was torn up but the stereo was still intact.. He said the curses again, feeling strangely hollow in his stomach but full in his head and chest-as though he had been drinking on an empty stomach. Top heavy. He decided that he was going to move to Bellingham.. He turned around and slowly ...
The reniform nematode can also cause stand loss (Figure 4). There are no obvious symptoms on plants early in the season, but symptoms may become more apparent later in the season, such as stunting and nutrient deficiency symptoms in the foliage.. The reniform nematode can be diagnosed from soil samples. See https://bit.ly/2KxHjTp for details on sampling and submission of samples to the Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. If the nematode is present in a field, great care should be taken to prevent its movement to other fields via soil attached to implements.. The nematode is very difficult to manage once it is present in a field and its presence could limit long-term productivity. In contrast, seedling diseases caused by fungi do not pose a long-term threat to productivity. The reniform nematode can be diagnosed from soil samples.. See https://bit.ly/2KxHjTp for details on sampling and submission of samples to the Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. If the nematode is present in a field, ...
Fern - The sorus: Hand in hand with the reduction in size of single sporangia are seen more and more complex aggregations of sporangia known as sori. The meristematic area-the region of new cell growth-that produces them may continue its activities over a number of weeks, producing sporangia of all ages, older ones being pushed aside as new ones mature in their turn. When sori develop on the leaves of house ferns, they are often mistaken for tiny insects (young stages) or a fungus disease (older stages) rather than recognized as organs necessary for the normal reproduction of the plant. The stages in progressive
Chytriodinium like parasite, infecting egg still in sac fram Atlantic Ocean. Egg sac contains 5 or more eggs, with about 40-60 µm dimater. Infected eggs showed one to several sporangia, with 50-70 µm of diameter (multiple infections frequent). A chain of dinospores was coiled within a fine hyaline membrane of the sporangium. The sporangium remained attached to the copepod egg and more than 60 dinospores were released when the membrane was lysed. Dinospores are about 8-9 µm long.. Body_trophont_length: 50-70 ...
Sweet and Hard Cider: working It, including It and Enjoying ItAnnie Proulx, et al. The Technology of Wine MakingMaynard Amerine, William Cruess and H. The University Wine Course: A Comprehensive Text and Tutorial Marian W. Wine Analysis & ProductionBruce Zoecklein, et al. download: A Scientific ExplanationMerton Sandler, et al. Wine Science: Principles and ApplicationsJackson, Ron S. Winery Technology and Operations: A destruction for Small Wineries Margalit, Yair. Winemaking and Brewing Without TearsAnthony G. Winemaking BasicsCornelius S. Winemaking: from Grape viewing to Marketplace( Chapman & Hall Enology Library) Richard P. Winemaking: cultures, Equipment, and Techniques for doing download at Home Stanley F. The American Wine Society Presents painting Wine Grapes J. The Berry Growers Companion Barbara L. Biology of the Grapevine Michael G. Mullins, Alain Bouquet, Larry E. Compendium of Grape Disease Roger C. From Vines to WinesJeff Cox, Sarah M. asking years and concretions at Home J. ...
AAAAAWe became interested in molecular sieves because of their potential as host matrices for site isolation of homogeneous catalysts and reactive intermediates. In particular, we were intrigued with the idea that one might be able to physically trap metal complexes in the oxide pores rather than immobilize the complexes by attachment to the surface of the molecular sieve. A distinct advantage would be that a trapped complex would be free to move within the confines of the channel or cage and thereby retain some of the homogeneous properties in a microreactor. The reactivity of such ship-in-a-bottle complexes would be modified by the properties of the molecular sieve, especially shape selectivity. Therefore, molecular sieve encapsulated metal complexes might be considered a bridge between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Some of these ideas have been realized through the encapsulation of large chelate complexes (e.g. phthalocyanines) in large pore zeolites such as NaY or X. In recent years ...
Clubmoss cone, light micrograph. Longitudinal section through the cone (strobilus) of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum. The strobilus consists of a central axis (purple). At right and left are the spore capsules (sporangia), including an inner wall (red) and spores (orange). The sporangia burst open to release the spores. These then germinate to form gametophyte plants that continue the reproductive cycle. Magnification: x14 when printed at 10 centimetres high. - Stock Image C002/5740
SPOROCARPS: gregarious, total height 1 to 2 mm., stalked, globose or sometimes turbinate, erect or nodding, 0.4 to 0.7 mm. diam.; spore-mass golden yellow; cup one third the height of the sporangium, pale brown or brown, irregularly and deeply toothed at the margin, often more regular, studded with round plasmodic granules 0.5-1 µm diam., arranged in close lines radiating from the base of the sporangium; nodes of the net flattened, broad, branching, and angular, or narrow, the angles continued into the slender connecting threads, or thickened and convex, often with a few free rays ...
Goto, Bruno Tomio & Leonor Costa Maia. Contribution to the study of Endogonales in Brazil: The first record of Peridiospora tatachia. Mycotaxon 96: 327 - 332. 2006.. ABSTRACT: The order Endogonales contains four genera: Endogone, Peridiospora, Sclerogone and Youngiomyces. Peridiospora is the only genus with unispored sporocarps, which are quite similar to certain spores of Glomeromycota. In Brazil, there are few collections of the Endogonales; it is possible that species of this order are found, but not identified due to the lack of information regarding the group in most tropical countries. The occurrence of Peridiospora tatachia is recorded from Brazil, the species description is emended, and characters are discussed that help distinguish P. tatachia from similar species of Glomeraceae and Acaulosporaceae. KEYWORDS: diversity, Endogonaceae, Glomus, morphology ...
The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
Let me begin by saying that I usually build something once, and then never build another model of that subject again, unless its in a different scale or...
Collaboration could reduce the cost of cell and gene therapy production by developing a more efficient method of modifying cells for therapies
Figure 9: While the Earth itself rotated at several hundreds of miles per hour, the lunar shadow moved much faster. It took just one hour and 30 minutes for the shadow to travel across the United States, but it did not move at a constant speed. Earths shape caused the shadow to hit the surface at a slant-and thus move more quickly-at the beginning and end of the eclipse path (image credit: NASA). - The right third of the MODIS mosaic shows the eastern United States at about 12:10 p.m. Eastern Time (16:10 Universal Time), before the eclipse had begun. The middle part was captured at about 12:50 p.m. Central Time (17:50 Universal Time), when the eclipse was in progress in the center of the country. The left third of the image was collected at about 12:30 p.m. Pacific Time (19:30 Universal Time), after the eclipse had ended. The VIIRS mosaic is similar, but it shows the shadow at 2:30 p.m. Eastern Time (18:30 Universal Time), when it had reached the eastern United States. Note that VIIRS has a ...
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
You can mulch with anything that will decay, if it doesnt contain toxic or poisonous substances. Some materials are better than others. A very good mulch material, easy to obtain (at no cost) is grass clippings, your own or your neighbors. If possible, spread them out to dry, before using them to mulch your garden. If you do use green clippings, dont apply them directly to the soil, as this can rob the soil of nitrogen. Spread green clippings in a thin layer on top of previously-applied "cured" mulch; this will allow them to dry. If applied in a thick layer, they may mat down, become slimy, build up heat, and develop odors. Piled up or bagged green grass clippings will get hot, but, when spread on the ground, they dont even get hot enough to hurt earthworms. But dont put fresh or green mulch up against tender young plants, as enough heat may build up to scald the plant. Of course, trees should never be mulched right up to the trunks, even if the mulch is "cured"-at least ten inches from the ...
Pityrogramma (pteridoids). Pityrogramma is a genus of approximately 20 species, mostly of the New World tropics. They are less dependent on xeric habitats than most of the other farinose groups, and can often be rather weedy-occurring both in disturbed habitats and as human-introduced species far beyond their natural range. They are often larger ferns (leaves approaching 1 m long), with pinnately-divided leaves with dense white or yellow farina beneath. They are distinguished from Pentagramma by the characters given under that genus, and from all other farinose ferns by their sporangia, which are distributed along the veins beneath the leaves ...
Sporophyte: Abbott and Hollenberg 1976, p. 226, fig. 186 (habit, as D. ligulata var. firma); Hollenberg and Abbott 1966, p. 20 [630] (habit); Scagel 1967, p. 93, fig. 32 (habit, as D. foliacea); Nakahara and Nakamura 1971, p. 70, figs. 1a-c (x-section and surface view, unilocular sporangia), p. 71, fig. 3a-d (developing plant), p. 72, fig. 4a (photo: mature plant), fig. 4e, f (photos: developing plants). Gametophyte: Nakahara and Nakamura 1971, p. 70, figs. 2a-g (zoospores and germlings), fig. 4h (antheridial and oogonial plant), p. 72, fig. 4 b, c (photos: mature plants) ...