Mammalian spermatogenesis consists of many cell types and biological processes and serves as an excellent model for studying gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. identified five major regulatory mechanisms termed transcript only, transcript degradation, translation repression, translation de-repression, and protein degradation based on changes in protein level relative to changes in mRNA level at the mitosis/meiosis transition and the meiosis/post-meiotic development transition. We found that post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are related to the generation of piRNAs and antisense transcripts. Our results provide a valuable inventory of proteins produced during mouse spermatogenesis and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in mammalian spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis in animals is usually a complex yet tightly regulated developmental process that involves many cell types. Similar to other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. AU - Anderson, Michael A.. AU - Jodoin, Jeanne N.. AU - Lee, Ethan. AU - Hales, Karen G.. AU - Hays, Thomas S.. AU - Lee, Laura A.. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Spermatogenesis uses mitotic and meiotic cell cycles coordinated with growth and differentiation programs to generate functional sperm. Our analysis of a Drosophila mutant has revealed that asunder (asun), which encodes a conserved protein, is an essential regulator of spermatogenesis. asun spermatocytes arrest during prophase of meiosis I. Strikingly, arrested spermatocytes contain free centrosomes that fail to stably associate with the nucleus. Spermatocytes that overcome arrest exhibit severe defects in meiotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. Furthermore, the centriole-derived basal body is detached from the nucleus in asun postmeiotic spermatids, resulting in abnormalities later in ...
Mammalian spermatogenesis is certainly a complicated differentiation process that occurs in many stages in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. attained from entire testes to end up being separated with a water lean. The STA-PUT technique, exhibited right here, uses a linear BSA gradient and basic sedimentation to individual spermatogenic cells centered on size and mass6-9. The STA-PUT technique offers many advantages over the additional two most broadly utilized strategies to individual spermatogenic cell types: FACS and elutriation10-13. The STA-PUT equipment needs just many items of specific glassware put together in a chilly space or huge refrigerator. Therefore, it is usually much less costly than using a cell sorter or an elutriator. The STA-PUT technique produces higher quantities of cells per cell type and testis than can become categorized by FACS in a similar period framework, although the chastity of each cell 158013-43-5 supplier populace is usually not really as high as those ...
Much prior work has shown that C. elegans spermatogenesis requires the proper morphogenesis and function of its MO secretory vesicles. While many mutants that affect the ultrastructure and cellular position of MO secretory vesicles are known (reviewed by LHernault 2006, 2009), little is known about how the affected proteins alter cell physiology. In this article, we show that morphogenesis of MO secretory vesicles is associated with a physiological transition when this compartment becomes acidified. This acidification is apparently synchronous and occurs coincident with spermatid budding from the residual body, which is when each FB-MO matures into a MO secretory vesicle (Figure 1, D and E). This acidification requires the V-ATPase, which is composed of a V0 sector that forms a pore in the membrane and a V1 sector that hydrolyzes ATP to provide the electromotive force for proton transport through V0 (reviewed by, e.g., Toei et al. 2010). spe-5 mutants do not show this MO acidification. In ...
During spermatogenesis, preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes, residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to gain entry to the adluminal compartment for further development at late stage VIII and early stage IX of the epithelial cycle. As such, the timely opening and closing of the BTB is crucial to spermatogenesis. A compromise in this process can lead to infertility. Moreover, the BTB is unique in its relative localization in the seminiferous epithelium compared to the tight junctions (TJs) found in other epithelia. Sertoli cell TJs are situated near the basal lamina in the testis, closest to the basement membrane (a modified form of extracellular matrix [ECM]), unlike TJs found in other epithelia, which are found nearest the apical portion of an epithelium, farthest away from ECM. Needless to say, BTB function in the testis is maintained by intricate regulatory mechanisms. In addition to hormones and cytokines, nitric ...
5.2.1 Spermatogenesis (Animation) -At what point in life do spermatogonia begin to undergo meiosis? -How many spermatozoa result from a single primary spermatocyte? -What is spermiogenesis? -What are the structural components of a mature spermatozoon? -How long does it takes for a primary spermatocyte to become a mature spermatozoon? -What testicular hormone is required for maintenance of spermatogenesis? -How do chronically high levels of anabolic steroids such as testosterone suppress spermatogenesis ...
The title of my Ph.D. thesis was Bioinformatic Analysis of Gene Families in Mouse and Human Spermatogenesis. Initially we determined gene expression profiles during the development of spermatogenesis in newborn mice. I wrote a data integration system to incorporate data from differnt sources including Differential Display, DNA array, and in situ hybridization data. We were able to show that the first wave of spermatogenesis was constituted of three major clusters of expression originating from Sertoli cells, Pachytene germ cells, and spermatids - and that all genes expressed could be associated to one or more of these clusters. This made it possible to determine the germ cell composition of the growing testis from total RNA and work is still ongoing to utilize this to located disrupted germ cell populations that may be caused by hormone like agents such as phthalates, parabenes, and pesticides - leading to impaired testicular function ...
What is the difference between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis? Spermiogenesis consists of a differentiation process while spermatogenesis consists of ..
Mammalian spermatogenesis is regulated by coordinated gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner. The spatiotemporal regulation of major sperm proteins plays important roles during normal development of the male gamete, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3) is one of the major components of the fibrous sheath of the sperm tail that is formed during spermiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of sperm-specific Akap3 and the potential regulatory factors of its protein synthesis during mouse spermiogenesis. Results showed that the transcription of Akap3 precedes its protein synthesis by about 2 wk. Nascent AKAP3 was found to form protein complex with PKA and RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including PIWIL1, PABPC1, and NONO, as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation and protein mass spectrometry. RNA electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay showed that these RBPs bind sperm-specific mRNAs, of which proteins are synthesized
de Rooij DG. (2017). The nature and dynamics of spermatogonial stem cells. Development , 144, 3022-3030. PMID: 28851723 DOI. Griswold MD. (2016). Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis. Physiol. Rev. , 96, 1-17. PMID: 26537427 DOI. Talwar P & Hayatnagarkar S. (2015). Sperm function test. J Hum Reprod Sci , 8, 61-9. PMID: 26157295 DOI. Yoshida S. (2010). Stem cells in mammalian spermatogenesis. Dev. Growth Differ. , 52, 311-7. PMID: 20388168 DOI. Hogarth CA & Griswold MD. (2010). The key role of vitamin A in spermatogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. , 120, 956-62. PMID: 20364093 DOI. Ruwanpura SM, McLachlan RI & Meachem SJ. (2010). Hormonal regulation of male germ cell development. J. Endocrinol. , 205, 117-31. PMID: 20144980 DOI. Hermo L, Pelletier RM, Cyr DG & Smith CE. (2010). Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 1: background to spermatogenesis, spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. Microsc. Res. Tech. , 73, 241-78. PMID: 19941293 DOI. ...
Taking advantage of conditions that allow spermatogenesis in vitro, the timing and sequence of morphological changes leading from the primary spermatocyte to the spermatozoon is described by light and electron microscopy. Together with previous studies, this allows a detailed description of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane changes occurring during spermatozoan morphogenesis. By comparison with wild type, abnormalities in spermatogenesis leading to aberrant infertile spermatozoa are found in six fertilization-defective (fer) mutants. In fer-1 mutant males, spermatids appear normal, but during spermiogenesis membranous organelles (MO) fail to fuse with the sperm plasma membrane and a short, though motile. pseudopod is formed. In fer-2, fer-3, and fer-4 mutants, spermatids accumulate 48-nm tubules around their nuclei where the centriole and an RNA containing perinuclear halo would normally be. In all three mutants, spermatids still activate to spermatozoa with normal fusion of their MOs, but ...
SirT1 whole body KO mice have been shown to lack pituitary hormones for reproduction, and fertility in females can be rescued by administration of these hormones (Kolthur-Seetharam et al., 2009; McBurney et al., 2003). The present study demonstrates that SirT1 is necessary in male germ cells for normal spermatogenesis. Mice lacking SirT1 in male germ cells displayed decreased sperm counts, and many of their spermatozoa have aberrant morphology and increased DNA lesions. These defects explain why male germ cell SirT1 KO mice sire only ∼15% of the progeny number that are sired by control mice. Our findings indicate that SirT1 plays an additional essential role in male germ cells.. Cells in the mid-to-late stages of meiosis I contain the highest levels of SirT1, whereas it is present at moderate levels in differentiating spermatogonia and haploid round spermatids. Without SirT1, the appearance of pachytene cells in seminiferous tubules is delayed, demonstrating that SirT1 is required for ...
Spermatogenesis Definition - Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm development. Sperm, the male sex cells, are essential for reproduction, and any...
The spe-10 gene encodes a novel, predicted four-pass integral membrane protein that contains a highly conserved DHHC-CRD motif (Bohm et al. 1997; Putilina et al. 1999). If a potential glycosylation site following TM4 is utilized, then the N-terminal region, the DHHC-CRD zinc-finger, and the C-terminal region should all face the lumen of the MO (Figure 6A). This orientation would allow the N-linked glycans to face the exterior of the cell surface when the MOs fuse to the plasma membrane. Northern hybridizations comparing oogenesis-specific and spermatogenesis-specific transcripts indicate that the spe-10 mRNA is found only in worms that are actively engaged in spermatogenesis (Figure 4B). SPE-10 localizes within the lysosome-like FB-MOs and segregates to spermatids as they bud from the residual body during C. elegans spermatogenesis (Figure 8). These results suggest that a lack of wild-type SPE-10 in the FB-MOs of spe-10 mutants probably causes the previously described sperm ultrastructural ...
Methods of assessing spermatogenesis disorders are described. The biological basis of male infertility or sub fertility is not well understood, due to the lack of research on this topic and the primitive state of current diagnostic procedures. For most males afflicted with spermatogenesis disorders, there is no therapy or rehabilitative method. A careful and expert semen evaluation provides import
Generally, age-related testicular changes are associated with an increase of germ cell degeneration, decline of spermatogenesis and androgen decline resulting in a gradual decrease of sperm count. Unfortunately, an association of these findings to vascular atherosclerotic alterations has never been investigated systematically, although arterial lesions in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men have been described already 30 years ago.
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Recombinant Spermatogenesis Associated 24 (SPATA24) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN3077430.
The similarity of the Cbx3hypo/hypospermatogenesis defect to Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutants [21, 22] prompted us to investigate whether there were any changes in the expression of retrotransposon expression in the mutant testes. For this, we used a polyclonal antibody to the L1-encoded ORF1 protein [23]. ORF1p is required for L1 transposition, and its levels of expression are increased in germ cells, as the L1 transposons become de-repressed [24, 25]. Using this antibody, we found that 45% of the tubules in Cbx3hypo/hypotestes that contained germ cells were positive by immunohistochemistry for ORF1 protein expression, compared with 5% in wild-type testes (see Additional file 6 and 7, Figure s6 and Figure s7). Again, this indicates that the Cbx3hypo/hypomutation may affect the same silencing pathway that is affected in the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutants [21, 22].. We next investigated whether the Cbx3 hypo mutation affects the expression of the other two HP1 isotypes, HP1α and HP1β. Accordingly, we stained ...
Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis is characterized by transcriptional silencing of genes on both the X and Y chromosomes in mid...
Deficiencies in sperm function are usually the result of spermatogenic defects. Spermatogenesis is a biologically complex and essential process during which spermatogonia undergo meiotic recombination
Recent studies have shown that TDRDs are critical regulators of spermatogenesis in mice (Pan et al., 2005; Chuma et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2009; Vasileva et al., 2009). Based on their expression and the spermatogenic stages by which the phenotypes manifest in mutant animals, TDRDs can be classified into two groups: those that show expression from embryonic germ cells and are critical for progression of the meiotic prophase, and those that begin their expression in neonatal germ cells, show prominent expression from the pachytene stage onwards, and are essential for spermiogenesis. The first group includes TDRD1 and TDRD9 (Chuma et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2009) and the second group includes TDRD4/RNF17 and TDRD6 (Pan et al., 2005; Vasileva et al., 2009). A key phenotype of the first group of mutants is the derepression of retrotransposons, especially the LINE-1 elements, and the consequent meiotic catastrophe (Chuma et al., 2006; Reuter et al., 2009; Shoji et al., 2009), whereas the second ...
Spermatogenesis, the sperm-generating process, is a complex process involving mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes and spermiogenesis of spermatids. The protein expression levels have been well studied by high-throughput proteomic studies, however, the PTMs including phosphorylation have been less explored. Using advanced mass spectrometry, we successfully identified 17,971 phosphorylation sites of 4131 phosphoproteins from adult mouse testes. Gene ontology annotation reveals that those phosphoproteins mainly function in spermatogenesis, mitosis, transcription, translational regulation and RNA splicing. Substrate and kinase annotation reveals important roles of PLK family kinases in the testicular phosphoproteome. Using small molecule inhibitor of PLKs, we found that PLKs play important functions in the spermatocyte cell line GC2. This mouse testicular phosphoproteome can be a rich resource for the study of mechanisms of spermatogenesis ...
Important stages of spermatogenesis relative to the transcription. Here, we commence with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes in spermatogonia. S
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stage-dependent enzymatic activities in spermatogenesis of mice with the standard karyotype and of chromosomal variants with impaired fertility. AU - Redi, C. A.. AU - Hilscher, B.. AU - Winking, H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021064209&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021064209&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6139043. AN - SCOPUS:0021064209. VL - 15. SP - 322. EP - 330. JO - Andrologia. JF - Andrologia. SN - 0303-4569. IS - 4. ER - ...
SOHLH2 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 2), Authors: Flavia R Mangone, Ana Carolina Pavanelli, Maria A. Nagai. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Oogenesis vs Spermatogenesis Sex can be one of the most pleasurable things a couple can do. Some do it for fun while some do it for procreation. All of the
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Spermatogenesis:new: SpermatogenesisMethods and ProtocolsSeries: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 927 Barnard, Lori; Aston, Kenneth I. (Eds.)2013
Spermatogenesis arrest information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
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Sperm production. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sperm cells (spermatozoa) in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. This is the site of spermatogenesis (sperm production). Each sperm cell consists of a head (grey), which contains the genetic material that fertilises the female egg cell, and a tail (blue), which propels the sperm. The heads of the sperm are buried in Sertoli cells (pink), which nourish the developing sperm. - Stock Image C016/9765
Sperm production. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sperm cells (spermatozoa) in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. This is the site of spermatogenesis (sperm production). Each sperm cell consists of a head (green orange), which contains the genetic material that fertilises the female egg cell, and a tail (blue), which propels the sperm. The heads of the sperm are buried in Sertoli cells (yellow and orange), which nourish the developing sperm. - Stock Image C003/0692
We have published three new studies related to hybridization and speciation. Our study on the disruption of gene expression during spermatogenesis in mice led by postdoc Erica Larson has been accepted in Molecular Biology and Evolution. We present the most detailed assessment of hybrid gene expression across mouse spermatogenesis to date. Aided by novel FACS cell-specific expression data, we find evidence for disruption of X chromosome regulation at multiple stages of spermatogenesis.. Our study on the disruption of gene expression during placental development in hamsters led by recent PhD graduate Tom Brekke has been published in Evolution. In this work we present evidence for extensive disruption of genomic imprinting associated with placental and embryonic overgrowth in hybrid dwarf hamsters. Finally, a collaborative study examining the dynamics of mitochondrial introgression in chipmunks has been published in Genome Biology and Evolution. This work was led by lab postdoc Brice Sarver as part ...
This study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 during the differentiation process of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem...
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Dynamic analysis of testicular histology of Meig1-deficient mice during the first wave of spermatogenesis. Representative testicular sections stained with Hemat
Our research explores sperm development, structure and function. Our overarching aim is to improve our understanding of the processes of sperm formation and function using a variety of laboratory techniques and models.
Another study recently published by the same group of researchers and also supported by FAPESP indicated that SARS-CoV-2 invades all types of testicular cells, causing lesions that can impair hormonal function and male fertility. Through a project coordinated by professors from the Faculty of Medicine of USP Paulo Saldiva and Marisa Dolhnikoff, minimally invasive autopsy techniques were used to extract testicular tissue samples from 11 men, aged between 32 and 88 years, who died at Hospital das Clinics of the Faculty of Medicine of USP due to severe covid-19.. The results of the analyzes indicated a series of testicular lesions that can be attributed to inflammatory alterations that reduce the production of sperm (spermatogenesis) and hormones. What immediately caught our attention in these patients who died as a result of covid-19 was the drastic reduction in spermatogenesis. Even the youngest, of childbearing age, had practically no sperm, says Amaro Nunes Duarte Neto, infectologist and ...
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In a screen for RNA binding proteins expressed during murine spermatogenesis, we cloned a novel, ancient zinc finger protein possessing a region common to a small class of RNA binding proteins. Zfr (zinc ...
In a screen for RNA binding proteins expressed during murine spermatogenesis, we cloned a novel, ancient zinc finger protein possessing a region common to a small class of RNA binding proteins. Zfr (zinc ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stem Cell Defects in ATM-Deficient Undifferentiated Spermatogonia through DNA Damage-Induced Cell-Cycle Arrest. AU - Takubo, Keiyo. AU - Ohmura, Masako. AU - Azuma, Masaki. AU - Nagamatsu, Go. AU - Yamada, Wakako. AU - Arai, Fumio. AU - Hirao, Atsushi. AU - Suda, Toshio. PY - 2008/2/7. Y1 - 2008/2/7. N2 - Mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by stem cell capacity within undifferentiated spermatogonial subpopulation. Here, using a combination of surface markers, we describe a purification method for undifferentiated spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this population is composed of Plzf-positive cells and exhibits quiescence and the side population phenotype, fulfilling general stem cell criteria. We then applied this method to analyze undifferentiated spermatogonia and stem cell activity of Atm-/- mice. Atm-/- testis shows progressive depletion of undifferentiated spermatogonia accompanied by cell-cycle arrest. In Atm-/- undifferentiated spermatogonia, a ...
Looking for online definition of TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis in the Medical Dictionary? TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis explanation free. What is TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis? Meaning of TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis medical term. What does TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis mean?
Very recent publications in Gut and elsewhere1 2 suggest that gut microbiota affects fertility. The application of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to modify fertility is an emerging novel area of interest.3 FMT from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) leads to the disruption of ovarian function and a decrease in fertility which indicates that modification of gut microbiota may be a valuable approach in the management of PCOS.2 FMT of gut microbes, that developed under a high-fat diet, into mice on a normal diet leads to the disruption of spermatogenesis and a reduction of sperm motility,1 which highlights that restoring gut microbiota may be a means of improving disturbed male infertility caused by environmental factors.1 However, to date, there are no reports that address improvements of fertility following FMT. In a recent study,4 we found that busulfan damages spermatogenesis and sperm quality, and disturbs gut microbiota as found in many other studies.5 6 Alginate ...
A spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) is a subtype of undifferentiated spermatogonium. During foetal development gonocytes develop from primordial germ cells and following this SSCs develop from gonocytes in the testis. SSCs are the early precursor for spermatozoa and are responsible for the continuation of spermatogenesis in adult mammals. The stem cells are capable of dividing into more SSCs which is vital for maintaining the stem cell pool. Alternatively they go on to differentiate into spermatocytes, spermatids and finally spermatozoa. One SSC is the precursor for multiple spermatozoa and therefore SSCs are much less numerous in the testes than cells undergoing spermatogenesis. In Humans Undifferentiated spermatogonia can be split into 2 groups; A Dark (Ad) and A Pale (Ap) Ad spermatogonia are reserve stem cells. These cells are capable of dividing to produce more SSCs but usually do not. Ap spermatogonia are actively dividing to maintain the stem cell pool. B1-B4 spermatogonia encompass the ...
During spermiogenesis, the post-meiotic phase of mammalian spermatogenesis, transcription is progressively repressed as nuclei of haploid spermatids are compacted through a dramatic chromatin reorganization involving hyper-acetylation and replacement of most histones with protamines. Although BRDT functions in transcription and histone removal in spermatids, it is unknown whether other BET family proteins play a role. Immunofluorescence of spermatogenic cells revealed BRD4 in a ring around the nuclei of spermatids containing hyper-acetylated histones. The ring lies directly adjacent to the acroplaxome, the cytoskeletal base of the acrosome, previously linked to chromatin reorganization. The BRD4 ring does not form in acrosomal mutant mice. ChIP sequencing in spermatids revealed enrichment of BRD4 and acetylated histones at the promoters of active genes. BRD4 and BRDT show distinct and synergistic binding patterns, with a pronounced enrichment of BRD4 at spermatogenesis-specific genes. Direct association
Germ cell development involves formation of the spermatogenic or oogenic lineages from the bipotential primordial germ cells. Signaling mechanisms in the fetal testis and ovary determine whether germ cells enter the male or female developmental pathway, respectively. These signaling processes underpin an important phase of germ cell development, disruption of which can lead to failed germ cell function resulting in infertility or the formation of germ cell tumours. In this study we have developed a small molecule screening protocol combined with flow cytometry to identify signaling pathways that direct male-specific development of germ cells. Here we provide a detailed method for this screening protocol, which we have used to identify signaling pathways important for male germ cell development. This method will be of particular use in screening inhibitors of signaling pathways, endocrine disruptors or other chemicals for their ability to disrupt testis and germ cell development, thereby providing
Androgen signalling is essential both for male development and function of the male reproductive system in adulthood. Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC) do not express androgen receptor (AR) suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types. Several recent studies have exploited the Cre/lox system of conditional gene-targeting to ablate AR function from key somatic cell-types in order to establish the cell-specific role of AR in promotion of male fertility. In this study, we have used a similar approach to specifically ablate AR-signalling from Vascular Endothelial (VE) cells, with a view to defining the significance of androgen signalling within this cell-type on spermatogenesis. AR expression in VE cells of the testicular vasculature was confirmed using an antibody against AR. A Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter line was used to empirically establish the utility of a mouse line expressing Cre Recombinase driven by the Tie2-Promoter, for
Bisphenol A (BPA), which has previously been shown to have estrogenic activity, was examined for its effect on spermatogenesis in offspring of mice that had been exposed to BPA during gestation. BPA (0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant mice from the 10th to the 17th day of gestation, and testes of 60- and 120-day-old male offspring were removed and processed for histological analysis. The results demonstrate that prenatal exposure to BPA brings about histopathological changes in the seminiferous epithelium of testes in mouse offspring, such as loss of the luminal space of the seminiferous tubules, accumulation of amorphous material in the tubes, reduction in the number of maturating elongate spermatids, and an aberrant distribution of spermatogenic cells within the epithelium. Electron microscopy suggested that disturbed spermiogenesis is one of the reasons for the reduction in the number of elongate spermatids, and that degeneration of somatic Sertoli cells ...
Dive into the research topics of Effects of testosterone on spermatogenesis and luteinizing hormone release in Japanese quail. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Spermatogenesis comprises a complex succession of steps of mitosis, meiosis, and differentiation, starting with the commitment of diploid spermatogonial stem cells to differentiate and ending with the formation of haploid spermatozoa. Rodent models have been routinely used to study germ cell development and reproductive toxicology, since they present many similarities with their human counterpart while offering the advantage of recapitulating within a few weeks a process that normally takes years to occur. This article describes a method to isolate subpopulations of adult germ cells, more specifically pachytene spermatocytes, using two successive gradients, without using an elutriation centrifuge, a specialized device not available in many laboratories. Moreover, the method was designed to isolate enriched pachytene spermatocytes preparations devoid of contaminating syncitia, often formed in response to toxicants or environmental insults.
If this trend continues, humans in the future will not be able to have normal pregnancy and childbirth. | No kidding! Noisy streets can cause male infertility
The spermatogenic cycle of Tantilla coronata is post-nuptial. Spermatogenesis begins in May and reaches a peak in July and August. The sexual segment of the kidney has a cycle opposite that of the testis. Hypertrophy of the sexual segment occurs in the early spring (May) and summer july-September). Mating occurs during the period of sexual segment hypertrophy. The youngest males examined (approximately 1 2 months of age) begin spermatogenesis at the same time of year as adults, and the course of spermatogenesis appears similar to adults. It appears, however, that insufficient sperm are produced to permit successful mating following the first spermatogenic season. During the second spermatogenic season, enough sperm are produced to permit mating in the summer or following spring.
PDE8B, a cAMP-specific PDE, is highly expressed in testis.Genetic aberrations in cAMP-signaling predispose to endocrine tumors and fertility. Testes isolated from wild-type(WT) and Pde8b-/-(knock-out(KO)) mice at 6,9, and 12months(n=3-8/group).Pde8b-/- testis revealed regressive changes in seminiferous tubules(ST),containing increased atrophied tubules, 12 months (WT:0±0.001%vs.KO:11±0.012%),ST diameter significantly decreased(WT: 209.3±6.65um vs. KO: 169.6±4.22um). Atrophied tubules resembled Sertoli-cell only(SCO) syndrome. Sox9-immunostaining: significantly higher numbers of Sertoli cells(SC) in Pde8b-/-testes(KO:27.68±0.15vs.WT:19.20±0.05_Sox9+cells/tubule);SC in Pde8b-/- testes are maintained in immature state.Since spermatogonial differentiation/accumulation of spermatogonia in ST has been shown to induce germ cell death, hypothesized that germ-cell loss resulted from increased apoptosis due to accumulation of spermatogonia undergoing defective spermatogenesis.TUNEL to assess cell ...
Supplement In the early stages of spermatogenesis, the undifferentiated male germ cells (spermatogonia) divide mitotically and give rise to new spermatogonia. Some of the spermatogonia carry on the next stages to become spermatocytes, which in turn differentiate into mature sperm cells. In humans, the spermatogonia are found in the basal compartment of seminiferous tubules of the male reproductive system. ...
THE EFFECT OF TESLAC IN THE TREATMENT OF IDIOPATHIC OLIGOSPERMIA Robert A. Vigersky, M.D. While a review of the treatment of idiopathic oligospermia is beyond the scope of this part of the syllabus, it is obvious from perusal of the recent literature that there is no reliable therapeutic modality available to the clinician to treat patients with this disorder. Most of the recent literature has focused on treatment approaches that raise the level of LH and FSH. While it is well known that the gonadotropins are important for spermatogenesis, other hormonal factors are also crucial. The ability of estrogens to modulate spermatogenesis has not been fully investigated in either animals or man. Several pieces of evidence suggest that estradiol (E~) may play a regulatory role in spermatogenesis. E~ inhibits spermatogenesis directly in the rat (1). It indirectly inhibits spermatogenesis by preventing the Leydig cell from maximally producing testosterone in response to a given amount of LH (2). ...
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are at the foundation of mammalian spermatogenesis, maintaining sperm production throughout adult life. The molecular mechanism...
To date, IP6K1 is the only inositol polyphosphate metabolic enzyme shown to participate in mammalian gametogenesis. Another Ip6k1 mutant mouse strain generated by gene trapping technology introduced a retroviral insertion between exons 2 and 3 (coding exons 1 and 2), resulting in the loss of Ip6k1 transcript (http://www.informatics.jax.org/allele/key/36801). Preliminary histological analysis of these male mice revealed bilateral epididymal azoospermia and testicular degeneration, suggesting that they would display male sterility, similar to what we observe upon deletion of the terminal exon 6. Deletion of the other IP6K isoforms, IP6K2 and IP6K3, has no effect on spermatogenesis (Morrison et al., 2009; Fu et al., 2015; Moritoh et al., 2016), indicating that the different IP6K isoforms have non-overlapping functions in mammalian reproductive physiology. Treatment of mice with the pan-IP6K inhibitor TNP was shown to have no effect on male fertility, which was attributed to the inability of this ...
Intriguingly, effects of irradiation on the morphology of Sertoli cells were found in eight monkeys. Possibly, irradiation at the time these cells were not yet terminally differentiated and still proliferating, and/or the abnormal hormone levels induced by the disappearance of most of the germ cells, altered some of the Sertoli cells. The appearance of these aberrant cells was hyperplastic-like, but no evidence for tumor formation was seen.. In rodent studies, no effects of irradiation on tubular width and Sertoli cell morphology have been reported. Unlike in the LBNF1 rat, no arrest of spermatogenesis was seen in the monkey, because the repopulated tubules generally showed full spermatogenesis. However, the present study was carried out at a very long time after irradiation, and a transient disturbance in spermatogenesis at an earlier interval after irradiation may have taken place.. The nonaffected concentrations of testosterone indicate that Leydig cell function in the monkeys was not ...
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ER-resident proteins destined for degradation are dislocated into the cytosol by components of the ER quality control machinery for proteasomal degradation. Dislocation substrates are ubiquitylated in the cytosol by E2 ubiquitin-conjugating/E3 ligase complexes. UBE2J1 is one of the well-characterized E2 enzymes that participate in this process. However, the physiological function of Ube2j1 is poorly defined. We find that Ube2j1−/− mice have reduced viability and fail to thrive early after birth. Male Ube2j1−/− mice are sterile due to a defect in late spermatogenesis. Ultrastructural analysis shows that removal of the cytoplasm is incomplete in Ube2j1−/− elongating spermatids, compromising the release of mature elongate spermatids into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Our findings identify an essential function for the ubiquitin-proteasome-system in spermiogenesis and define a novel, non-redundant physiological function for the dislocation step of ER quality control ...
The formation of the sex vesicle, or XY body, during male meiosis and pairing of the sex chromosomes are thought to be essential for successful spermatogenesis. Despite its cytological discovery a century ago, the mechanism of XY body formation, particularly heterochromatinization of the sex chromos …
Presentation Authors: Russell Hayden*, Anna Mielnik, Peter Schlegel, Darius Paduch, New York, NY. Introduction: Chromatin-modifying complexes (CPCs) play a critical role in epigenetic gene regulation and are thought to implement global genetic programs. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to interact with CPCs to help guide these complexes to appropriate gene targets, the most notable examples being Xist and HOTAIR. In this study, we attempted to identify CPC associated lncRNAs that were differentially expressed among men with Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCO) and men with normal spermatogenesis.. Methods: Testis biopsies were obtained during testicular sperm extraction for infertility. RNA-seq was performed on testis biopsies from 11 men with SCO and 10 with normal spermatogenesis using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Reads were mapped using the STAR Aligner v2.5 against human genome hg38. Raw counts were normalized with Limma v3.6. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were then ...
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis ...
has been found in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a reduction in being pregnant guidelines. Testicular histology of treated rats demonstrated structural changes such as for example hypoplasia of germ cells, decrease in the width of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (past due maturation arrest) and decrease in the amount of Leydig cells. Gene manifestation degrees of two SSCs markers (GFR1 and CSF1) in charge of self-renewal had been relatively counter-balanced. To conclude, whole vegetable and leaves aqueous components transformed the gene manifestation of two SSCs markers resulting in the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation leading to past due maturation arrest. (L.) Weber former mate F.H. Wigg. (Compositae) have already been traditionally found in Jordan folk medication to take care of infertility. However, a recently available study has ...
A subset of olfactory receptors (ORs) is expressed in mammalian male germ cells. Recent studies on human and mouse sperm have suggested that calcium signaling via a testicular OR regulates sperm flagellar motility. However, it remains to be determined at what stages testicular ORs are expressed duri
Basigin (BSG) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that plays an important role in both female and male reproduction since female knockout (KO) mice are infertile and male KO mice are sterile. The aim of the present study was to determine 1) whether BSG is required for proliferation of the uterine luminal epithelium during early pregnancy in preparation for implantation; 2) whether BSG is required for HESCs decidualization; and 3) whether BSG is essential for the interactions between gametes and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis. BSG protein was expressed in the uterine epithelium at estrus in βERKO mice but not in αERKO mice. However, a higher level of Bsg mRNA was observed in the uteri of αERKO mice as compared with wild type (WT) and βERKO mice. In the mouse, estrogen alone induces the proliferation of both luminal and glandular epithelial cells during early pregnancy. On day 1 of pregnancy, the expression levels of ERα and a well-known estrogen responsive gene, MUC1, appeared to be ...
Sertoli cell is associated with developing germ cells in seminiferous tubule of the testis.. These cells protect the developing sperm besides maintaining, nourishing, and regulating the process of spermatogenesis (process by which male gametes form).. Process of Spermatogenesis : diploid spermatogonium (undifferentiated male germ cell) , spermatocyte , spermatid (immature male sex cell) , mature sperm ...
Koo, G C.; Mittl, L R.; and Goldberg, C L., Expression of h-y antigen during spermatogenesis. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 717 ...
Shepherd A.M.; Clark S.A., 1983: Spermatogenesis and sperm structure in some meloidogyne spp heteroderoidea meloidogynidae and a comparison with those in some cyst nematodes heteroderoidea heteroderidae
The cycle of spermatogenesis/seminiferous cycle was investigated in the goat testis using both light and electron microscopy techniques. Using the various cell associations and the accompanying changes in spermatid shape and location, the cycle was divided into eight (8) successive stages. The cycle began with the accomplishment of spermiation (stage 1) and ended with apical migration and close attachment of late maturation phase spermatids at the Sertoli cell apex accompanied by adluminal retention of residual bodies with dense staining inclusions (stage 8). The early stages of the cycle (stages 1-4) were therefore characterized by the presence of only one generation of spermatids, the second one appearing only after the division of secondary spermatocytes in stage 4. Consequently, stages 5-8 had two generations of spermatids; Golgi or cap phase as well as maturation phase spermatids. Although stages 5 to 7 appeared as distinct entities, stages 6 and 7 were rather short-lived and considered as ...
May play a role in spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis is a complex process regulated by extracellular and intracellular factors as well as cellular interactions among interstitial cells of the testis, Sertoli cells, and germ cells. This gene is expressed in the testis in Sertoli cells but not germ cells. The protein encoded by this gene contains plant homeodomain (PHD) finger domains, also known as leukemia associated protein (LAP) domains, believed to be involved in transcriptional regulation. The protein, which localizes to the nucleus of transfected cells, has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of spermatogenesis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
The TATA box-binding protein (TBP) is a conserved transcription factor that binds to the core promoter, and TBP-associated factors, or TAFs, represent one of several classes of coactivators that participate in transcription activation. The presence of varied TAFs allows for plasticity in function for transcribing specific genes. For example, several testis-specific TAFs function in regulating gene expression in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Chen et al. now find that in the male germ line, tissue-specific TAFs regulate gene expression by counteracting the repressive effect of Polycomb protein complexes to allow terminal differentiation. The testis TAFs sequester Polycomb-containing complexes to the nucleolus, which suggests that subnuclear localization functions in regulating transcription.. X. Chen, M. Hiller, Y. Sancak, M. T. Fuller, Tissue-specific TAFs counteract polycomb to turn on terminal differentiation. Science 310, 869-872 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Men, listen up! If you are suffering from impotence, low sperm count, or infertility, and think you have tried everything, you should pay attention. Your b
INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and Carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism disorder (Williams & Pickup, 2004). According to the census of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008, nearly 246 million people suffer from diabetes. It is estimated that this figure reach 380 million by 2050. About 90% of the diabetic patients have sexual dysfunctions in the form of reduction in sexual derive and fertility (Pereira et al., 2007).. Testis function is, at first, controlled by hypophysis hormones. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates spermatogenesis whereas; luteinizing hormone (LH) controls the performance of interstitial cells (Ward et al., 1991). FSH is a crucial factor in the development of testis, performance of sustentacular cells, and protection of normal spermatogenesis. Also, the hypophysis of diabetic rats is affected by the reduction in response along with reduction in FSH and LH levels (Seethalakshmi et al., 1987). These ...
Background. Members of the Runx gene family encode transcription factors that bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Among the three Runx proteins, Runx2 comprises 607 amino acid (aa) residues, is expressed in bone, and plays crucial roles in osteoblast differentiation and bone development. We examined whether the Runx2 gene is also expressed in testes. Methods. Murine testes from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 10-week-old male mice of the C57BL/6J strain and W∕Wv strain were used throughout the study. Northern Blot Analyses were performed using extracts form the murine testes. Sequencing of cDNA clones and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends were performed to determine the full length of the transcripts, which revealed that the testicular Runx2 comprises 106 aa residues coding novel protein. Generating an antiserum using the amino-terminal 15 aa of Runx2 (Met1 to Gly15) as an antigen, immunoblot analyses were performed to detect the predicted polypeptide of 106 aa residues with the initiating Met1. With
This study was aimed to evaluate the effect on spermatogenesis of a 62kDa protein (Rp) isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis in mice. A dose response study in mice revealed that 25mg/kg body weight/day was the most effective dose. Swiss strain mature male mice of 30 days old were divided into two group namely control and Rp treated (25mg/kg body weight/day). The study ...
Lonidamine (LND) [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid], a well-known antispermatogenic drug, was studied for the first time in pubertal mice to assess its possible effects on spermatogenesis. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on Postnatal Day (PND) 28 with a single dose of LND (100 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed on PND30, PND42 ...
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An understanding of testicular anatomy, development, and seasonality has implications for studies of morphology, behavior, physiology, and bioenergetics of males. Ontogenetic testicular development an
NSL3 could also have important endocrine or paracrine roles in other tissues. Although defective spermatogenesis found in INSL3 or LGR8 null mice could be the secondary effects of cryptorchidism, Leydig cell-derived INSL3 could play a paracrine role in the testis because LGR8 is also expressed in the testis. In females, INSL3 is expressed in the luteal cells of the ovary through the estrous cycle and during pregnancy [1] ...
Deleted in azoospermia-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAZL gene. The DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene family encodes potential RNA binding proteins that are expressed in prenatal and postnatal germ cells of males and females. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm of fetal germ cells and to the cytoplasm of developing oocytes. In the testis, this protein is localized to the nucleus of spermatogonia but relocates to the cytoplasm during meiosis where it persists in spermatids and spermatozoa. Transposition and amplification of this autosomal gene during primate evolution gave rise to the DAZ gene cluster on the Y chromosome. Mutations in this gene have been linked to severe spermatogenic failure and infertility in males. DAZL has been shown to interact with DAZ1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000092345 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Saxena R, Brown LG, Hawkins T, Alagappan RK, Skaletsky H, Reeve MP, Reijo R, Rozen S, ...
Efforts are underway to try and increase identification of Klinefelter males as soon as possible to allow intervention at an earlier stage, although it is unknown if that will necessarily change the course of the disorder. While this may certainly turn out to be important for the learning difficulties that are part of the Klinefelter phenotype, it is unclear at this time whether early therapeutic involvement in terms of androgen replacement or fertility is helpful or hurtful to the individual. This contribution will briefly summarize what is understood about testicular function and anatomy as regards both the androgenic and spermatogenic compartments.. ...
Surrogate Fathers New Scientist 31 Jan 98. ONE of the worlds leading reproductive biologists has applied for funding to transplant cells from human testes into those of mice. The aim is to create mice that produce human sperm. The first time you say to anyone that we want to produce human sperm in mice, they look at you with frank horror, says Roger Short of the Royal Womens Hospital in Melbourne. But once people overcome their initial gut reaction, he claims, many accept the proposal. Developments in IVF now mean that many women with fertility problems can conceive. But men who produce little or no sperm have scant hope of becoming fathers. In many cases, says Short, the cause may be a mutation in one of the genes on the Y chromosome that control spermatogenesis-the producfion of sperm from germ cells, which are known as spermatogonial stem cells. Being able to study human spermatogenesis in a laboratory animal may help researchers to work out why the process fails in many infertile men. ...
A research team led by Professor and Janeway Distinguished Chair Robert Braun, Ph.D., and Associate Research Scientist Manju Sharma, Ph.D., found a rare subpopulation of spermatogonial cells expressing a specific protein, EOMES, that appear to represent the elusive long-lived spermatogonial stem cells that support continued spermatogenesis.