We investigated the consequences of monitoring an asynchronous audiovisual speech stream on the temporal perception of simultaneously presented vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) audiovisual speech video clips. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. Throughout the experiment, half of the participants also monitored a continuous stream of words presented audiovisually, superimposed over the VCV video clips. The continuous (adapting) speech stream could either be presented in synchrony, or else with the auditory stream lagging by 300 ms. A significant shift (13 ms in the direction of the adapting stimulus in the point of subjective simultaneity) was observed in the TOJ task when participants monitored the asynchronous speech stream. This result suggests that the consequences of adapting to asynchronous speech extends beyond the case of simple
This research topic presents speech as a natural, well-learned, multisensory communication signal, processed by multiple mechanisms. Reflecting the general status of the field, most articles focus on audiovisual speech perception and many utilize the McGurk effect, which arises when discrepant visual and auditory speech stimuli are presented (McGurk and MacDonald, 1976). Tiippana (2014) argues that the McGurk effect can be used as a proxy for multisensory integration provided it is not interpreted too narrowly. Several articles shed new light on audiovisual speech perception in special populations. It is known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, e.g., Saalasti et al., 2012) or language impairment (e.g., Meronen et al., 2013) are generally less influenced by the talking face than peers with typical development. Here Stevenson et al. (2014) propose that a deficit in multisensory integration could be a marker of ASD, and a component of the associated deficit in communication. However,
The motor theory of speech perception is the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by identifying the sound patterns that speech generates. It originally claimed that speech perception is done through a specialized module that is innate and human-specific. Though the idea of a module has been qualified in more recent versions of the theory, the idea remains that the role of the speech motor system is not only to produce speech articulations but also to detect them. The hypothesis has gained more interest outside the field of speech perception than inside. This has increased particularly since the discovery of mirror neurons that link the production and perception of motor movements, including those made by the vocal tract. The theory was initially proposed in the Haskins Laboratories in the 1950s by Alvin Liberman and Franklin S. Cooper, and developed further by Donald Shankweiler, Michael Studdert-Kennedy, ...
Aachen / Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH (2019) [Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis]. Page(s): 1 Online-Ressource (III, 166 Seiten) : Illustrationen. Abstract. Listeners with hearing impairments have difficulties understanding speech in the presence of background noise. Although prosthetic devices like hearing aids may improve the hearing ability, listeners with hearing impairments still complain about their speech perception in the presence of noise. Pure-tone audiometry gives reliable and stable results, but the degree of difficulties in spoken communication cannot be determined. Therefore, speech-in-noise tests measure the hearing impairment in complex scenes and are an integral part of the audiological assessment. In everyday acoustic environments, listeners often need to resolve speech targets in mixed streams of distracting noise sources. This specific acoustic environment was first described as the cocktail party effect and most research has concentrated on the listeners ability to understand ...
Does the motor system play a role in speech perception? If so, where, how, and when? We conducted a systematic review that addresses these questions using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review of behavioural, computational modelling, non-human animal, brain damage/disorder, electrical stimulation/recording, and neuroimaging research suggests that distributed brain regions involved in producing speech play specific, dynamic, and contextually determined roles in speech perception. The quantitative review employed region and network based neuroimaging meta-analyses and a novel text mining method to describe relative contributions of nodes in distributed brain networks. Supporting the qualitative review, results show a specific functional correspondence between regions involved in non-linguistic movement of the articulators, covertly and overtly producing speech, and the perception of both nonword and word sounds. This distributed set of cortical and subcortical speech
In online crowdfunding, individuals gather information from two primary sources, video pitches and text narratives. However, while the attributes of the attached video may have substantial effects on fundraising, previous literature has largely neglected effects of the video information. Therefore, this study focuses on speech information embedded in videos. Employing the machine learning techniques including speech recognition and linguistic style classifications, we examine the role of speech emotion and speech style in crowdfunding success, compared to that of text narratives. Using Kickstarter dataset in 2016, our preliminary results suggest that speech information -the linguistic styles- is significantly associated with the crowdfunding success, even after controlling for text and other project-specific information. More interestingly, linguistic styles of the speech have a more profound explanatory power than text narratives do. This study contributes to the growing body of crowdfunding research
Most currently available cochlear implant devices are designed to reflect the tonotopic representation of acoustic frequencies within the cochlea. Unfortunately, the electrode array cannot cover the entire cochlea due to physical limitations or patient-related factors. Therefore, CI patients generally listen to spectrally up-shifted and/or distorted speech. Acute studies suggest that speech performance is best when the acoustic input is spectrally matched to the cochlear place of stimulation; performance deteriorates as the spectral mismatch is increased. However, many CI users are able to somewhat adapt to spectrally shifted and distorted speech as they gain experience with their device. Motivated by both the theoretical and clinical implications of CI users perceptual adaptation, the present study explores perceptual adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels using behavioral studies and an acoustic analysis framework. Normal-hearing subjects are tested while listening to acoustic simulations of ...
Speech recognition thresholds are used for several clinical purposes, so it is important that they be accurate reflections of hearing ability. Variations in the acoustic signal may artificially decrease threshold scores, and such variations can result from being tested in a second dialect. Thirty-two native Mandarin-speaking subjects (sixteen from mainland China and sixteen from Taiwan) participated in speech recognition threshold testing in both dialects to see whether using non-native dialect test materials resulted in a significantly lower score. In addition, tests were scored by two interpreters, one from each dialect, to see whether the scorers dialect resulted in a significantly different score. Talker dialect was found to be statistically significant, while scorer dialect was not. Factors explaining these findings, as well as clinical implications, are discussed.
Mitterer and McQueen show for the first time that listeners can tune in to an unfamiliar regional accent in a foreign language. Dutch students showed improvements in their ability to recognise Scottish or Australian English after only 25 minutes of exposure to video material. English subtitling during exposure enhanced this learning effect; Dutch subtitling reduced it. Mitterer and McQueen explain these effects from their groups previous research on perceptual learning in speech perception.. Tune in to accents. Listeners can use their knowledge about how words normally sound to adjust the way they perceive speech that is spoken in an unfamiliar way. This seems to happen with subtitles too. If an English word was spoken with a Scottish accent, English subtitles usually told the perceiver what that word was, and hence what its sounds were. This made it easier for the students to tune in to the accent. In contrast, the Dutch subtitles did not provide this teaching function, and, because they told ...
PurposeSpeech shadowing experiments were conducted to test whether alignment (inadvertent imitation) to voice onset time (VOT) can be influenced by visual speech information.. MethodExperiment 1 examined whether alignment would occur to auditory /pa/ syllables manipulated to have 3 different VOTs. Nineteen female participants were asked to listen to 180 syllables over headphones and to say each syllable out loud quickly and clearly. In Experiment 2, visual speech tokens composed of a face articulating /pa/ syllables at 2 different rates were dubbed onto the audio /pa/ syllables of Experiment 1. Sixteen new female participants were asked to listen to and watch (over a video monitor) 180 syllables and to say each syllable out loud quickly and clearly.. ResultsResults of Experiment 1 showed that the 3 VOTs of the audio /pa/ stimuli influenced the VOTs of the participants produced syllables. Results of Experiment 2 revealed that both the visible syllable rate and audio VOT of the audiovisual /pa/ ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda conso-nants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/ɑ/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three conso-nant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were ad-justed over training sessions based on dmeasures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spo-ken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers
The phoneme was certainly a favorite to win the pageant for speechs perceptual unit. Linguists had devoted their lives to phonemes, and phonemes gained particular prominence when they could be distinguished from one another by distinctive features. Trubetzkoy, Jakobson, and other members of the Prague school proposed that phonemes in a language could be distinguished by distinctive features. For example, Jakobson, Fant, and Halle (1961) proposed that a small set of orthogonal, binary properties or features were sufficient to distinguish among the larger set of phonemes of a language. Jakobson et al. were able to classify 28 English phonemes on the basis of only nine distinctive features. While originally intended only to capture linguistic generalities, distinctive feature analysis had been widely adopted as a framework for human speech perception. The attraction of this framework is that since these features are sufficient to distinguish among the different phonemes, it is possible that ...
Objective:The purpose of this investigation is to conduct a systematic review of the long-term speech-recognition outcomes of ABIs in postlingually deafened adults, and to compare outcomes of ABIs in adults with NF2/tumors to adults without NF2. Methods: A comprehensive search utilizing various peer reviewed databases via the City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate Center Library was conducted to identify relevant studies investigating speech-recognition outcomes in ABI patients with postlingual deafness, both with and without tumors. Inclusion criteria included studies that involved at least one adult ABI patient (with or without NF2) with postlingual deafness, who was seen for follow-up auditory performance testing at one-year post-activation or later. Results: Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The studies utilized various materials for speech-recognition assessment to evaluate speech-recognition performance. Because of the great diversity among the materials
Visual speech contributes to phonetic learning in 6-month-old infants. Previous research has shown that infants match vowel sounds to facial displays of vowel articulation [Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218, 1138-1141; Patterson, M. L., & Werker, J. F. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust in 4.5-month-old infants. Infant Behaviour & Development, 22, 237-2471], and integrate seen and heard speech sounds [Rosenblum, L. D., Schmuckler, M. A., & Johnson,J. A. (1997). The McGurk effect in infants. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 347-357; Burnham, D., & Dodd, B. (2004). Auditory-visual speech integration by prelinguistic infants: Perception of an emergent consonant in the McGurk effect. Developmental Psychobiology, 45, 204-220]. However, the role of visual speech in language development remains unknown. Our aim was to determine whether seen articulations enhance phoneme discrimination, thereby playing a role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Speech recognition after implantation of the ossified cochlea. AU - Hodges, Annelle V. AU - Balkany, Thomas J.. AU - Gomez-Marin, Orlando. AU - Butts, Stacy. AU - Ash, Shelly Dolan. AU - Bird, Philip. AU - Lee, David. PY - 1999/7/1. Y1 - 1999/7/1. N2 - Objective: Insertion of complex, multichannel cochlear implant (CI) electrode arrays into ossified cochleas is now performed routinely. This study describes the hearing results obtained in a consecutive series of 21 patients with obstructed cochleas and compares these results to those in patients with open cochleas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with ossification have speech perception results that are inferior to those of patients with no evidence of cochlear bone formation. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive clinical series. Methods: CI database review of 191 CI procedures at the University of Miami Ear Institute between 1990 and 1997 showed that 24 (13%) procedures were performed on ...
Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation A majority of hearing impaired people suffers from social isolation because they face difficulties understanding speech in noisy environment, for instance in a busy street or in a restaurant full of talkative people. Some people with severe hearing loss can be fitted with a cochlear implant (CI), which allows restoring hearing to some extent. For example, speech transmitted through a CI is very degraded, but (...) ...
The present study aimed to investigate whether focal patterns of fMRI responses to speech input contain information regarding articulatory features when participants are attentively listening to spoken syllables in the absence of task demands that direct their attention to speech production or monitoring. Using high spatial resolution fMRI in combination with an MVPA generalization approach, we were able to identify specific foci of brain activity that discriminate articulatory features of spoken syllables independent of their individual acoustic variation (surface form) across other articulatory dimensions. These results provide compelling evidence for interlinked brain circuitry of speech perception and production within the dorsal speech regions, and in particular, for the availability of articulatory codes during online perception of spoken syllables within premotor and motor, somatosensory, auditory, and/or sensorimotor integration areas.. Our generalization analysis suggests the ...
Infants are born with a preference for listening to speech over non-speech, and with a set of perceptual sensitivities that enable them to discriminate most of...
Question 1: These are especially duration of deafness prior to implantation, age of onset of deafness, age at implantation (such age affects may be related to the ________) and the duration of using an implant. ...
Observing the visual cues from a speaker such as the shape of the lips and facial expression can greatly improve the speech comprehension capabilities of a person with hearing loss. However, concurrent vision loss can lead to a significant loss in speech perception. We propose developing a prototype device that utilizes a video camera in addition to audio input to enhance the speech signal from a target speaker in everyday situations.. ...
Symbols new speech-recognition solution offers customers a multi-function device to support multiple data capture functions including voice-recognition, barcode scanning, imaging and keyboard input, providing flexibility to use whichever data capture technology is most efficient to perform the task at hand ...
This paper reports explorations on a novel approach for speech information retrieval with spoken queries. The method uses a two-layer decoding scheme, where the intermediary representation of speech is based on phonemes, which makes the system vocabulary-independent. Moreover, the use of synchronized lattices at this intermediary level is shown to improve the discriminative performance while decreasing the size of the parameter space, and with a very reasonable additional computational cost. ...
Developmental deficits that affect speech perception increase the risk of language and literacy problems, which can lead to lowered academic and occupational accomplishment. Normal development and disorders of speech perception have both been linked to temporospectral auditory processing speed. Unde …
The present results address a long-standing hypothesis for cognitive and perceptual aging by examining brain activity in relation to subsequent performance on a trial-by-trial basis. Middle-aged to older adults were more likely to recognize words in noise after elevated cingulo-opercular activity, an effect that was the most pronounced for participants with better overall word recognition. Although the cingulo-opercular results from the present sample of older adults spatially overlapped with effects previously obtained with younger adults (Vaden et al., 2013), age-group differences in word recognition benefit from cingulo-opercular activity indicate that this normal response to challenging task conditions declines with age. The impact of aging on word recognition was also demonstrated by visual cortex associations with trial-level word recognition that occurred when there was a drop in activity and subsequent performance. The visual cortex results were unique to the older adult sample, ...
This paper provides a review of the current literature on psychophysical properties of low-frequency hearing, both before and after implantation, with a focus on frequency selectivity, nonlinear cochlear processing, and speech perception in temporally modulated maskers for bimodal listeners as...
PS : Asli..sedih banget.. :( Thank you. Im honored to be with you today for your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. Truth be told, I never graduated from college and this is the closest Ive ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from…
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Amicability and Hospitality between Leaders and Workers I thank nieces/nephews for their hospitality and amicability in every meeting I have
Signs and symptoms of stroke include:. Ø Trouble speaking and understanding what others are saying. You may experience confusion, slur your words or have difficulty understanding speech.. Ø Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg. You may develop sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg. This often affects just one side of your body. Try to raise both your arms over your head at an equivalent time. If one arm begins to fall, youll be having a stroke. Also, one side of your mouth may droop once you attempt to smile.. Ø Problems seeing in one or both eyes. You may suddenly have blurred or blackened vision in one or both eye.. Ø Trouble walking. You may stumble or lose your balance. You may also have sudden dizziness or a loss of coordination.. ...
Face-to-face communication is one of the most natural forms of interaction between humans. Speech perception is an important part of this interaction. While speech could be said to be primarily auditory in nature, visual ...
My boss wants to use this sentence in a biographical profile. I told him the sentence doesnt read well and tried to explain why, but he doesnt understand my explanation. I would appreciate your help, and any suggestions for alternative wording. Thank you! Mr. Smith is a frequent speaker on a variety of tax subjects, including a speech at the Annual Estate Planning Seminar at the Civic Center on the topic of estate planning for the terminally ill.
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Research with Bernhard Suhn showing that if factor in correction times, speech input may be slower and less natural than typing, etc. ...
Comfort Audio Duett New Personal Listener Carrying Bag - Get the lowest price on Comfort Audio Duett New Personal Listener Carrying Bag, online at AllegroMedical.com.
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I have been reflecting lately on how important - and how difficult - it is to listen. I am coming to understand how much conflict and misunderstanding is related to a failure to listen well, and I want to become a better listener. Ive been blessed to know many people who were good listeners. What…
Inspired by a post from Stacey Hanke, Founder of Stacey Hanke Inc. and Author of Influence Redefined. Most people consider themselves to be good listeners, finding it hard to admit otherwise. We know listening is vital to building strong relationships with coworkers, managers, clients, and leadership. In fact, it is considered to be the single most important communication skill necessary, valued more highly than speaking, in the business world.. We spend between 70 to 80% of each day engaged in communication, with over half that time devoted to listening, and yet we struggle to do it effectively. Because we hear speech at a rate of 500-1,000 words per minute, and only speak 125-175 words per minute, we become easily bored, distracted and inattentive.. By recognizing listening as a skill necessary to establish and grow business relationships, we can begin prioritizing our need to do it well. Here are eight ways to immediately stop talking and start listening:. 1. My turn, my turn!. Admit it, ...
Discover exactly how the hazard perception part of the Theory Test for car drivers works. Learn how to maximise your score and avoid the anti-cheat mechanism
Find out whats involved in the Theory test, how much it costs to book an appointment and recommended study materials to help you pass both the multiple choice and hazard perception parts of the test.
A researcher emailed us and asked if you all might be interested in taking this test. Naturally, Ive already made myself a guinea pig and its an interesting, if a bit long, look at certain perceptions we have based solely on comparisons between candidates. ...
On April 22, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich gave a speech at the American Enterprise Institute, where he is a senior fellow, denouncing the State D ...
PR Week reports on a call to action by the newly-appointed president of the International Communications Consultancy Organization, Fleishman-Hillard executive V-P John Saunders: Following on from an impassioned speech at last weeks Prague global summit, where his presidency was announced,...
Reports on Don Berwicks plenary speech at the 2002 National Forum on Quality, focusing on the argument that theres no excuse for not trying to improve what you can improve in the system.
Director of the Curtin University Sustainable Policy Institute Professor Peter Newman gave a speech at last years TEDxPerth conference, which goes
photo credit: Altus Photo Design Earlier this year, Lawrence Vance gave a speech at the Mises Institutes 2011 Austrian Scholars Conference titled
Our own Cory Doctorow counts the ways in a recent speech at Microsoft. Here, a snippet; below, the whole shebang: Heres what Im here to convince you of: 1. That DRM systems dont work 2. That DRM systems are bad for society 3. That DRM systems are bad for business 4. That DRM systems...
Listening and hearing are two different things. In order to communicate, being an active listener is just as important as expressing your own thoughts.
To be a good listener, improve your ability to concentrate and refrain from jumping to conclusions. More tips for becoming are in this article.
define TRACE using System; using System.IO; using System.Diagnostics; public class TextWriterTraceListenerSample { public static void Main() { TextWriterTraceListener myTextListener = null; // Create a file for output named TestFile.txt. String myFileName = TestFile.txt; StreamWriter myOutputWriter = new StreamWriter(myFileName, true); // Add a TextWriterTraceListener for the file. myTextListener = new TextWriterTraceListener(myOutputWriter); Trace.Listeners.Add(myTextListener); // Write trace output to all trace listeners. Trace.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString() + - Trace output); // Remove and close the file writer/trace listener. myTextListener.Flush(); Trace.Listeners.Remove(myTextListener); myTextListener.Close ...
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for average speech was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard. In this study, the HINT jury test measurements from a variety of background noise spectra and listening configurations of talker and listener are used in an effort to obtain a band importance function for the HINT, to potentially correlate the ...
This study explored the neural systems underlying the perception of phonetic category structure by investigating the perception of a voice onset time (VOT) continuum in a phonetic categorization task. Stimuli consisted of five synthetic speech stimuli which ranged in VOT from 0 msec ([da]) to 40 msec ([ta]). Results from 12 subjects showed that the neural system is sensitive to VOT differences of 10 msec and that details of phonetic category structure are retained throughout the phonetic processing stream. Both the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and cingulate showed graded activation as a function of category membership with increasing activation as stimuli approached the phonetic category boundary. These results are consistent with the view that the left IFG is involved in phonetic decision processes, with the extent of activation influenced by increased resources devoted to resolving phonetic category membership and/or selecting between competing phonetic categories. Activation patterns in ...
Abstract. Perceptual categorization is fundamental to the brains remarkable ability to process large amounts of sensory information and efficiently recognize objects including speech. Perceptual categorization is the neural bridge between lower-level sensory and higher-level language processing. A long line of research on the physical properties of the speech signal as determined by the anatomy and physiology of the speech production apparatus has led to descriptions of the acoustic information that is used in speech recognition (e.g., stop consonants place and manner of articulation, voice onset time, aspiration). Recent research has also considered what visual cues are relevant to visual speech recognition (i.e., the visual counter-parts used in lipreading or audiovisual speech perception). Much of the theoretical work on speech perception was done in the twentieth century without the benefit of neuroimaging technologies and models of neural representation. Recent progress in understanding ...
A number of measures were evaluated with regard to their ability to predict the speech-recognition benefit of single-channel noise reduction (NR) processing. Three NR algorithms and a reference condition were used in the evaluation. Twenty listeners with impaired hearing and ten listeners with normal hearing participated in a blinded laboratory study. An adaptive speech test was used. The speech test produces results in terms of signal-to-noise ratios that correspond to equal speech recognition performance (in this case 80% correct) with and without the NR algorithms. This facilitates a direct comparison between predicted and experimentally measured effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech recognition. The experimental results were used to evaluate nine different predictive measures, one in two variants. The best predictions were found with the Coherence Speech Intelligibility Index (CSII) [Kates and Arehart (2005), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(4), 2224-2237]. In general, measures using ...
The present invention relates to a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function, and is aimed at providing a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function by using a small amount of memory. The speech processing device of the present invention includes a speech analysis unit for obtaining analysis results by analyzing input speech, a codebook for storing quantization parameters and quantization codes indicating the quantization parameters, a quantizing unit for selecting the quantization parameters and the quantization codes corresponding to the analysis results from the codebook and for outputting selected quantization parameters and selected quantization codes, a coding unit for outputting encoded codes of the input speech including the selected quantization codes, a speech dictionary for storing registered data which represent speech patterns by using the codebook, and
Author: Schwartze, Michael et al.; Genre: Talk; Title: Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping
Aside from audiometric threshold, perhaps the more definitive component of determining adult implant candidacy involves speech recognition testing. As many of us recognize, individuals with significant hearing loss often report that they are unable to adequately hear someone unless they are looking directly at them. Thus, they are relying heavily-if not entirely-on visual cues such as lip reading and nonverbal signals for communication. In determining cochlear implant candidacy, in order to gain an understanding of an individuals auditory-based speech recognition abilities, speech materials are presented without visual cues.. Just as important as presenting speech stimuli without visual cues is the presentation of recorded materials for the assessment of speech recognition abilities. Roeser and Clark evaluated monosyllabic word recognition using both recorded stimuli as well as monitored live voice (MLV) for 32 ears.9 They reported that word recognition scores for MLV and recorded stimuli ...
Your point about phonology is important and interesting. Yes, neuroscientists who study language need to pay more attention to linguistics! You suggest that data from phonology leads you to believe that gestural information is critical. I dont doubt that. But heres an important point (correct me if Im wrong because Im not a phonologist!): the data that drives phonological theory comes from how people produce speech sounds. It doesnt come from how people hear speech sounds. You are assuming that the phonology uncovered via studies of production, also applies to the phonological processing in speech perception. This may be true, but I dont think so. My guess is that most of speech perception involves recognizing chunks of speech on the syllable scale, not individual segments. In other words, while you clearly need to represent speech at the segmental (and even featural) level for production, you dont need to do this for perception. So it doesnt surprise me that phonologists find gesture ...
The temporal perception of simple auditory and visual stimuli can be modulated by exposure to asynchronous audiovisual speech. For instance, research using the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has shown that exposure to temporally misaligned audiovisual speech signals can induce temporal adaptation that will influence the TOJs of other (simpler) audiovisual events (Navarra et al. (2005) Cognit Brain Res 25:499-507). Given that TOJ and simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks appear to reflect different underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether adaptation to asynchronous speech inputs would also influence SJ task performance. Participants judged whether a light flash and a noise burst, presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, were simultaneous or not, or else they discriminated which of the two sensory events appeared to have occurred first. While performing these tasks, participants monitored a continuous speech stream for target words that were either presented in synchrony, or with the audio
In any speaking engagement, one of the most important factor (and the most neglected, too) is the audience. People are so worried about the speech itself that they tend to forget the real factor that will affect the whole execution of the speech.. There are many kinds of speeches and one of them is the wedding speech. It is that part of the weeding that everybody is so excited to hear.. In a wedding, there are three primary wedding speeches that will be heard. The first one will be coming from the brides father. This is usually the most emotional speech and the most unforgettable one. It becomes so touchy when the father includes in his speech how he is endorsing his daughter to his husband.. The second part of the wedding speech is the grooms speech. Here, he will thank his parents for all the love and care. He will also thank all those who made the celebration possible and memorable.. And last is the best mans speech. Usually, this type of wedding speech is the most enlightening one because ...
A method and apparatus for real time speech recognition with and without speaker dependency which includes the following steps. Converting the speech signals into a series of primitive sound spectrum parameter frames; detecting the beginning and ending of speech according to the primitive sound spectrum parameter frame, to determine the sound spectrum parameter frame series; performing non-linear time domain normalization on the sound spectrum parameter frame series using sound stimuli, to obtain speech characteristic parameter frame series with predefined lengths on the time domain; performing amplitude quantization normalization on the speech characteristic parameter frames; comparing the speech characteristic parameter frame series with the reference samples, to determine the reference sample which most closely matches the speech characteristic parameter frame series; and determining the recognition result according to the most closely matched reference sample.
Contents Examination of perceptual reorganization of nonnative speech contrasts Zulu click discrimination by English-speaking adults and infants Context effects in two-month-old infants perception of labio-dentalinterdental fricative contrasts The phoneme as a perceptuomotor structure Consonant-vowel cohesiveness in speech production as revealed by initial and final consonant exchanges Word-level coarticulation and shortening in Italian and English speech Awareness of phonological segments and reading ability in Italian children Grammatical information effects in auditory word recognition Talkers signaling of new and old words in speech and listeners perception and use of the distinction Word-initial consonant length in Pattani Malay The perception of word-initial consonant length Pattani Malay Perception of the M-N distinction in VC syllables and Orchestrating acoustic cues to linguistic effect.
In article ,49v09q$87e at utrhcs.cs.utwente.nl,, mgrim at cs.utwente.nl (Martin Grim) says: ,Collecting information about the anatomical part isnt such a hard task, ,but less is known about the way the brain computes speech from the signals ,delivered by the ear and the auditory pathway. The ear converts the sound ,waves to a frequency spectrum, which is send to the auditory cortex. Speech ,is known to be build up by phonemes and phonemes can be identified by their ,formants, or even by formant ratios (for speaker independency). The question ,which rises now is does the brain computes speech from the enire frequency ,spectrum, or does it use just the formants? , ,Does somebody know the answer to this question (which is summarized as ,are formants biological plausible), or perhaps a reference of a publication ,with a discussion about this subject? Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in ...
Here are some steps you can go through to get sales speech Speech. Step 1 - Identify the product that you want to sell. The first step in Sale sales speech ideas is to stop and think about what the product you are Speecy to sell is. This might be very clear for you, especially if you only For one product.. There are a lot of options for those who are pursuing an essay for sale. However, they are not always relevant to the instructions in question. To answer the requests and calls of pay for speech and buy speech adequately, you have to redirect the efforts to a specific agency. Top-Rated Speeches for Sale Online. Do you need to come up with a speech but are pressed for time or simply do not feel like writing it? Buy speech online to ...
Adaptor grammars are a framework for expressing and performing inference over a variety of non-parametric linguistic models. These models currently provide state-of-the-art performance on unsuper- vised word segmentation from phonemic representations of child-directed unseg- mented English utterances. This paper in- vestigates the applicability of these mod- els to unsupervised word segmentation of Mandarin. We investigate a wide vari- ety of different segmentation models, and show that the best segmentation accuracy isobtainedfrommodelsthatcaptureinter- word collocational dependencies. Sur- prisingly, enhancing the models to exploit syllable structure regularities and to cap- ture tone information does improve over- all word segmentation accuracy, perhaps because the information the.... ...
On October 6 our YAL members on Fayetteville State University held a free speech event. We provided a free speech ball for students of FSU to freely write on. We discussed with students about signing a petition to switch campus policies over to the Chicago Principle which would allow the whole campus ground to be a free speech zone. Many students agreed that free speech is important as well as a constitutional right and should be upheld on our public campus.. During our demonstration we were approached twice by campus administration. The first man just came out to see what we were discussing and then he left. Then a woman came out and told us to leave from where we were because it was not part of the free speech zone. We asked a list of questions as to why we had to leave and what specific policies inhibited us from being there. She then took us to another administrator. We were explained the free speech zone policies and then we explained our petition. We were told it was good intended, but we ...
A system and method for recognizing an utterance of a speech in which each reference pattern stored in a dictionary is constituted by a series of phonemes of a word to be recognized, each phoneme having a predetermined length of continued time and having a series of frames and a lattice point (i, j) of an i-th number phoneme at an j-th number frame having a discriminating score derived from Neural Networks for the corresponding phoneme. When the series of phonemes recognized by a phoneme recognition block is compared with each reference pattern, one i of the input series of phonemes recognized by the phoneme recognition block being calculated as a matching score as gk(i, j); ##EQU1## wherein ak(i, j) denotes an output score value of the Neural Networks of the j-th number phoneme at the j-th number frame of the reference pattern and p denoted a penalty constant to avoid an extreme shrinkage of the phonemes, a total matching score is calculated as gk (I, J), I denoting the number of frames of the input
The students will get familiar with basic characteristics of speech signal in relation to production and hearing of speech by humans. They will understand basic algorithms of speech analysis common to many applications. They will be given an overview of applications (recognition, synthesis, coding) and be informed about practical aspects of speech algorithms implementation. The students will be able to design a simple system for speech processing (speech activity detector, recognizer of limited number of isolated words), including its implementation into application programs. ...
Speech shadowing is an experimental technique in which subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it (usually through earphones). The reaction time between hearing a word and pronouncing it can be as short as 254 ms or even 150 ms. This is only the delay duration of a speech syllable. While a person is only asked to repeat words, they also automatically process their syntax and semantics. Words repeated during the practice of shadowing imitate the parlance of the overheard words more than the same words read aloud by that subject. The technique is also used in language learning. Functional imaging finds that the shadowing of nonwords occurs through the dorsal stream that links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, goes to the inferior parietal cortex and then the posterior inferior frontal cortex (Brocas area). Speech shadowing was first used as a research technique by the Leningrad Group led by Ludmilla Andreevna ...
DiNino, M., Wright, R. A., Winn, M. B., Bierer, J. A., Vowel and consonant confusions from spectrally manipulated stimuli designed to simulate poor cochlear implant electrode-neuron interfaces. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140(6): 4404-4418, 2016.. Bierer, J.A., Litvak, L. Reducing channel interaction through cochlear implant programming may improve speech perception: Current focusing and channel deactivation. Trends in Hearing. 17; 20, 2016.. Cosentino, S., Carlyon, R.P., Deeks, J.M., Parkinson, W., Bierer, J.A., Rate discrimination, gap detection and ranking of temporal pitch in cochlear implant users. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 17(4):371-82, 2016.. Bierer, J.A., Spindler, E., Bierer, S.M., Wright, R.A. An examination of sources of variability across the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant test in cochlear implant listeners. Trends in Hearing. 17; 20, 2016.. DeVries, L.A., Scheperle, R.A., Bierer, J.A., Assessing the electrode-neuron interface with the electrically-evoked compound action potential, ...
Purpose Speech intelligibility research typically relies on traditional evidence of reliability and validity. This investigation used Rasch analysis to enhance understanding of the functioning and meaning of scores obtained with 2 commonly used procedures: word identification (WI) and magnitude estimation scaling (MES). Method Narrative samples of children with hearing impairments were used to collect data from listeners with no previous experience listening to or judging intelligibility of speech. WI data were analyzed with the Rasch rating scale model. MES data were examined with Rasch partial credit model when individual scales were unknown, and the Rasch rating scale model was used with reported individual scales. Results Results indicated that both procedures have high reliability and similar discriminatory power. However, reliability and separation were lower for MES when scales were unknown. Both procedures yielded similar speech sample ordering by their difficulty. However, sampling gaps ...
Communication, by means of sound, are innate for animals and requires no experience to be correctly produced. Humans, on the other hand, require extensive postnatal experience to produce and decode speech sounds that are the basis of language. Language acquisition during the critical periods require hearing and practicing abilities in deaf children. While most babies begin producing speechlike sounds at about 7 months(babbling), naturally deaf infants show distinct deficits in their early vocalizations and such individuals fail to develop language if not provided with an alternative form of symbolic expression (Fitzpatrick D. et al, 2001).[11] If these deaf children are exposed to sign language at an early age however, they begin to babble with their hands just as a hearing infant babbles audibly. This suggests that regardless of the modality early experience shapes language behaviour. There are other children who have acquired speech but lost their hearing right before puberty. These children ...
Background Cochlear Implants (CIs) provide near normal speech intelligibility in quiet environments to individuals suffering from sensorineural hearing loss. Perception of speech in situations with competing background noise and especially music appraisal however are still insufficient. Hence, improving speech perception in ambient noise and music intelligibility is a core challenge in CI research. Quantitatively assessing music intelligibility is a demanding task due to its inherently subjective nature. However, previous approaches have related electrophysiological measurements to speech intelligibility, a corresponding relation to music intelligibility, can be assumed. Recent studies have investigated the relation between results obtained from hearing performance tests and Spread of Excitations (SoEs) measurements. SoE functions are acquired by measuring Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials (ECAPs) which represent the electrical response generated in the neural structures of the ...
This video was recorded at MUSCLE Conference joint with VITALAS Conference. Human speech production and perception mechanisms are essentially bimodal. Interesting evidence for this audiovisual nature of speech is provided by the so-called Mc Gurk effect. To properly account for the complementary visual aspect we propose a unified framework to analyse speech and present our related findings in applications such as audiovisual speech inversion and recognition. Speakers face is analysed by means of Active Appearance Modelling and the extracted visual features are integrated with simultaneously extracted acoustic features to recover the underlying articulator properties, e.g., the movement of the speakers tongue tip, or recognize the recorded utterance, e.g. the sequence of the numbers uttered. Possible asynchrony between the audio and visual stream is also taken into account. For the case of recognition we also exploit feature uncertainty as given by the corresponding front-ends, to achieve ...
Technique of Speech - Culture of Speech and Business Communication Technique of Speech - Culture of Speech and Business Communication Speech Technique.
Routledge. The body of the speech is the biggest and is where the majority of information is transferred. When read aloud, your speech should flow smoothly from introduction to body, from main point to main point and then finally into your conclusion. Introduction. Example 2: If youre at your grandmothers anniversary celebration, for which the whole family comes together, there may be people who dont know you. The outline should contain three sections: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. If you feel that a particular fact is vital, you may consider condensing your comments about it and moving the comments to the conclusion of the speech rather than deleting them. Persuasive speech writing guide, tips on introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion on essaybasics.com How to write a good persuasive speech Persuasive speech is meant to convince the audience to adopt a particular point of view or influence them to take a particular action. How does genre affect my introduction or ...
This course addresses prominent theories and fundamental issues in the fields of speech perception, spoken word recognition, and speech production. The primary focus will be on accounts of unimpaired cognitive processing involved in the production and perception of single words and phrases, and we will consider a range of interdisciplinary perspectives.
Hearing-impaired listeners are known to experience certain problems in situations with multiple competing speech signals, e.g. cocktail parties. In order to investigate hearing-aid users performance on competing-speech tasks, we developed a Danish multi-talker speech corpus based on the Dantale-II material. Together with researchers from the University of Sydney, we then carried out a study where we fitted twenty hearing-impaired listeners with bilateral completely-in-the-canal hearing aids that had been adjusted to ensure high-frequency speech audibility as well as minimal distortion of spatial acoustic cues. Following an acclimatisation period of about four weeks, we measured the listeners performance on a number of competing-speech tasks that differed in spatial complexity. Furthermore, we measured their working memory and attention skills.. ...
Introduction. English Language Essay James Huang Text A, B and C are all examples of Briony?s speech at 21 months. Text A is a list of single utterances spoken over 12 hours at a family friend?s house. Texts B and C are transcripts of her interactions with her mother at their home. Referring in detail to the transcripts and to relevant ideas from language study, analyse children?s early spoken language development and interactions with caregivers. Briony?s use of one word ?Mok-Mok? when her body language indicates she is trying to reach for the milk confirms this word is her aim. Her phonological use as expanded to the point where she can use proto-words effectively and this shows that she is able to pronounce the open vowel sounds and plosives fluently. However her deletion of the liquid ?l? and the consonant cluster reduction of the would be ?lk? shows that she is still developing the ability to fluently pronounce two different phonological voices, plosives and liquids consecutively. Her ...
Automatic retraining of a speech recognizer during its normal operation in conjunction with an electronic device responsive to the speech recognizer is addressed. In this retraining, stored trained models are retrained on the basis of recognized user utterances. Feature vectors, model state transitions, and tentative recognition results are stored upon processing and evaluation of speech samples of the user utterances. A reliable transcript is determined for later adaptation of a speech model, in dependence upon the users successive behavior when interacting with the speech recognizer and the electronic device. For example, in a name dialing process, such a behavior can be manual or voice re-dialing of the same number or dialing of a different phone number, immediately aborting an established communication, or braking it after a short period of time. In dependence upon such a behavior, a transcript is select in correspondence to a users first utterance or in correspondence to a users second
Many politicians frequently confuse their personal wants with the wants and needs of their audience. The successful politician chooses his speech topics primarily based on the area that hes visiting and the audience that hes addressing. Once you have speech ideas you can use, you can develop a kind of presentation of the subject. Leading the listeners to your viewpoint is often part of the speech to persuade. But , even a speech to inform requires some first lead directly to get your audience to listen attentively and to follow what you are claiming. Making that connection with your audience will most likely make for a great speech. You will sound like a natural speaker if you know your subject and have rehearsed what you mean to say ...
Nath, AR, Fava EE and Beauchamp, MS. Neural Correlates of Interindividual Differences in Childrens Audiovisual Speech Perception. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011 Sept 28;31(39)13963-13971.[[Media:NathFavaBeauchampJNS2011.pdf,Click here to download the PDF.]] [[Beauchamp:McGurkStimuli,Click here to download the stimuli used in this experiment ...
Nath, AR, Fava EE and Beauchamp, MS. Neural Correlates of Interindividual Differences in Childrens Audiovisual Speech Perception. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011 Sept 28;31(39)13963-13971.[[Media:NathFavaBeauchampJNS2011.pdf,Click here to download the PDF.]] [[Beauchamp:McGurkStimuli,Click here to download the stimuli used in this experiment ...
Human perception and brain responses differ between words, in which mouth movements are visible before the voice is heard, and words, for which the reverse is true.
Free speech definition is - speech that is protected by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; also : the right to such speech. How to use free speech in a sentence.
Typically-developing (TD) infants can construct unified cross-modal percepts, such as a speaking face, by integrating auditory-visual (AV) information. This skill is a key building block upon which higher-level skills, such as word learning, are built. Because word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we assessed the hypothesis that this delay partly results from a deficit in integrating AV speech cues. AV speech integration has rarely been investigated in neurodevelopmental disorders, and never previously in infants. We probed for the McGurk effect, which occurs when the auditory component of one sound (/ba/) is paired with the visual component of another sound (/ga/), leading to the perception of an illusory third sound (/da/ or /tha/). We measured AV integration in 95 infants/toddlers with Down, fragile X, or Williams syndrome, whom we matched on Chronological and Mental Age to 25 TD infants. We also assessed a more basic AV perceptual ability: ...
This article reports 2 experiments that examine techniques to shield against the potentially disruptive effects of task-irrelevant background speech on proofreading. The participants searched for errors in texts that were either normal (i.e., written in Times New Roman font) or altered (i.e., presented either in Haettenschweiler font or in Times New Roman but masked by visual noise) in 2 sound conditions: a silent condition and a condition with background speech. Proofreading for semantic/contextual errors was impaired by speech, but only when the text was normal. This effect of speech was completely abolished when the text was written in an altered font (Experiment 1) or when it was masked by visual noise (Experiment 2). There was no functional difference between the 2 ways to alter the text with regard to the way the manipulations influenced the effects of background speech on proofreading. The results indicate that increased task demands, which lead to greater focal-task engagement, may ...
Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Taylor, Karen; McGettigan, Carolyn (2005). Lexical Information Drives Perceptual Learning of Distorted Speech: Evidence From the Comprehension of Noise-Vocoded Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(2):222-241. ...
When large sections of Melania Trumps speech at the Republican National Convention turned out to be lifted from Michelle Obamas 2008 convention speech, the Trump campaign tried to deflect criticism by throwing the speechwriter under the bus (after initially insisting Melania wrote the speech herself). The campaign went so far as to release an apology letter from the writer, Meredith McIver.. But in doing so, the campaign created another problem, because McIver doesnt work for the campaign. Shes an employee of the Trump Organization, Donald Trumps business empire. A basic rule of campaign finance is that if an employee of a corporation does work for a campaign, it counts as a corporate contribution, and corporations are not allowed to donate to campaigns.. To get around that, the campaign had to pay McIver for her work on Melanias speech. In the latest campaign filings, McIver is listed on the payroll of the campaign-for a grand total of $356.01. The payment, which occurred on July 23, five ...
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CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: On the automatic recognition of continuous speech: Implications from a spectrogram-reading 6 experiment
Dudley Knight is one of the most respected voice and speech teachers in North America and highly regarded internationally. Janet Madelle Feindel, Professor of Voice and Alexander, Carnegie Mellon University, author of The Thought Propels the Sound Actors and other professional voice users need to speak clearly and expressively in order to communicate the ideas and emotions of their characters-and themselves. Whatever the native accent of the speaker, this easy communication to the listener must always happen in every moment, onstage, in film or on television; in real life too. This book, an introduction to Knight-Thompson Speechwork, gives speakers the ownership of a vast variety of speech skills and the ability to explore unlimited varieties of speech actions-without imposing a single, unvarying pattern of good speech. The skills gained through this book enable actors to find the unique way in which a dramatic character embodies the language of the play. They also help any speaker to ...
The term speech processing refers to the scientific discipline concerned with the analysis and processing of speech signals for getting the best benefit in various practical scenarios. These different practical scenarios correspond to a large variety of applications of speech processing research. Examples of some applications include enhancement, coding, synthesis, recognition and speaker recognition. A very rapid growth, particularly during the past ten years, has resulted due to the efforts of many leading scientists. The ideal aim is to develop algorithms for a certain task that maximize performance, are computationally feasible and are robust to a wide class of conditions. The purpose of this book is to provide a cohesive collection of articles that describe recent advances in various branches of speech processing. The main focus is in describing specific research directions through a detailed analysis and review of both the theoretical and practical settings. The intended audience includes ...
Hearing loss can significantly disrupt the ability of children to become mainstreamed in educational environments that emphasize spoken language as a primary means of communication. Similarly, adults who lose their hearing after communicating using spoken language have numerous challenges understanding speech and integrating into social situations. These challenges are particularly significant in noisy situations, where multiple sound sources often arrive at the ears from various directions. Intervention with hearing aids and/or cochlear implants (CIs) has proven to be highly successful for restoring some aspects of communication, including speech understanding and language acquisition. However, there is also typically a notable gap in outcomes relative to normal-hearing listeners. Importantly, auditory abilities operate in the context of how hearing integrates with other senses. Notably, the visual system is tightly couples to the auditory system. Vision is known to impact auditory perception ...
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) applications for improving the oral skills of low-proficient learners have to cope with non-native speech that is particularly challenging. Since...