We investigated the consequences of monitoring an asynchronous audiovisual speech stream on the temporal perception of simultaneously presented vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) audiovisual speech video clips. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. Throughout the experiment, half of the participants also monitored a continuous stream of words presented audiovisually, superimposed over the VCV video clips. The continuous (adapting) speech stream could either be presented in synchrony, or else with the auditory stream lagging by 300 ms. A significant shift (13 ms in the direction of the adapting stimulus in the point of subjective simultaneity) was observed in the TOJ task when participants monitored the asynchronous speech stream. This result suggests that the consequences of adapting to asynchronous speech extends beyond the case of simple
The motor theory of speech perception is the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by identifying the sound patterns that speech generates. It originally claimed that speech perception is done through a specialized module that is innate and human-specific. Though the idea of a module has been qualified in more recent versions of the theory, the idea remains that the role of the speech motor system is not only to produce speech articulations but also to detect them. The hypothesis has gained more interest outside the field of speech perception than inside. This has increased particularly since the discovery of mirror neurons that link the production and perception of motor movements, including those made by the vocal tract. The theory was initially proposed in the Haskins Laboratories in the 1950s by Alvin Liberman and Franklin S. Cooper, and developed further by Donald Shankweiler, Michael Studdert-Kennedy, ...
Aachen / Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH (2019) [Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis]. Page(s): 1 Online-Ressource (III, 166 Seiten) : Illustrationen. Abstract. Listeners with hearing impairments have difficulties understanding speech in the presence of background noise. Although prosthetic devices like hearing aids may improve the hearing ability, listeners with hearing impairments still complain about their speech perception in the presence of noise. Pure-tone audiometry gives reliable and stable results, but the degree of difficulties in spoken communication cannot be determined. Therefore, speech-in-noise tests measure the hearing impairment in complex scenes and are an integral part of the audiological assessment. In everyday acoustic environments, listeners often need to resolve speech targets in mixed streams of distracting noise sources. This specific acoustic environment was first described as the "cocktail party" effect and most research has concentrated on the listeners ability to understand ...
Does the motor system play a role in speech perception? If so, where, how, and when? We conducted a systematic review that addresses these questions using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review of behavioural, computational modelling, non-human animal, brain damage/disorder, electrical stimulation/recording, and neuroimaging research suggests that distributed brain regions involved in producing speech play specific, dynamic, and contextually determined roles in speech perception. The quantitative review employed region and network based neuroimaging meta-analyses and a novel text mining method to describe relative contributions of nodes in distributed brain networks. Supporting the qualitative review, results show a specific functional correspondence between regions involved in non-linguistic movement of the articulators, covertly and overtly producing speech, and the perception of both nonword and word sounds. This distributed set of cortical and subcortical speech
Most currently available cochlear implant devices are designed to reflect the tonotopic representation of acoustic frequencies within the cochlea. Unfortunately, the electrode array cannot cover the entire cochlea due to physical limitations or patient-related factors. Therefore, CI patients generally listen to spectrally up-shifted and/or distorted speech. Acute studies suggest that speech performance is best when the acoustic input is spectrally matched to the cochlear place of stimulation; performance deteriorates as the spectral mismatch is increased. However, many CI users are able to somewhat adapt to spectrally shifted and distorted speech as they gain experience with their device. Motivated by both the theoretical and clinical implications of CI users perceptual adaptation, the present study explores perceptual adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels using behavioral studies and an acoustic analysis framework. Normal-hearing subjects are tested while listening to acoustic simulations of ...
Speech recognition thresholds are used for several clinical purposes, so it is important that they be accurate reflections of hearing ability. Variations in the acoustic signal may artificially decrease threshold scores, and such variations can result from being tested in a second dialect. Thirty-two native Mandarin-speaking subjects (sixteen from mainland China and sixteen from Taiwan) participated in speech recognition threshold testing in both dialects to see whether using non-native dialect test materials resulted in a significantly lower score. In addition, tests were scored by two interpreters, one from each dialect, to see whether the scorers dialect resulted in a significantly different score. Talker dialect was found to be statistically significant, while scorer dialect was not. Factors explaining these findings, as well as clinical implications, are discussed.
Mitterer and McQueen show for the first time that listeners can tune in to an unfamiliar regional accent in a foreign language. Dutch students showed improvements in their ability to recognise Scottish or Australian English after only 25 minutes of exposure to video material. English subtitling during exposure enhanced this learning effect; Dutch subtitling reduced it. Mitterer and McQueen explain these effects from their groups previous research on perceptual learning in speech perception.. Tune in to accents. Listeners can use their knowledge about how words normally sound to adjust the way they perceive speech that is spoken in an unfamiliar way. This seems to happen with subtitles too. If an English word was spoken with a Scottish accent, English subtitles usually told the perceiver what that word was, and hence what its sounds were. This made it easier for the students to tune in to the accent. In contrast, the Dutch subtitles did not provide this teaching function, and, because they told ...
PurposeSpeech shadowing experiments were conducted to test whether alignment (inadvertent imitation) to voice onset time (VOT) can be influenced by visual speech information.. MethodExperiment 1 examined whether alignment would occur to auditory /pa/ syllables manipulated to have 3 different VOTs. Nineteen female participants were asked to listen to 180 syllables over headphones and to say each syllable out loud quickly and clearly. In Experiment 2, visual speech tokens composed of a face articulating /pa/ syllables at 2 different rates were dubbed onto the audio /pa/ syllables of Experiment 1. Sixteen new female participants were asked to listen to and watch (over a video monitor) 180 syllables and to say each syllable out loud quickly and clearly.. ResultsResults of Experiment 1 showed that the 3 VOTs of the audio /pa/ stimuli influenced the VOTs of the participants produced syllables. Results of Experiment 2 revealed that both the visible syllable rate and audio VOT of the audiovisual /pa/ ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda conso-nants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/ɑ/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three conso-nant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were ad-justed over training sessions based on dmeasures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spo-ken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers
The phoneme was certainly a favorite to win the pageant for speechs perceptual unit. Linguists had devoted their lives to phonemes, and phonemes gained particular prominence when they could be distinguished from one another by distinctive features. Trubetzkoy, Jakobson, and other members of the "Prague school" proposed that phonemes in a language could be distinguished by distinctive features. For example, Jakobson, Fant, and Halle (1961) proposed that a small set of orthogonal, binary properties or features were sufficient to distinguish among the larger set of phonemes of a language. Jakobson et al. were able to classify 28 English phonemes on the basis of only nine distinctive features. While originally intended only to capture linguistic generalities, distinctive feature analysis had been widely adopted as a framework for human speech perception. The attraction of this framework is that since these features are sufficient to distinguish among the different phonemes, it is possible that ...
Objective:The purpose of this investigation is to conduct a systematic review of the long-term speech-recognition outcomes of ABIs in postlingually deafened adults, and to compare outcomes of ABIs in adults with NF2/tumors to adults without NF2. Methods: A comprehensive search utilizing various peer reviewed databases via the City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate Center Library was conducted to identify relevant studies investigating speech-recognition outcomes in ABI patients with postlingual deafness, both with and without tumors. Inclusion criteria included studies that involved at least one adult ABI patient (with or without NF2) with postlingual deafness, who was seen for follow-up auditory performance testing at one-year post-activation or later. Results: Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The studies utilized various materials for speech-recognition assessment to evaluate speech-recognition performance. Because of the great diversity among the materials
Visual speech contributes to phonetic learning in 6-month-old infants. Previous research has shown that infants match vowel sounds to facial displays of vowel articulation [Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218, 1138-1141; Patterson, M. L., & Werker, J. F. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust in 4.5-month-old infants. Infant Behaviour & Development, 22, 237-2471], and integrate seen and heard speech sounds [Rosenblum, L. D., Schmuckler, M. A., & Johnson,J. A. (1997). The McGurk effect in infants. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 347-357; Burnham, D., & Dodd, B. (2004). Auditory-visual speech integration by prelinguistic infants: Perception of an emergent consonant in the McGurk effect. Developmental Psychobiology, 45, 204-220]. However, the role of visual speech in language development remains unknown. Our aim was to determine whether seen articulations enhance phoneme discrimination, thereby playing a role in ...
Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation A majority of hearing impaired people suffers from social isolation because they face difficulties understanding speech in noisy environment, for instance in a busy street or in a restaurant full of talkative people. Some people with severe hearing loss can be fitted with a cochlear implant (CI), which allows restoring hearing to some extent. For example, speech transmitted through a CI is very degraded, but (...) ...
The present study aimed to investigate whether focal patterns of fMRI responses to speech input contain information regarding articulatory features when participants are attentively listening to spoken syllables in the absence of task demands that direct their attention to speech production or monitoring. Using high spatial resolution fMRI in combination with an MVPA generalization approach, we were able to identify specific foci of brain activity that discriminate articulatory features of spoken syllables independent of their individual acoustic variation (surface form) across other articulatory dimensions. These results provide compelling evidence for interlinked brain circuitry of speech perception and production within the dorsal speech regions, and in particular, for the availability of articulatory codes during online perception of spoken syllables within premotor and motor, somatosensory, auditory, and/or sensorimotor integration areas.. Our generalization analysis suggests the ...
Infants are born with a preference for listening to speech over non-speech, and with a set of perceptual sensitivities that enable them to discriminate most of...
Question 1: These are especially duration of deafness prior to implantation, age of onset of deafness, age at implantation (such age affects may be related to the ________) and the duration of using an implant. ...
Symbols new speech-recognition solution offers customers a multi-function device to support multiple data capture functions including voice-recognition, barcode scanning, imaging and keyboard input, providing flexibility to use whichever data capture technology is most efficient to perform the task at hand ...
The present results address a long-standing hypothesis for cognitive and perceptual aging by examining brain activity in relation to subsequent performance on a trial-by-trial basis. Middle-aged to older adults were more likely to recognize words in noise after elevated cingulo-opercular activity, an effect that was the most pronounced for participants with better overall word recognition. Although the cingulo-opercular results from the present sample of older adults spatially overlapped with effects previously obtained with younger adults (Vaden et al., 2013), age-group differences in word recognition benefit from cingulo-opercular activity indicate that this normal response to challenging task conditions declines with age. The impact of aging on word recognition was also demonstrated by visual cortex associations with trial-level word recognition that occurred when there was a drop in activity and subsequent performance. The visual cortex results were unique to the older adult sample, ...
Areté (12) -BOSMAN (16910) -craigs (84) -DanL (81) -Diana Rae (50) -Diane Sori (983) -Doug NYC GOP (88) -Granny T (10) -hamaca (11) -illinoisguy (9) -J (47) -JohnG (144) -Katrina L. Lantz (34) -Lionhead (22) -Machtyn (40) -Martha (26) -Noelle (27) -Ohio Joe (37) -Pablo (260) -Pu Aili (1) -Publius Nemo (42) -Revolution 2012 (402) -Ric Pugmire (Closer To Home) (16) -Right Wingnut (434) -Texas Conservative (97) -Wrenn (1) aiding and abetting (1) Buy American (1) whitey (1) Believe me (1) good deals (1) ultimate deal (1) #AmnestyDon (146) #CruzCarly (21) #CruzCarly2016 (32) #CruzCrew (4) #DEMOCARE (1) #DumpTrump (432) #FullRepeal (88) #gopexodus (1) #neverhillary (422) #NeverTrump (1088) #OnlyCruz (484) $400 million (1) 1095 forms (1) 10th Amendment (2) 1237 delegates (1) 12th Amendment (1) 14th Amendment (12) 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act (1) 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (1) 1986 Firearm Owners Protection Act (1) 1st Amendment (32) 2010 (40) 2012 (4228) 2012 ...
Amicability and Hospitality between Leaders and Workers I thank nieces/nephews for their hospitality and amicability in every meeting I have
My boss wants to use this sentence in a biographical profile. I told him the sentence doesnt read well and tried to explain why, but he doesnt understand my explanation. I would appreciate your help, and any suggestions for alternative wording. Thank you! Mr. Smith is a frequent speaker on a variety of tax subjects, including a speech at the Annual Estate Planning Seminar at the Civic Center on the topic of estate planning for the terminally ill.
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Comfort Audio Duett New Personal Listener - Get the lowest price on Comfort Audio Duett New Personal Listener, online at AllegroMedical.com.
Comfort Audio Duett New Personal Listener Carrying Bag - Get the lowest price on Comfort Audio Duett New Personal Listener Carrying Bag, online at AllegroMedical.com.
Find out whats involved in the Theory test, how much it costs to book an appointment and recommended study materials to help you pass both the multiple choice and hazard perception parts of the test.
A researcher emailed us and asked if you all might be interested in taking this test. Naturally, Ive already made myself a guinea pig and its an interesting, if a bit long, look at certain perceptions we have based solely on comparisons between candidates. ...
On April 22, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich gave a speech at the American Enterprise Institute, where he is a senior fellow, denouncing the State D ...
photo credit: Altus Photo Design Earlier this year, Lawrence Vance gave a speech at the Mises Institutes 2011 Austrian Scholars Conference titled
Our own Cory Doctorow counts the ways in a recent speech at Microsoft. Here, a snippet; below, the whole shebang: Heres what Im here to convince you of: 1. That DRM systems dont work 2. That DRM systems are bad for society 3. That DRM systems are bad for business 4. That DRM systems...
define TRACE using System; using System.IO; using System.Diagnostics; public class TextWriterTraceListenerSample { public static void Main() { TextWriterTraceListener myTextListener = null; // Create a file for output named TestFile.txt. String myFileName = "TestFile.txt"; StreamWriter myOutputWriter = new StreamWriter(myFileName, true); // Add a TextWriterTraceListener for the file. myTextListener = new TextWriterTraceListener(myOutputWriter); Trace.Listeners.Add(myTextListener); // Write trace output to all trace listeners. Trace.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString() + " - Trace output"); // Remove and close the file writer/trace listener. myTextListener.Flush(); Trace.Listeners.Remove(myTextListener); myTextListener.Close ...
Happy Friday, listeners. This weeks episode was made up entirely of your questions, so if its lame, its totally your fault. And if its awesome, then you should pat yourself on the back for being so good at coming up with interesting thi...
Our very own Listener DJ Hour, which puts a different WFMU listener in the drivers seat each week for one hour of Freeform programming any way they choose! ...
Our very own Listener DJ Hour, which puts a different WFMU listener in the drivers seat each week for one hour of Freeform programming any way they choose! ...
Listening is often considered the softest of the soft skills. So the idea of being a powerful listener can seem like an oxymoron. And yet, my work with executives has taught me that when they really listen to discover what is essential, the impact can be astonishing. Its certainly one of the most important ways to engage employees.. We know that engagement is a challenge. A recent Gallup survey found that 63% of the global workforce is not engaged. That adds up to waste in the range of half a trillion dollars globally. Putting it more positively, Jim Harter, the Chief Scientist for Gallup,has found that "publicly traded organizations that achieve top decile in our employee engagement database outperform their competition onearnings per share by 147%.". With both the waste and opportunity implied in these findings, it begs the question, "How can we improve engagement scores quickly and inexpensively?" Among the short list of items that really move the engagement needle is that people believe ...
TLCs goal is to provide the latest news, sports, and entertainment possible. We strive to bring these to you with the absolute highest level of accuracy and latest technology in order to bring value to our clients, listeners, and readers. We hope you enjoy this site. ...
TLCs goal is to provide the latest news, sports, and entertainment possible. We strive to bring these to you with the absolute highest level of accuracy and latest technology in order to bring value to our clients, listeners, and readers. We hope you enjoy this site. ...
The composedPath() method of the Event interface returns the events path which is an array of the objects on which listeners will be invoked. This does not include nodes in shadow trees if the shadow root was created with its ShadowRoot.mode closed.
Telegraph Dating Member Profile: bren1 - Warm loving woman seeks similar man for fun together. Because I am outgoing, social, a good listener. I like art...
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for average speech was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard. In this study, the HINT jury test measurements from a variety of background noise spectra and listening configurations of talker and listener are used in an effort to obtain a band importance function for the HINT, to potentially correlate the ...
Abstract. Perceptual categorization is fundamental to the brains remarkable ability to process large amounts of sensory information and efficiently recognize objects including speech. Perceptual categorization is the neural bridge between lower-level sensory and higher-level language processing. A long line of research on the physical properties of the speech signal as determined by the anatomy and physiology of the speech production apparatus has led to descriptions of the acoustic information that is used in speech recognition (e.g., stop consonants place and manner of articulation, voice onset time, aspiration). Recent research has also considered what visual cues are relevant to visual speech recognition (i.e., the visual counter-parts used in lipreading or audiovisual speech perception). Much of the theoretical work on speech perception was done in the twentieth century without the benefit of neuroimaging technologies and models of neural representation. Recent progress in understanding ...
A number of measures were evaluated with regard to their ability to predict the speech-recognition benefit of single-channel noise reduction (NR) processing. Three NR algorithms and a reference condition were used in the evaluation. Twenty listeners with impaired hearing and ten listeners with normal hearing participated in a blinded laboratory study. An adaptive speech test was used. The speech test produces results in terms of signal-to-noise ratios that correspond to equal speech recognition performance (in this case 80% correct) with and without the NR algorithms. This facilitates a direct comparison between predicted and experimentally measured effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech recognition. The experimental results were used to evaluate nine different predictive measures, one in two variants. The best predictions were found with the Coherence Speech Intelligibility Index (CSII) [Kates and Arehart (2005), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(4), 2224-2237]. In general, measures using ...
The present invention relates to a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function, and is aimed at providing a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function by using a small amount of memory. The speech processing device of the present invention includes a speech analysis unit for obtaining analysis results by analyzing input speech, a codebook for storing quantization parameters and quantization codes indicating the quantization parameters, a quantizing unit for selecting the quantization parameters and the quantization codes corresponding to the analysis results from the codebook and for outputting selected quantization parameters and selected quantization codes, a coding unit for outputting encoded codes of the input speech including the selected quantization codes, a speech dictionary for storing registered data which represent speech patterns by using the codebook, and
Author: Schwartze, Michael et al.; Genre: Talk; Title: Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping
Aside from audiometric threshold, perhaps the more definitive component of determining adult implant candidacy involves speech recognition testing. As many of us recognize, individuals with significant hearing loss often report that they are unable to adequately "hear" someone unless they are looking directly at them. Thus, they are relying heavily-if not entirely-on visual cues such as lip reading and nonverbal signals for communication. In determining cochlear implant candidacy, in order to gain an understanding of an individuals auditory-based speech recognition abilities, speech materials are presented without visual cues.. Just as important as presenting speech stimuli without visual cues is the presentation of recorded materials for the assessment of speech recognition abilities. Roeser and Clark evaluated monosyllabic word recognition using both recorded stimuli as well as monitored live voice (MLV) for 32 ears.9 They reported that word recognition scores for MLV and recorded stimuli ...
The temporal perception of simple auditory and visual stimuli can be modulated by exposure to asynchronous audiovisual speech. For instance, research using the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has shown that exposure to temporally misaligned audiovisual speech signals can induce temporal adaptation that will influence the TOJs of other (simpler) audiovisual events (Navarra et al. (2005) Cognit Brain Res 25:499-507). Given that TOJ and simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks appear to reflect different underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether adaptation to asynchronous speech inputs would also influence SJ task performance. Participants judged whether a light flash and a noise burst, presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, were simultaneous or not, or else they discriminated which of the two sensory events appeared to have occurred first. While performing these tasks, participants monitored a continuous speech stream for target words that were either presented in synchrony, or with the audio
A method and apparatus for real time speech recognition with and without speaker dependency which includes the following steps. Converting the speech signals into a series of primitive sound spectrum parameter frames; detecting the beginning and ending of speech according to the primitive sound spectrum parameter frame, to determine the sound spectrum parameter frame series; performing non-linear time domain normalization on the sound spectrum parameter frame series using sound stimuli, to obtain speech characteristic parameter frame series with predefined lengths on the time domain; performing amplitude quantization normalization on the speech characteristic parameter frames; comparing the speech characteristic parameter frame series with the reference samples, to determine the reference sample which most closely matches the speech characteristic parameter frame series; and determining the recognition result according to the most closely matched reference sample.
In article ,49v09q$87e at utrhcs.cs.utwente.nl,, mgrim at cs.utwente.nl (Martin Grim) says: ,Collecting information about the anatomical part isnt such a hard task, ,but less is known about the way the brain computes speech from the signals ,delivered by the ear and the auditory pathway. The ear converts the sound ,waves to a frequency spectrum, which is send to the auditory cortex. Speech ,is known to be build up by phonemes and phonemes can be identified by their ,formants, or even by formant ratios (for speaker independency). The question ,which rises now is does the brain computes speech from the enire frequency ,spectrum, or does it use just the formants? , ,Does somebody know the answer to this question (which is summarized as ,are formants biological plausible), or perhaps a reference of a publication ,with a discussion about this subject? Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in ...
Adaptor grammars are a framework for expressing and performing inference over a variety of non-parametric linguistic models. These models currently provide state-of-the-art performance on unsuper- vised word segmentation from phonemic representations of child-directed unseg- mented English utterances. This paper in- vestigates the applicability of these mod- els to unsupervised word segmentation of Mandarin. We investigate a wide vari- ety of different segmentation models, and show that the best segmentation accuracy isobtainedfrommodelsthatcaptureinter- word "collocational" dependencies. Sur- prisingly, enhancing the models to exploit syllable structure regularities and to cap- ture tone information does improve over- all word segmentation accuracy, perhaps because the information the.... ...
A system and method for recognizing an utterance of a speech in which each reference pattern stored in a dictionary is constituted by a series of phonemes of a word to be recognized, each phoneme having a predetermined length of continued time and having a series of frames and a lattice point (i, j) of an i-th number phoneme at an j-th number frame having a discriminating score derived from Neural Networks for the corresponding phoneme. When the series of phonemes recognized by a phoneme recognition block is compared with each reference pattern, one i of the input series of phonemes recognized by the phoneme recognition block being calculated as a matching score as gk(i, j); ##EQU1## wherein ak(i, j) denotes an output score value of the Neural Networks of the j-th number phoneme at the j-th number frame of the reference pattern and p denoted a penalty constant to avoid an extreme shrinkage of the phonemes, a total matching score is calculated as gk (I, J), I denoting the number of frames of the input
Speech shadowing is an experimental technique in which subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it (usually through earphones). The reaction time between hearing a word and pronouncing it can be as short as 254 ms or even 150 ms. This is only the delay duration of a speech syllable. While a person is only asked to repeat words, they also automatically process their syntax and semantics. Words repeated during the practice of shadowing imitate the parlance of the overheard words more than the same words read aloud by that subject. The technique is also used in language learning. Functional imaging finds that the shadowing of nonwords occurs through the dorsal stream that links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, goes to the inferior parietal cortex and then the posterior inferior frontal cortex (Brocas area). Speech shadowing was first used as a research technique by the Leningrad Group led by Ludmilla Andreevna ...