A heterologous (zona-free hamster oocytes) in vitro fertilization (IVF) system was used to evaluate the relationship between sperm factors and penetration capacity of epididymal red deer spermatozoa. The sperm parameters evaluated in 36 sperm samples obtained postmortem from stags selectively shot during the rutting season were sperm motility, functional integrity of plasma membrane by means of the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), and, simultaneously, viability and acrosomal status via a triple-stain technique. Zona-free hamster oocytes were used to evaluate the capacity of the different sperm assays to predict in vitro penetration. In order to increase the variability in sperm quality, we recovered samples from stags at different intervals between the death of the male and the collection of the genitalia. All measures of sperm quality declined progressively (P |.001) with increasing intervals between death and sample collection. In addition, many sperm parameters were related to penetration ability
The competence of the sperm penetration assay (SPA) to predict male fertility, as determined by normal sperm morphology and the fertilizing potential, as shown by human in vitro fertilization (IVF), was investigated. A significant correlation was obtained between normal sperm morphology and the SPA (Φ = 0.623). A weaker correlation was however obtained with human IVF (Φ = 0.397). Notwithstanding this weak association, a positive SPA (, 10%) was highly predictive (95%) of human IVF success. In contrast, a negative SPA (≤ 10%) was associated with a high rate of false-negative (65%). The SPA does however warn that a male factor may be present, as the mean fertilation rate of this group of patients was markedly reduced. The preincubation period for the spermatozoa did not play a major role in the predictive ability of a SPA outcome ...
We develop a new fully quantum method for determination of widths for nuclear decay by proton emission where multiple internal reflections of wave packet describing tunneling process inside proton-nucleus radial barrier are taken into account. Exact solutions for amplitudes of wave function, penetrability T and reflection R (estimated for the first time for decay problem) are found for n -step barrier (at arbitrary n) which approximates the realistic barrier. In contrast to semiclassical approach and two-potential approach, we establish by this method essential dependence of the penetrability on the starting point Rform in the internal well where proton starts to move outside (for example, for Ta the penetrability is changed up to 200 times; accuracy is T+R-1|-15 ). We impose a new condition: in the beginning of the proton decay the proton starts to move outside from minimum of the well. Such a condition provides minimal calculated half-life and gives stable basis for predictions. However, the half
Sperm-egg interactions have been studied for many years using biochemical approaches such as the employment of antibodies and ligands that interact with sperm or with eggs and their vestments. As a result, various factors that participate in fertilization have emerged. However, when animals were genetically manipulated to examine the roles of those factors, most of them were found, to our surprise, to be "not essential". Of course, all biological systems contain redundancies and compensatory mechanisms, but at least some factors were found to be "essential" after gene disruption. As a whole, the explanations of sperm-egg interactions require significant modification from the gene manipulation point of view. In this review, information about sperm-egg interactions obtained from genetically manipulated animals is mainly revisited in order to propose a new vision.
This study (Langmuir, 2008) focuses on the interaction involved in the adhesion of mouse gametes and on the mechanical properties of the oocyte membrane. The oocyte has an asymmetrical shape, and its membrane is composed of two distinct areas. One is rich in microvilli, and the other is smoother and without microvilli. With a biomembrane force probe (BFP) adapted to cell-cell measurements, we have quantified the separation forces between a spermatozoon and an oocyte. Microvillar and amicrovillar areas of the oocyte surface have been systematically probed and compared. In addition to a substantial difference in the elastic stiffness of these two regions, the experiments have revealed the presence of two types of membrane domains with different mechanical and adhesive properties, both distributed over the entire oocyte surface (i.e., in both microvillar and amicrovillar regions). If gamete contact occurs in the first type of domain, then the oocyte membrane deforms only elastically under traction. ...
Compare izumo sperm-egg fusion 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Biological packaging material based on obtained proteins from fish waste, are biopolymers that have the capability of biodegradable film formation. Thus, purpose of this research is to study and investigate some of films physical features made from trout fish Myofibril protein. The film forming solution containing 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%(w/v)Myofibril protein isolate of 100ml solution and glycerol as plasticizer in three levels 25%, 50%, 75%(w/w) per dry material have been used. In order to solve existing protein in solution its pH must be reach to 3 by 1molar HCl. Films have been produced by casting method for 48 hours in 25°c. Then films mechanical features, water vapor penetrability, films solubility in water, transparency and color were investigated. Effect of protein concentration was significantly obvious on films mechanical features, thickness, water vapor penetrability and color. Obtained results from statistical analysis data by spss software showed that films with 2%(w/v) dry material along with
Human egg, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The human egg cell (or ovum) is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in human reproduction. The egg cell is not capable of active movement and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells. A spermatozoon (motile male sperm) joins an ovum (female egg) to form a zygote. A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally develops into an embryo. Sperm cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring (excluding mitochondrial DNA). Magnification: x245 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0123
Essential sperm cell-surface protein required for fertilization by acting as a ligand for IZUMO1R/JUNO receptor on egg. The IZUMO1:IZUMO1R/JUNO interaction is a necessary adhesion event between sperm and egg that is required for fertilization but is not sufficient for cell fusion. The ligand-receptor interaction probably does not act as a membrane fusogen.
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A colorless liquid (C 18 H 34 O 2 ), soluble in alcohol and ether, but insoluble in water. It occurs naturally in greater quantities than any other fatty acid, being present as glycerides in most fats and oils. It is used in determining the oil penetrability resistance of book cloths, especially buckram. (209 ) ...
Blocks the possibility of polyspermy. There is a Fast Block which uses ( 50 times the amount of Na [sodium] on outside of cell) Na+ channels on the egg open allowing the sodium to come in, changes the membrane and results in the inhibition of any more sperm binding to the egg. and the slow block Ca++ inflow, Ca++ stimulates cortical reaction vesicles called cortical granules to secrete proteins, which swells with water pushing all the remaining sperms away. ...
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Learn about conception and the beginning stages of fetal development. See microscope images of human egg and sperm, as well as cell division and embryos.
Looking for online definition of sperm penetration assay in the Medical Dictionary? sperm penetration assay explanation free. What is sperm penetration assay? Meaning of sperm penetration assay medical term. What does sperm penetration assay mean?
1. Daneva T, Zierhut B, Gartner W, & Wagner L. Fine tuning of insulin transcription by secretagogin variants. Comp. Rend. Bulg. Acad. Sci. 8: 983-988 (2005). ISSN: 1310-1331, IF-0.204 2. Vangelov I, Dineva J, Nikolov G, Genov M, Ivanova M. Anti-granulosa antibodies (AGA) in follicular fluids and their impact to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and on the fertilization rate. Comp. Rend. Bulg. Acad. Sci. 59: 1191-96 (2006). ISSN: 1310-1331, IF-0.204. 3. Dineva J, Vangelov I, Nikolov G, Gulenova D, Ivanova M. Apoptosis of human Granulosaluteinized (GLCs) and Cumulus cells(CCs) as a possible indicator for IVF outcome. Comp. Rend. Bulg. Acad., 59: 781-784 (2006) ISSN: 1310-1331, IF-0.204. 4. Mollova M, Martinova Y. Immunocytochemical localization of antigen involved in sperm-zona pellucida interaction. Acta Morphol. et Antropol., 13, 98-101 (2006). ISSN 0861-0509. 5. Martinova Y, Mollova M, Petrov M, Rashev P, Ivanova M. TEM and SEM characteristics and lectin binding distribution of cat zona ...
Aside from its importance in understanding specific aspects of fertilization, studies on sperm - egg interaction provide an elegant general model to study intercellular communication and cellular...
Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C) according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (103 and 105 CFU/mL), and strain 5 (103 and 105 CFU/mL) egg penetration was significantly higher (p|0.05) in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed
Previous work demonstrated that egg surface CD9 is essential for sperm-egg fusion (Kaji et al., 2000; Le Naour et al., 2000; Miyado et al., 2000), but nothing is known about how CD9 acts in this system. Egg CD9 could bind in trans to a counter-receptor on sperm as suggested for CD81 on astrocytes interacting with neurons (Kelic et al., 2001). Alternatively, CD9 may function by cis interactions on the egg surface with other egg surface molecules. One egg protein suggested to interact in a physiologically significant way with CD9 is the integrin α6β1 (Chen et al., 1999; Miyado et al., 2000). However, eggs lacking α6β1 fuse normally with sperm, so a role for this integrin in gamete fusion is in doubt (Miller et al., 2000).. The anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody KMC8 blocks sperm-egg fusion (Chen et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2000), and we found that KMC8 binds to constructs containing CD9 EC2, suggesting a role for EC2 in the fusion process. The EC2 constructs, preincubated with sperm, had no ...
The old hypothesis - that PZP merely blocks sperm attachment - has been disproved.. Kaur & Prabha (2014) found that the infertility brought on by PZP is " … a consequence of ovarian dystrophy rather than inhibition of sperm-oocyte interaction." They reported thatPZPs antibodies induce ovarian dystrophy, oophoritis (inflammation of the ovaries), destruction of oocytes in all growing follicles, and depletion of resting follicles.. Despite all the hype about PZP being non-hormonal, the manufacturer himself knew that it had an adverse hormonal effect - significantly-lowered estrogen. In 1992, he reported that " … three consecutive years of PZP treatment may interfere with normal ovarian function as shown by markedly depressed oestrogen secretion." Thus, PZP is an endocrine disruptor.. Worse yet, Sacco et al. (1981) found that PZP antibodies are transferred from mother to young via the placenta and milk. The transferred antibodies cross-react with and bind to the zonae pellucidae of female ...
The human eggs ability to transform into a new life or into new cell...Scientists at Michigan State University report this week in the Procee... Whats in the egg to have that power? asked Jose Cibelli MSU profes...Combined with sperm the egg divides and organizes cells to ultimately...Combined with technology the unfertilized egg might be coaxed to prod...,Scientists,crack,genetic,secrets,of,human,egg,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
This gene encodes a protein that functions in the species specificity of sperm adhesion to the egg zona pellucida. The encoded protein is located in the acrosome and may be involved in signaling or gamete recognition. An allelic polymorphism in this gene results in both functional and frameshifted alleles; the reference genome represents the functional allele. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015 ...
Inheritance of animal mtDNA is almost exclusively maternal, most likely because sperm-derived mitochondria are actively eliminated from the ovum, either at or soon after fertilization. How such elimination occurs is currently unknown. We asked whether similar behavior could be detected in somatic ce …
Human egg donation was a rarity not so long ago. But heightened demands for eggs - and rising compensation for donors - are prompting more young women to consider it. Jennifer Dziura, a 28-year-old New Yorker, is one of them.She received $8,000 to donate her eggs in the fall of 2005 and hopes shell be chosen again before the private egg broker shes registered with considers her too old. She realizes prospective parents who view her profile might think it a minus that her father is adopted, allowing for little medical history from his side. She also figures some are looking for a blonde, instead of a brunette. ...
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A new report released by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) reveals that freezing human eggs is no longer considered an experimental procedure.
Involved in fusion of sperm to egg plasma membrane involved in single fertilization. Predicted to localize to the integral component of membrane. Orthologous to human SPACA6 (sperm acrosome associated 6 ...
Gray crescent is where sperm-binding sits are located. When the sperm enter the cytoplasm rotates toward site of sperm entry. This reveals band of pigmented cytoplasm on egg opposite sperm entry site. This is called the grey crescent.. Rearrangements of egg cytoplam set stage for determination. β-catenin is a crucial transcription factor from materanl mRNA found through cytoplasm. Also protein kinase GSK-3, which phospohorylates and inactivates β-catenin. In the vegal cortex of egg is GSK-3 inhibitor. This inhibitor is oved along microtubules to the gray crescent where it keeps β-catenin from being ddegraded.. Cleavage: rapid cell divisions leading to bundle of cells is called cleavage. IThe cytoplasm is not homogeneous so distriubition of nutreints plays a role in determinants of cells of early embryo. No cell growth and little expression just replication. This balls forms a central fluid-filled cavity blastocoel (morula is just the ball of cells). The embryo is now a blastulate with ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
CVSS needs to be extended to accommodate combinations of vulnerabilities. The current documentation explicitly states: Vulnerability scoring should not take into account any interaction with other vulnerabilities. But interaction among vulnerabilities is crucial for understanding the implication of particular vulnerabilities...
The present study was designed as 5 X 4 factorial to investigate the effects of using sperm from 5 bulls, and varied sperm-oocyte incubation times (5, 10, 15 and 20 h) on the fertilization, cleavage rates and blastocyst ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The Netherlands has one of the highest broadband penetration rates in the world, the result of large-scale government and municipal investment in broadband infrastructure.The ...
An instrument for the penetration of tissue, including a backstop assembly having a shaft and a backstop; and a penetration member slidingly engaged with the backstop shaft, and configured for penetrating tissue. The backstop assembly and the penetration member are configured such that the backstop may be positioned adjacent tissue to be penetrated, such that as the penetration member is urged through the tissue along the backstop shaft, the backstop will limit the depth of penetration of the penetration member through the tissue. A method of using this instrument is also provided.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human ZP3 restores fertility in Zp3 null mice without affecting order-specific sperm binding. AU - Rankin, Tracy L.. AU - Tong, Zhi Bin. AU - Castle, Philip E.. AU - Lee, Eric. AU - Gore-Langton, Robert. AU - Nelson, Lawrence M.. AU - Dean, Jurrien. PY - 1998/7/1. Y1 - 1998/7/1. N2 - The mammalian zona pellucida surrounding ovulated eggs mediates sperm binding at fertilization, provides a postfertilization block to polyspermy, and facilitates passage of pre-implantation embryos down the oviduct. Although the three zona proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) are well conserved, mammalian fertilization is relatively specific and human sperm do not bind to the mouse zona pellucida. There are considerable in vitro data that ZP3 acts as a primary sperm adhesion molecule in mice and, by analogy, a similar role has been postulated for human ZP3. Genetically altered mice lacking ZP3 (Zp3(tm/tm)) do not form a zona pellucida and are infertile. To rescue this phenotype, transgenic mice expressing human ...
Objectives: To identify male factor infertility among a group of patients in an assisted reproductive program (phase 1) and to evaluate the hemizona assay (HZA) in the diagnosis and prognosis of such a program (phase 2). Design: The IVF performance of normal gametes in the Tygerberg program were critically evaluated. Female patients were classified as pure tubal factor infertility, having a normal FSH:LH ratio on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. All participating women produced three or more preovulatory oocytes at retrieval and were inseminated with sperm considered normal by all present diagnostic criteria. The total and normal fertilization rate thresholds were defined in that group. Using those thresholds, couples tested for sperm binding in the HZA (n = 48) were used and divided into two groups according to their fertilization rates, namely group 1, low fertilization (,55%) and group 2, normal fertilization (,55%). Setting: University-based tertiary care center. Patients: Ninety-nine couples ...
The zona pellucida is an extracellular matrix that surrounds the oocyte and early embryo. It is composed of three glycoproteins with various functions during fertilization and preimplantation development. The glycosylated mature peptide is one of the structural components of the zona pellucida and functions in secondary binding and penetration of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Female mice lacking this gene do not form a stable zona matrix and are sterile. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
The cDNA and derived amino acid sequences for the two major non- collagenous proteins of the mouse tectorial membrane, a- and -tectorin, are presented. The cDNA for a-tectorin predicts a protein of 239,034 Da with 33 potential N-glycosylation sites, and that of -tectorin a smaller protein of 36,074 Da with 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites. Southern and Northern blot analysis indicate a- and -tectorin are single copy genes only expressed in the inner ear, and in situ hybridization shows they are expressed by cells both in and surrounding the mechanosensory epithelia. Both sequences terminate with a hydrophobic COOH terminus preceded by a potential endoproteinase cleavage site suggesting the tectorins are synthesized as glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked, membrane bound precursors, targeted to the apical surface of the inner ear epithelia by the lipid and proteolytically released into the extracellular compartment. The mouse - tectorin sequence contains a single zona pellucida domain, whereas a- ...
Sperm antibodies are present in 6% of infertile men. They have sperm coated with antibodies to the extent that sperm function is impaired, particularly sperm-mucus penetration and sperm-zona pellucida binding, resulting in severe infertility.. Natural pregnancy rates without treatment are very low, and fertilization rates with standard IVF are low or zero. Other men have positive Antibodies test, sometimes with tail tip-only binding and normal or only marginally impaired mucus penetration. These low-level sperm antibodies are probably irrelevant to the infertility, and other causes of the couples infertility should be sought. Sperm antibodies can be treated by steroids in immunosuppressive doses. Antibody levels fall, and semen quality improves in about 50% of patients; about 25% produce natural conceptions during a 4- to 6-month course of treatment. There are significant risks of severe side effects, particularly aseptic necrosis of bone. The superior results of ICSI make this treatment ...
Double fertilization is a defining feature of flowering plants and involves two nonmotile male gametes (sperm cells) and two female gametes (egg cell and central cell). Both fertilization events are necessary for reproductive success. It is not clear how flowering plants ensure the reliable and on-time fusion of the two pairs of gametes while preventing polyspermy. Sprunck et al. (see the Perspective by Snell) now show that gamete interactions in Arabidopsis depend on small cysteine-rich EC1 proteins that accumulate in storage vesicles of the egg cell and that are released during sperm-egg interaction. EC1 peptides trigger the delivery of a fusogen to the sperm cell surface. An intercellular link connects the two sperm cells throughout the gamete fusion process and could play a role in preventing the spontaneous fusion of activated sperm cells.. S. Sprunck, S. Rademacher, F. Vogler, J. Gheyselinck, U. Grossniklaus, T. Dresselhaus, Egg cell-secreted EC1 triggers sperm cell activation during ...
... Reproduction and Development Pregnancy Prevention • Contraceptives (birth control methods) • Abstinence • Total abstinence • Abstinence during periods of female fertility • Interventional methods • • • • Barriers Surgery Blocking implantation Hormone treatments to reduce gamete production Pregnancy Prevention Table 26-5 Fertilization • Sperm capacitation occurs in vagina • Sperm swim "upstream" • Sperm reach oocyte in Fallopian tube • Acrosomal reaction  digestive enzymes • Zona pellucida and cell junctions dissolve • Membranes fuse and sperm nucleu enters • Cortical reaction blocks polyspermy • Nuclear fusion creates a diploid cell • 1 sperm + 1 oocyte  1 zygote Fertilization Figure 26-16a Acrosome Reaction Allows Sperm to Reach Egg Figure 26-16b Sperm and Egg Fuse to Form a Zygote First polar body Egg Sperm nucleus Sperm and egg plasma membranes fuse. Sperm nucleus moves into cytoplasm of egg. Figure 26-17 (1 of 4, 2 of 4) Oocyte Completes ...
That movement of the head is created by a vibration of the stiff anterior portion of the tail, generated by the thrashing movement of the posterior segment remaining outside the zona. 26 Chapter1 oscillations limited scythe-like movement may create a shear-thinning effect on the zona that maximizes the effectiveness of that thrust. In accord with the inference that the movement required for zona penetration generates shear forces at the sperm surface, the inner acrosomal membrane has developed an unusual stability which is inappropriate to a fusogenic role. It is possible that in at least some marsupials complete maturation and oocyte fertilizability are reached after ovulation, following the oocytes arrival in the oviduct (see Chapter 7). Furthermore, in all of the three marsupial genera examined, a loss of the cumulus oophorus from around the egg begins some hours before and is complete at ovulation. This stands in contrast to the eutherian situation, where a full cumulus invests the oocyte ...
ZP1 - ZP1 (untagged)-Human zona pellucida glycoprotein 1 (sperm receptor) (ZP1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
fertilin: fertilin is a sperm surface protein involved in sperm-egg fusion; consists of two subunits, fertilin alpha and beta, both of which belong to the metalloprotease-disintegrin protein family; RefSeq NM_172126 (Adam1a, mouse); NM_172125 (Adam1b, mouse); NM_009618 (Adam2, mouse); NM_020078 (Adam1a, rat); NM_020077 (Adam2, rat); NM_001464 (ADAM2, human)
2015 Senegal Telephone Statistics: Number of Fixed Lines, Mobile Phone Penetration Rate data, including comparisons against world and regional benchmarks. This page is part of Econ Stats, the Economic Indicators and Statistics Database that has been compiled by EconomyWatch.com from thousands of data sources, including the IMF, World Bank, World Economic Forum and CIA.
2015 Thailand Internet Penetration Rate data, including comparisons against world and regional benchmarks. This page is part of Econ Stats, the Economic Indicators and Statistics Database that has been compiled by EconomyWatch.com from thousands of data sources, including the IMF, World Bank, World Economic Forum and CIA.
BioAssay record AID 484591 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiangiogenesis of fertilized chicken egg membrane assessed as inhibition of FGF-induced blood vessel formation at 10 ug/CAM after 48 hrs by CAM assay.
Human Egg 30 to 55 days, vintage engraved illustration. Usual Medicine Dictionary - Paul Labarthe - 1885. © Patrick Guénette / VPUZZLER.COM
ZPBP is one of several proteins that are thought to participate in secondary binding between acrosome-reacted sperm and the egg-specific extracellular matrix, the zona pellucida (McLeskey et al., 1998 [PubMed 9378618]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Intra Acrosomal Protein Antibody (Ds-2) [PerCP]. Validated: WB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Canine. 100% Guaranteed.