TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and serine-threonine kinase-like immunoreactivity in rabbit spinal cord after transient ischemia. AU - Sakurai, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Takeshi. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Itoyuama, Yasuto. AU - Tabayashi, Koichi. PY - 2001/4/13. Y1 - 2001/4/13. N2 - The mechanism of spinal cord injury has been thought to be related with tissue ischemia, and spinal motor neuron cells are suggested to be vulnerable to ischemia. To evaluate the mechanism of such vulnerability of motor neurons, we attempted to make a reproducible model of rabbit spinal cord ischemia. Using this model, the inductions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-k) and serine-threonine kinase (Akt) were investigated with immunohistochemical analyses for up to 7 days of the reperfusion following 15 min of ischemia in rabbit spinal cord. It has been demonstrated that both PI3-k and its downstream effector, Akt mediate growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Spinal cord sections from ...
article{181863, author = {Leybaert, Luc and DEHEMPTINNE, A}, issn = {0014-4819}, journal = {EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {392--402}, title = {Changes of intracellular free calcium following mechanical injury in a spinal cord slice preparation.}, volume = {112}, year = {1996 ...
The phospholipid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions of mixed murine spinal cord neuronal cultures are reported. The phospholipid composition was primarily comprised of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (44.8%) and choline glycerophospholipids (43.5%). Plasmalogens made up 29.1% of the ethanola...
The spinal cord is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (spinal fluid) throughout its course in the spinal canal. The spinal fluid serves as a buffer of fluid that surrounds the spinal cord providing protection and insulation from movements and trauma to the body. The spinal fluid is kept in place by two thin membranes- the arachnoid and dura. The arachnoid is a very thin see through membrane that is suspended in the spinal fluid while the dura is a slightly thicker and stronger membrane that surrounds the spinal fluid space.. A ventral spinal cord herniation may occur if a breach or weakness of the dura occurs. Spinal fluid can leak through this opening causing headaches as part of a condition called spontaneous intracranial hypotension. In rare circumstances, the spinal cord may be pushed forward and protrude through the breach in the dura to produce a ventral spinal cord herniation. This condition usually occurs in the thoracic spine and can cause numbness and weakness in the legs with walking ...
Methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord are described. In one aspect of the invention, a method of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord includes contacting the spinal cord with a biomembrane fusion agent such as a polyalkylene glycol, especially polyethylene glycol. In alternative embodiments of the invention, methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord include contacting the cord with a biomembrane fusion agent and a potassium channel blocker. Other aspects of the invention include compositions for treating a vertebrate nervous system. A preferred composition includes a biomembrane fusion agent, such as a polyalkylene glycol, and a potassium channel blocker, such as an amino-substituted pyridine.
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about NSPC from the adult human spinal cord as a donor source. We demonstrate for the first time that multipotent and self-renewing NSPC can be cultured, passaged and transplanted from the adult human spinal cord of organ transplant donors. Adult human spinal cord NSPC require an adherent substrate for selection and expansion in EGF (epidermal growth factor) and FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor) enriched medium. NSPC as an adherent monolayer can be passaged for at least 9 months and form neurospheres when plated in suspension culture. In EGF/FGF2 culture, NSPC proliferate and primarily express nestin and Sox2, and low levels of markers for differentiating cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes NSPC proliferation and significantly enhances GFAP expression in hypoxia. In differentiating conditions in the presence of serum, these NSPC show multipotentiality, expressing
Assessment of spinal cord pathology following trauma using early changesin the spinal cord evoked potentials: a pharmacological and morphologicalstudy in the rat. ...
spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord, spinal cord anatomy, cauda equina, image, anatomy of spinal cord, spinal nerves, cauda equina anatomy, human spinal cord anatomy, sacral spinal cord, spinal cord nerves, Spinal Nerve Anatomy, spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord segments, conus medullaris, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, spinal cord, real spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, human spinal cord, ...
The ability of regenerating fiber tracts to maintain or regain their normal pathways following a spinal cord transection was investigated. Utilizing the Holmes silver technique, examination of ran- domly chosen transected spinal cords of goldfish verified that the transections were complete. Normal goldfish spinal cords were studied using two micra plastic cross sections and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled longitudinal sections. Descending and ascending tracts were identified by transecting the spinal cord and examining sections for degeneration. Following regeneration, two micra plastic cross sections stained with toluidine blue, and longitudinal and cross sections of HRP labeled regenerate goldfish spinal cords (labeling of either the entire spinal cord or a limited number of fibers) were examined. Regeneration of the fibers was found to be limited to 5 or 6 millimeters. With HRP labeling of the regenerated spinal cord either rostral or caudal to the original transection, labeled fibers ...
In contrast to cyclin D1 and D2, the expression level of cyclin D3 was high in the hindbrain at the E15.5 stage (Figure 3I, arrowhead). Moreover, in the midbrain cyclin D3 was expressed in cells closer to the ventricle than those expressing cyclin D2 (Figure 3H, I, arrows).. Discussion. At the E10.5 stage, all three D-type cyclins were expressed in most of the spinal cord cells but cyclin D1 and D3 showed higher expression levels in the dorsal half of the spinal cord. Wianny et al. (1998) found that the dorso-ventral gradient of the cyclin D1 transcript also occurs in the spinal cord of 7-9 somite-stage embryos. However, in our study we found that at the E10.5 stage cyclin D2 was not missing from the floor plate and also that cyclin D3 was not expressed only ventrally, as was reported for the transcripts of the genes in 7-9 somite stage embryos by Wianny et al. (1998). This may have been due to altered expression patterns of these genes during the time course of spinal cord development and ...
Bcl11a is expressed in both presynaptic sensory neurons and postsynaptic spinal target neurons (Fig. 1). We next asked whether Bcl11a is required for correct wiring, and if so, on which site. Central axons of sensory neurons were labeled at E16.5 with DiI. In the superficial dorsal horns of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants, the density of DiI-positive fibers was greatly reduced and the remaining fibers appeared disorganized. Only a few axons crossing the midline or located in a dorsolateral region of the dorsal horn were detectable by DiI labeling in mutants (Fig. 5A,B). TrkA (Ntrk1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) -positive nociceptive fibers preferentially terminate in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunohistological analysis with antibodies against TrkA or aquaporin 1, a water channel protein that is expressed by small-diameter nociceptive fibers (Oshio et al., 2006), invariably revealed almost complete loss of such fibers in the dorsal horn of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants (Fig. 5C-F). Similar results were ...
Sweeney-Nixon, M. I., White, T., & Sawynok, J. (1989). Adenosine release from the spinal cord may mediate antinodideption by intracerebroventricular morphine. Society For Neuroscience Abstracts, 15, 371 ...
Spinal nerves carry nerve impulses to and from the spinal cord through two nerve roots: Motor (anterior) root: Located toward the front, this root carries impulses from the spinal cord to muscles to stimulate muscle movement. Sensory (posterior) root: Located toward the back, this root carries sensory information about touch, position, pain, and temperature from the body to the spinal cord. In the center of the spinal cord, a butterfly-shaped area of gray matter helps relay impulses to and from spinal nerves. Its wings are called horns. Motor (anterior) horns: These horns contain nerve cells that carry signals from the brain or spinal cord through the motor root to muscles. Posterior (sensory) horns: These horns contain nerve cells that receive signals about pain, temperature, and other sensory information through the sensory root from nerve cells outside the spinal cord. Impulses travel up (to the brain) or down (from the brain) the spinal cord through distinct pathways (tracts). Each tract ...
Researchers at the University of Maine MicroInstruments and Systems Laboratory (MISL), in collaboration with The Jackson Laboratory, have developed a new microfluidic tool that reproduces in the laboratory the same physiochemical environment that instructs embryonic stem cells to develop into organized tissue.
Zett, W.; Lehmann, W.; Neumeister, K., 1968: Consequences of irradiation of the cervical spinal cord following radiotherapy of tumors in the cervical region. II. Electromyographic studies
The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) is an adaptor protein implicated in a number of human conditions including schizophrenia, anxiety and cardiac QT syndrome. Previous studies have shown that NOS1AP and some of its isoforms associate with the tumor suppressor protein scribble. Since scribble has been linked to the Hippo pathway, I set out to determine if NOS1AP associates with the Hippo pathway and whether it controls aspects of neuronal development. Here I show that NOS1AP and NOS1APc interact with the transcriptional co-activator yes-associated protein (YAP), a component of the Hippo cascade. Further both NOS1APa and NOS1APc show partial co-distribute with YAP in HEK293Tcells, with NOS1APc having better co-distribution. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry studies reveal that NOS1APc is expressed in the developing spinal cord. NOS1APc is expressed in the floor plate and roof plate and shows a similar profile to radial glial cells. In ovo electroporation of cDNA ...
Afferent input has been shown to play a major role in our capacity to reactivate spinal circuits that generate coordinated rhythmic flexion and extension of the limb muscles in spinal cord injury patients. Our studies revealed that stimulation of sacrocaudal afferents (SCA) is a potent means for activating the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) in rodents spinal cords that lack the descending control from the brain. These studies showed that capacity of SCA to induce the locomotor rhythm depends on activation of sacrocaudal neurons the crossed and uncrossed projections of which, ascend through the ventral and lateral white matter funiculi (VF,VLF, LF, and DLF) to the limb innervating segments of the cord. The project examines the axonal projections, spatial distribution, organization and physiological properties of these sacrocaudal neurons and evaluates their role in the generation of afferent induced rhythmicity in the spinal cord. The studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. ...
The spinal cord level of injury refers to the point where the spinal cord is injured and Marks a border between areas of the body that are affected and not affected by the spinal cord injury.
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STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study of corticospinal axonal sprouting in an organotypic slice culture model. OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model that simplifies the study of various factors regulating neuronal regeneration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal cord injury leads to permanent neurologic damage, mainly due to the inability of the adult central nervous system to regenerate. Much attention has been focused on promoting axonal regeneration and sprouting, either by exogenous administration of various neurotrophic factors or by the antagonization of factors inhibiting regeneration. METHODS: An in vitro system that allows coculture of slices from rat sensorimotor cortex and spinal cord (p4) was established. Two groups of cultures were investigated: In the first group, intact spinal cord slices were cultured adjacent to sensorimotor cortex slices, while in the second group the spinal cord slices were sagittally cut into halves, with the sectioned interface placed directly adjacent to the ...
These stem cells are called Human Spinal Stem Cells (HSSC) and have been engineered from the spinal cord of a single fetus electively aborted after 8 weeks of gestation. The tissue was obtained with the mothers consent. The cells will be transplanted into the ALS patients spinal cord after laminectomy, an operation that removes bone surrounding the spine. After the spinal cord is exposed, a device manufactured for this purpose will be mounted onto the patient and will hold a syringe filled with the cells. The syringe will have a needle attached and the needle will enter the spinal cord in specified areas. The device will minimize trauma to the spinal cord by the needle by making the puncture precise and steady and injecting the material at a slow and steady speed.. ALS is a universally fatal neurodegenerative condition that causes weakness leading to paralysis and death. Life expectancy is 2-5 years. The cause is unknown and there is no effective treatment. Previous research has shown that on ...
These stem cells are called Human Spinal Stem Cells (HSSC) and have been engineered from the spinal cord of a single fetus electively aborted after 8 weeks of gestation. The tissue was obtained with the mothers consent. The cells will be transplanted into the ALS patients spinal cord after laminectomy, an operation that removes bone surrounding the spine. After the spinal cord is exposed, a device manufactured for this purpose will be mounted onto the patient and will hold a syringe filled with the cells. The syringe will have a needle attached and the needle will enter the spinal cord in specified areas. The device will minimize trauma to the spinal cord by the needle by making the puncture precise and steady and injecting the material at a slow and steady speed.. ALS is a universally fatal neurodegenerative condition that causes weakness leading to paralysis and death. Life expectancy is 2-5 years. The cause is unknown and there is no effective treatment. Previous research has shown that on ...
Spinal Cord Cross Section Tracts Cross Section Of Spinal Cord Stock Vector Image 41446425 photo, Spinal Cord Cross Section Tracts Cross Section Of Spinal Cord Stock Vector Image 41446425 image, Spinal Cord Cross Section Tracts Cross Section Of Spinal Cord Stock Vector Image 41446425 gallery
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synaptic corelease of ATP and GABA in cultured spinal neurons. AU - Jo, Young-Hwan. AU - Schlichter, Rémy. PY - 1999/3. Y1 - 1999/3. N2 - In the spinal dorsal horn (DH), transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive (pain-inducing) messages involve classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. We show that approximately half of DH neurons use ATP as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter acting at ionotropic P2X postsynaptic receptors. ATP was not codetected with glutamate but was coreleased with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Moreover, adenosine, probably generated by extracellular metabolism of ATP, finely tuned GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Differential modulation of excitatory versus inhibitory components of this mixed cotransmission may help to explain changes in sensory message processing in the DH during mechanical hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain.. AB - In the spinal dorsal horn (DH), transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive ...
A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small cross-sectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of critical mass of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the
We reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with cervical myelopathy, showing lesions of high signal intensity in the spinal cord on the sagittal T2 weighted images (T2WI) after surgery: 16 with OPLL; 9 with spondylosis; 4 with disc herniation and 3 with trauma. All images were obtained on a superconducting 1.5 Tesla system. The lesions were classified into five groups, according to the shape and grade of signal intensity on the sagittal T2WI: (I) oval-shaped lesion of signal intensity less brighter than CSF with blurred margin, (II) longitudinal linear-shaped lesion of signal intensity similar to CSF, (III) spindle-shaped lesion of signal intensity similar to CSF, (IV) round-shaped lesion of signal intensity similar to CSF and (V) mixed-types lesions which consisted of group I and II. The present study was summarized as follows: 1) Oval-shaped lesions were seen in the cases of disc herniation and spondylosis with relatively short duration of the symptom, presumptively with relatively short duration of the
Spinal Cord Function After Injury. spinal cord structure in relation to vertebrae types of lesions fibre tracts in spinal cord sensory loss motor loss reflexes and spinal shock neuropathic pain. Orientation of spinal cord and spinal roots with respect to vertebrae. Posterior. Slideshow 6341268 by oren-livingston
A Web-based simulation system of the spinal cord circuitry responsible for muscle control is described. The simulator employs two-compartment motoneuron models for S, FR and FF types, with synaptic inputs acting through conductance variations. Four motoneuron pools with their associated interneurons are represented in the simulator, with the possibility of inclusion of more than 2,000 neurons and 2,000,000 synapses. ... Inputs to the motoneuron pool come from populations of interneurons (Ia reciprocal inhibitory interneurons, Ib interneurons, and Renshaw cells) and from stochastic point processes associated with descending tracts. ... The generation of the H-reflex by the Ia-motoneuron pool system and its modulation by spinal cord interneurons is included in the simulation system ...
Birth defects are the leading cause of infantile mortality, followed by neural tube defects (NTD) and congenital heart defects. Spina bifida and anencephaly are among the most common forms of NTD. NTD etiologies are complex, and are associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Polycomb gr …
During spinal cord development the proliferation, migration and survival of neural progenitors and precursors is tightly controlled, generating the fine spatial organisation of the cord. In order to understand better the control of these processes, we have examined the function of an orphan receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) PTPγ, in the developing chick spinal cord. Widespread expression of PTPγ occurs post-embryonic day 3 in the early cord and is consistent with a potential role in either neurogenesis or neuronal maturation. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches in ovo, we show that PTPγ perturbation significantly reduces progenitor proliferation rates and neuronal precursor numbers, resulting in hypoplasia of the neuroepithelium. PTPγ gain-of-function causes widespread suppression of Wnt/β-catenin-driven TCF signalling. One potential target of PTPγ may therefore be β-catenin itself, since PTPγ can dephosphorylate it in vitro, but alternative targets are also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lignocaine selectively reduces C fibre-evoked neuronal activity in rat spinal cord in vitro by decreasing N-methyl-D-aspartate and neurokinin receptor-mediated post-synaptic depolarizations; implications for the development of novel centrally acting analgesics. AU - Nagy, I.. AU - Woolf, Clifford J.. PY - 1996/1. Y1 - 1996/1. N2 - The action of lignocaine on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord has been studied in vitro using ventral root potential (VRP) recordings from 10-12-day-old rat hemisected spinal cord preparations. Single-shock stimulation of a dorsal root at intensities sufficient to activate high-threshold C-primary afferent fibres elicited VRPs lasting for 15-20 sec in the corresponding ventral root. The VRP consisted of 3 distinct parts: the early, slow and prolonged components, as previously described (Thompson et al. 1992), where the early represents Aβfibre-evoked mono- and polysynaptic responses lasting for tens of milliseconds, the slow is a largely ...
This dissertation describes research to elucidate the early steps in the process of synapse formation in the zebrafish spinal cord. One question is how presynaptic proteins are trafficked and recruited to nascent synapses. Previous work has suggested two possible models of presynaptic transport, either (1) most presynaptic proteins are transported together or (2) two types of transport packets, synaptic vesicle (SV) protein transport vesicles (STVs) and Piccolo-containing active zone precursor transport vesicles (PTVs), transport the necessary components separately. We tested these models using in vivo imaging in zebrafish spinal cord and found that the recruitment of at least three distinct transport packets during presynaptic assembly of a glutamatergic synapse occurs in an ordered sequence. First, STVs are stabilized at future synaptic sites, then PTVs, followed by a third transport packet type carrying Synapsin, a cytosolic protein that can tether SVs to actin. These results identify an ...
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report a previously unappreciated phenomenon in which the location of injury to a neurons communication wire in the spinal cord - the axon - determines whether the neuron simply stabilizes or attempts to regenerate. The study, published April 30 by Neuron, demonstrates how advances in live-imaging techniques are revealing new insights into the bodys ability to respond to spinal cord injuries.. While the body of a neuron is small, its axon can extend far up or down the spinal cord, which is about one and half feet long in humans. Along that distance, the axon branches out to make hundreds of connections with other cells, sending out signals that allow us to sense and respond to the world around us. Unless something happens to disrupt the axons reach, that is. Adult human axons in the brain and spinal cord are very limited in their ability to regenerate after injury - a hurdle that many researchers are trying to overcome in ...
Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous neuroprotective phenomenon induced by sublethal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the first discovered form of ischemic tolerance, is widely seen in many species and in various organs including the brain and the spinal cord. Ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord is less familiar among neurosurgeons, although it has been reported from the viewpoint of preventing ischemic spinal cord injury during aortic surgery. It is important for neurosurgeons to have opportunities to see patients with spinal cord ischemia, and to understand ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord as well as the brain. IPC has a strong neuroprotective effect in animal models of ischemia; however, clinical application of IPC for ischemic brain and spinal diseases is difficult because they cannot be predicted. In addition, one drawback of preconditioning stimuli is that they are also capable of producing injury with only minor changes to their intensity or duration. Numerous methods to ...
A joint study by Professor Jonas Friséns research group at Karolinska Institute and their colleagues from France and Japan, and published in Cell Stem Cell, shows how stem cells and several other cell types contribute to the formation of new spinal cord cells in mice and how this changes dramatically after trauma. The research group has identified a type of stem cell, called an ependymal cell, in the spinal cord. They show that these cells are inactive in the healthy spinal cord, and that the cell formation that takes place does so mainly through the division of more mature cells. When the spinal cord is injured, however, these stem cells are activated to become the dominant source of new cells ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a unique system to model mammalian embryonic development in an accessible in vitro setting. The ability of ES cells to generate any cell type found in our organism can be harnessed to study how cellular diversity is established during development. We demonstrate this by recapitulating key aspects of neural tube patterning and spinal cord development in differentiating ES cells, leading to efficient production of spinal motor neurons in vitro. Access to a virtually unlimited supply of spinal motor neurons creates a unique opportunity to decipher molecular processes governing the conversion of a pluripotent stem cell to a committed and differentiated cell type at global and comprehensive level. Currently we examine how differentiating cells integrate patterning signals and translate them into lasting changes in chromatin architecture and in patterns of gene expression. We believe that the studies will not only elucidate the complex, yet highly reproducible processes ...
The axons of motoneurons, neurons that make synaptic contacts with muscle cells, and the axons of the neurons that send sensory information to the central nervous system, leave or enter the spinal cord, respectively, as bundles known as nerve roots. There are two types of nerve roots: ventral roots, which leave the spinal cord ventrally and carry motor information to muscle cells, and dorsal roots, which enter the spinal cord dorsally, and carry sensory information from most parts of the body. Furthermore, some axons from sympathetic preganglionar neurons (thoracic and lumbar levels: T1 to L3) or from parasympathetic neurons (sacral level: S2-S4), belonging to the autonomous nervous system, also travel through the ventral nerve roots. Both ventral and dorsal roots are distributed at more or less regular intervals along the spinal cord. They are sorted in couples, that is, two ventral roots and two dorsal roots are located at the same level of the spinal cord (one ventral root and one dorsal ...
Background: Secretagogin (Scgn), a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein (CaBP) superfamily, has recently been found in subsets of developing and adult neurons. Here, we have analyzed the expression of Scgn in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia (TGs), and in spinal cord of mouse at the mRNA and protein levels, and in comparison to the well-known CaBPs, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin and calretinin. Rat DRGs, TGs and spinal cord, as well as human DRGs and spinal cord were used to reveal phylogenetic variations. Results: We found Scgn mRNA expressed in mouse and human DRGs and in mouse ventral spinal cord. Our immunohistochemical data showed a complementary distribution of Scgn and the three CaBPs in mouse DRG neurons and spinal cord. Scgn was expressed in similar to 7% of all mouse DRG neuron profiles, mainly small ones and almost exclusively co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This co-localization was also seen in human, but not in rat DRGs. Scgn could ...
The spinal cord is segmentally organized. These segments correspond embryologically to the nerve supply of somites, which give rise to the musculature. There are 31 spinal cord segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a spinal nerve. These nerves are named after the segment from which they originate. C1-7 exist in the spinal canal above their corresponding vertebrae and the rest exist below their vertebrae. The spinal cord ends at the level L1, so that with more caudal segments the distance between the spinal segment and the point of exit of the spinal nerve from the vertebral column increases. In the lumbar vertebral column, the spinal roots have to travel a distance to reach their point of exit. The mass of stringy roots travelling in the lower vertebral column resemble a horses tail or cauda equina. ...
REFERENCES AND RECOMMENDED READING Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as: & of special interest && of outstanding interest 1. Lycklama G, Thompson A, Filippi M, et al. Spinal-cord MRI in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2:555-562. 2. Stankiewicz JM, Neema M, Alsop DC, et al. Spinal cord lesions and clinical status in multiple sclerosis: a 1.5 T and 3 T MRI study. J Neurol Sci 2009; 279:99-105. 3. Philpott C, Brotchie P. Comparison of MRI sequences for evaluation of multiple sclerosis of the cervical spinal cord at 3 T. Eur J Radiol 2011; 80:780-785. 4. Bot JC, Barkhof F, Lycklama a` Nijeholt GJ, et al. Comparison of a conventional cardiac-triggered dual spin-echo and a fast STIR sequence in detection of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis. Eur Radiol 2000; 10:753-758. 5. Riederer I, Karampinos DC, Settles M, et al. Double inversion recovery sequence of the cervical spinal cord in multiple sclerosis and related ...
Medtronic, plc, K2M Group Holdings, Inc., Orthofix International N.V., DePuy Synthes, NuVasive, Inc., RTI Surgical, Inc., Globus Medical, Inc., Zimmer Biomet Holdings, Inc., Stryker Corporation, and Alphatec Holdings, Inc., among others.A spinal cord stimulator is used to send electric shock to heal back pain. The rods are the threaded, rounded or smooth devices that limit the movement of specific section to improve the spinal cord. The spinal surgical devices are the tools used for treating the spinal injuries. They help improve the body restructure or realign the spinal cord for normal movements. The major devices used for spinal surgery are fracture repair devices, non-fusion devices, arthroplasty devices. Other procedures for improving the spinal deformities include spinal fusion and spinal decompression.Key Findings In Spinal Implants and Spinal Surgical Devices Market Report:-To break down and inspect the worldwide Spinal Implants and Spinal Surgical Devices status and future figure including,
Nearly one-fifth of us will experience neuropathic pain during our lifetimes, with exaggerated pain sensations or pain in response to a stimulus that is not normally painful, such as a light touch. Now, researchers report that overly active immune cells in the spinal cord may be to blame.. Yves De Koninck at Laval University and Michael Salter at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and colleagues have linked two earlier observations together to map of at least one route to neuropathic pain. The new data may suggest novel ways to treat the problem.. Normal pain is triggered by a stimulus somewhere in the body. The signal then passes through the spinal cord, where initial processing occurs, and travels to the brain, where it is perceived as pain. Any disruption along the way can lead to neuropathic pain, including abnormal processing of information from nonpainful stimuli.. In 2003, De Konincks team identified a key mechanism in the spinal cord that leads to neuropathic pain. In healthy ...
spinal cord nervous system spinal neurons photo, spinal cord nervous system spinal neurons image, spinal cord nervous system spinal neurons gallery
Spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of the brain have repeatedly been observed when no task or external stimulation is present. These fluctuations likely reflect baseline neuronal activity of the brain and correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks (RSN). It is not known however, whether intrinsically organized and spatially circumscribed RSNs also exist in the spinal cord, the brains principal sensorimotor interface with the body. Here, we use recent advances in spinal fMRI methodology and independent component analysis to answer this question in healthy human volunteers. We identified spatially distinct RSNs in the human spinal cord that were clearly separated into dorsal and ventral components, mirroring the functional neuroanatomy of the spinal cord and likely reflecting sensory and motor processing. Interestingly, dorsal (sensory) RSNs were separated into right and left components, presumably related to ongoing hemibody processing of
Fatty acid amide concentrations in thoracic spinal cord segments rostral to the spinal injury from SCI rats or comparable thoracic spinal cord segments from uni
Spinal Cord Histology== * Tissue - sheep spinal cord * Stain - luxol fast blue/cresyl violet {{Spinal Cord Histology}} {{Blue Histology}} Spinal cord histology 01.jpg Original file name: spico000lf.jpg [[Category:Sheep]] [[Category:Spinal Cord]] [[Category:Neural ...
Figure 1: lengthwise section of spinal cord nerve from cow showing nerve branching offFigure 2: cross section of spinal cord nerve showing five bundled nerves and surrounding fatFigure 3: section of spinal cord nerveFigure 4: cross section of spinal cord nerve showing hollow cavity in the centerFigure 5: cross section of spinal cord nerve showing hollow cavity partially closed
TY - JOUR. T1 - A-fiber sensory input induces neuronal cell death in the dorsal horn of the adult rat spinal cord. AU - Coggeshall, Richard E.. AU - Lekan, Helena A.. AU - White, Fletcher A.. AU - Woolf, Clifford J.. PY - 2001/7/2. Y1 - 2001/7/2. N2 - Excitoxicity due to excessive synaptic glutamate release is featured in many neurological conditions in which neuronal death occurs. Whether activation of primary sensory pathways can ever produce sufficient over-activity in secondary sensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to induce cell death, however, has not been determined. In this study, we asked whether activity in myelinated afferents (A fibers), which use glutamate as a transmitter, can induce cell death in the dorsal horn. Using stereological estimates of neuron numbers from electron microscopic sections, we found that stimulation of A-fibers in an intact sciatic nerve at 10 Hz, 20 Hz, and 50 Hz in 10-minute intervals at a stimulus strength that activates both Aβ and Aδ ...
Definition of spinal cord in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is spinal cord? Meaning of spinal cord as a finance term. What does spinal cord mean in finance?
Quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging can provide indices describing the interactions between free water protons and immobile macromolecular protons. These indices include the macromolecular proton fraction (MPF), which has been shown to correlate with myelin content in white matter. Because of the long scan times required for high-resolution spinal cord imaging, qMT studies of the human spinal cord have not found wide-spread application. Herein, we investigated whether these limitations could be overcome by utilizing only a single MT-weighted acquisition and a reference measurement, as was recently proposed in the brain. High-resolution, in vivo qMT data were obtained at 3.0T in the spinal cords of healthy volunteers and patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Low- and high-resolution acquisitions (low/high resolution=1×1×5mm(3)/0.65×0.65×5mm(3)) with clinically acceptable scan times (12min/7min) were evaluated. We also evaluated the reliability over time and the