Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disorder in children. Currently available neuroimaging techniques require complete body confinement and steadiness and thus are extremely difficult for pediatric patients. Here, we report the use and quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex in children with hemiparetic CP. Ten of sixteen children with congenital hemiparesis were measured during finger tapping tasks and compared with eight of sixteen age-matched healthy children, with an overall measurement success rate of 60%. Spatiotemporal analysis was introduced to quantify the motor activation and brain laterality. Such a quantitative approach reveals a consistent, contralateral motor activation in healthy children at 7 years of age or older. In sharp contrast, children with congenital hemiparesis exhibit all three of contralateral, bilateral and ipsilateral motor activations, depending on specific ages ...
[114 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Functional Near Infrared Optical Brain Imaging System (fNIRS) Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Functional Near Infrared Optical Brain Imaging System (...
The purpose of this study was to investigate neuronal mechanisms active during the percep-tion of forward postural limits in a standing po-sition and to specify fall-related brain activity using optical functional near-infrared spectros-copy. The study group included six right-handed, healthy female volunteers (range: 19, 20 years). The optical imaging device comprised 16 opto-des designed to provide 24-channel recording of changes in hemoglobin oxygenation. We meas-ured the changes of oxygenated hemoglobin levels in the frontal region when subjects per-ceived reachability in a standing position. Com- pared with those in other regions, the oxygen-ated hemoglobin levels in the right frontal region compatible with the right prefrontal cortex sig-nificantly increased. This result suggests that brain activities in the right prefrontal cortex are related to perception of reachability. Overesti-mation of postural limits has been reported as one of the risk factor for falling. This overesti-mation might be
Recent functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) instrumentation encompasses several dozen of optodes to enable reconstructing a hemodynamic image of the entire cerebral cortex. Despite its potential clinical applicability, widespread use of fNIRS with human subjects is currently limited by unresolved issues, namely the collection from the entirety of optical channels of signals with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficient to carry out a reliable estimation of cortical hemodynamics, and the considerable amount of time that placing numerous optodes take with individuals for whom achieving good optical coupling to the scalp is difficult due to thick or dark hair. To address these issues, we developed a numerical method that: 1) at the channel level, computes an objective measure of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) related to its optical coupling to the scalp, akin to electrode conductivity used in electroencephalography (EEG), and 2) at the optode level, determines and displays the coupling ...
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging optical neuroimaging technology that indirectly measures neuronal activity in the cortex via neurovascular coupling. It quantifies hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and thus measures the same hemodynamic response as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but is portable, non-confining, relatively inexpensive, and appropriate for long-duration monitoring and use at the bedside. Like fMRI, it is noninvasive and safe for repeated measurements. Patterns of [Hb] changes are used to monitor and classify the cognitive state of people performing critical tasks. Thus, fNIRS technology offers much potential for application in operational contexts. For instance, the use of fNIRS to detect the mental state of commercial aircraft operators in near real time could allow intelligent flight decks of the future to optimally support human performance in the interest of safety by responding to hazardous mental states of the operator. However, many ...
MazeSuite is a complete toolset to prepare, present and analyze navigational and spatial experiments. Functional near-infrared...
Monitoring brain activity during upright motor tasks is of great value when investigating the neural source of movement disorders....
Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada 2018.We used visible near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) to characterize a set of organic materials (n = 75). Good predictions for total carbon, excellent predictions for total nitrogen, but poor predictions for pH were found. This preliminary study showed that VNIRS could rapidly characterize organic materials before soil application.. ...
Comparison of a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy system and skin conductance measurements for in vivo estimation of skin hydration: a clinical study
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is susceptible to signal artifacts caused by relative motion between NIRS optical fibers and the scalp. These artifacts can be very damaging to the utility of functional NIRS, particularly in challenging subject groups where motion can be unavoidable. A number of approaches to the removal of motion artifacts from NIRS data have been suggested. In this paper we systematically compare the utility of a variety of published NIRS motion correction techniques using a simulated functional activation signal added to 20 real NIRS datasets which contain motion artifacts. Principle component analysis, spline interpolation, wavelet analysis, and Kalman filtering approaches are compared to one another and to standard approaches using the accuracy of the recovered, simulated hemodynamic response function (HRF). Each of the four motion correction techniques we tested yields a significant reduction in the mean-squared error (MSE) and significant increase in the ...
Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αD{sub B}). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous linear algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed linear algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and ...
Both mental workload and inhibitory control have previously been found to relate to road traffic collisions and these factors are also believed to be highly dependent on the prefrontal cortex. Driving simulators create a safe environment in which to manipulate these factors and examine human behaviours. However, the validity of simulators is often called in to question and previous simulator validation research has a number of common methodological issues. As such, there were two main aims of this thesis. The first was to examine the efficacy of functional near infrared spectroscopy in measuring changes in prefrontal cortex activation as a result of mental workload and inhibitory control manipulations in simulated driving scenarios. The second aim was to examine the similarities and differences in driving behaviour, eye movements and prefrontal cortex activation in real and simulated driving environments ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnosis influences response of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy to intracranial hypertension in children. AU - Zuluaga, Maria T.. AU - Esch, Megan E.. AU - Cvijanovich, Natalie Z.. AU - Gupta, Nalin. AU - McQuillen, Patrick S.. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - Objective: To describe cerebral regional oxygen saturation measured by near infrared spectroscopy in the setting of normal and increased intracranial pressure in children to evaluate the association between cerebral regional oxygen saturation and intracranial pressure in comparison with other clinical variables. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Two academic tertiary care centers pediatric intensive care units. PATIENTS: Thirty patients with intracranial pressure and near infrared spectroscopy monitoring (median age, 11.5 yrs; interquartile range, 5.2-13 yrs) for a range of neurologic diagnoses, including brain tumor, trauma, intracerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Interventions: None. ...
The fNIRS technique has been used in a variety of model animals, including non-human primates, sheep, dogs, pigs, and rodents. The advantages of model animals include the ready availability of invasive techniques, diverse disease models, genetically engineered models, and advanced molecular genetic tools (Franceschini et al., 2008). The number of fNIRS studies performed using animals is still far lower than that of human studies, probably because the clinical applications of this technique has been the primary consideration, and there are many other non-invasive and invasive methods already available for animals. However, recent studies have shown a potential for utilizing fNIRS in nonhumans, with broad applicability to model animals. fNIRS studies on non-human primates have focused on customizing and cross-validating this technique with other well-established methods, such as electrophysiological recordings (Zaidi et al., 2015). Previous studies have found a strong correlation between visual ...
An implantable medical device for detecting and treating an arrhythmia includes an optical sensor adapted for positioning adjacent to a blood-perfused tissue volume. In one embodiment for controlling arrhythmia therapies delivered by the device, the optical sensor is controlled to emit light in response to detecting an arrhythmia, detect light scattered by the volume of blood perfused tissue including measuring an optical sensor output signal corresponding to the intensity of scattered light for at least four spaced-apart wavelengths, and compute a volume-independent measure of tissue oxygen saturation from the detected light. The hemodynamic status of the arrhythmia is detected in response to the measure of tissue oxygen saturation.
Results Our findings showed that in the ipsilateral hemisphere, MT induced a higher activation in the SMA and SPL than NoT. With regard to the activation of the ipsilateral SMC, only one channel was found showing superior effects of MT compared with NoT. In addition, MT can strengthen the functional connectivity between the SMC and SMA. In the contralateral hemisphere, both movement complexity and visual direction showed significant main effects in the SMC, while only movement complexity showed a significant main effect in the SMA and SPL. The precuneus of both sides was deactivated and showed no significant difference among the four conditions ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex Vivo Assessment of Various Histological Differentiation in Human Carotid Plaque with Near-infrared Spectroscopy Using Multiple Wavelengths. AU - Munemitsu, Toshihiro. AU - Ishii, Akira. AU - Okada, Eiji. AU - Chihara, Hideo. AU - Yoshida, Kazumichi. AU - Takahashi, Jun C.. AU - Takagi, Yasushi. AU - Miyamoto, Susumu. PY - 2019/5/15. Y1 - 2019/5/15. N2 - We previously reported that near-infrared hyperspectral imaging enabled the localization of atherosclerotic plaques from outside the vessels, but not the optical characteristics of each histological component. Therefore, the near-infrared spectrum of each component was collected from the sliced section of the human carotid plaque obtained with endarterectomy and the optical characteristics were confirmed in several wavelengths. Based on this information, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy for ex vivo chemogram in each plaque component created with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), using multiple wavelengths. The chemogram ...
Background & Purpose: While previous studies have implicated localized cortical regions in the recovery of locomotor function in stroke survivors, very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the recovery of locomotor adaptation in stroke survivors. Locomotor adaptation in stroke survivors is hampered due to the deterioration in bilateral coordination during gait. In an ongoing study, bilateral incoordination in gait was targeted with a split-belt paradigm and cortical neurovascular changes during the adaptation task were recorded with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS).. Subjects & Methods: In this study, chronic stroke survivors walked on a split-belt treadmill while wearing an fNIRS device. In a series of trials participants walked in baseline, split-belt, and catch conditions. A continuous wave fNIRS system, the ETG-4000 Optical System (Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) utilizing two different wavelengths (~695 and ~830 nm) sampling at 10 Hz, was used to ...
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) uses the relative absorption of light at 850 and 760 nm to determine skeletal muscle oxygen saturation. Previous studies have used the ratio of both signals to report muscle oxygen saturation. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the different approaches used to represent muscle oxygen saturation and to evaluate the pulsations of oxygenated hemoglobin/myoglobin (O2heme) and deoxygenated hemoglobin/myoglobin (Heme) signals. Method: Twelve participants, aged 20–29 years, were tested on the forearm flexor muscles using continuous-wave NIRS at rest. Measurements were taken during 2–3 min rest, physiological calibration (5 min ischemia), and reperfusion. Ten participants were included in the study analysis. Results: There was a significant difference in pulse size between O2heme and Heme signals at the three locations (p < 0.05). Resting oxygen saturation was 58.8% + 9.2%, 69.6% + 3.9%, and 89.2% + 6.9% when calibrated using O2heme, the tissue
In the NeuroImage study, 60 older men (aged 64-75 years) underwent an exercise test to measure their aerobic fitness. The men, whose physical fitness was found to vary widely, then performed a test to measure their selective attention, executive function and reaction time. This well-known color-word matching Stroop test involved showing the men words meaning color, such as blue, green, red, but asking them to name the color of the letters rather than read the word itself. This is harder than it sounds. When the color of the letters does not match the word - blue, red, green - it takes the brain longer to react. This reaction time is used as a measurement of brain function. Activity in the PFC region of the mens brains was measured throughout the test using a unique neuroimaging technique called functional near infrared spectroscopy or fNIRS. This technique provides a measure of blood oxygen concentration in surface blood vessels, indicative of activity in the brains outer layers, using a set ...
If you are attending the Human Brain Mapping Conference in Quebec, Canada, please come to our booth (number 100/102) and learn about the new features of our software products and the exciting roadmap of new developments. If you are a user of our software, come by to meet BrainVoyager experts to get professional support on all your questions. Besides showing BrainVoyager QX 2.3 and Turbo-BrainVoyager 3.0, we present our roadmap for the 2.x series of BrainVoyager QX including exciting new tools for ultra high field (7+ Tesla) MRI data, for automatic spatial normalization, improved group statistics, even faster processing using GPU power and the new Analysis Assistant helping you to organize and document your work. You can also ask for a demo of the upcoming Neurolator 3D software package allowing to model and predict neuroimaging data in a common brain space. If you are using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), you may also be interested in a demo of the upcoming Satori software package ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A low-cost, wireless near-infrared spectroscopy device detects the presence of lower extremity atherosclerosis as measured by computed tomographic angiography and characterizes walking impairment in peripheral artery disease. AU - Fuglestad, Matthew A.. AU - Hernandez, Hernan. AU - Gao, Yue. AU - Ybay, Henamari. AU - Schieber, Molly N.. AU - Brunette, Katyarina E.. AU - Myers, Sara A.. AU - Casale, George P.. AU - Pipinos, Iraklis I.. PY - 2020/3. Y1 - 2020/3. N2 - Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who experience intermittent claudication report a range of symptoms. Patients with symptoms other than classically described intermittent claudication may be at the highest risk for functional decline and mobility loss. Therefore, technologies allowing for characterization of PAD severity are desirable. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for measurements of muscle heme oxygen saturation (StO2) during exercise. We hypothesized lower extremities affected by ...
Objectives This study evaluated the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients affected by asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis. To identify the optimal cut-off value for regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) decrease in the two groups of patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed NIRS data of 372 CEAs performed under general anesthesia from March 2007 to October 2014. Among them, 80 (21.5%) were treated for symptomatic disease. Ten (2.7%) postoperative neurologic events were registered (5 in asymptomatic and 5 in symptomatic group). Mean rSO2 preclamp values were collected and compared with the lowest rSO2 values during carotid cross-clamp. We considered different duration cutoffs, based on decrease lasting 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 minutes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the best threshold value of rSO2 decrease in order to identify neurologic distress. Results No significant ...
Verbal fluency tests (VFTs) are widely used frontal lobe neuropsychological tests. They have been frequently used in various functional brain mapping studies. There are two versions of VFTs based on the type of cue: the letter fluency task (LFT) and the category fluency task (CFT). However, the fundamental aspects of brain connectivity across the frontotemporal regions during the VFTs have not been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that differences in cortical functional connectivity over the left and right frontotemporal regions may be observed by means of multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the performance of LFT and CFT. Our results from fNIRS (ETG-4000) showed different patterns of brain functional connectivity during the two types of VFTs, which was consistent with the different cognitive requirements of each task. We demonstrate increased brain functional connectivity over the frontal and temporal regions during the LFT than during the CFT; these results are
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique used to assess cerebral hemodynamics. Its portability, ease of use, and relatively low operational cost lend itself well to the long-term monitoring of hemodynamic changes, such as those in epilepsy, where events are unpredictable. Long-term monitoring is associated with challenges including alterations in behaviors and motion that can result in artifacts. Five patients with epilepsy were assessed for interictal hemodynamic changes and alterations in behavior or motion. Based on this work, visual inspection was used to identify NIRS artifacts during a period of interest, specifically prior to seizures, in four patients. A motion artifact reduction algorithm (MARA, also known as the spline interpolation method) was tested on these data. Alterations in the NIRS measurements often occurred simultaneously with changes in motion and behavior. Occasionally, sharp shift artifacts were observed in the data. When artifacts appeared ...
Automobile driving requires multiple brain functions. However, the brain regions related to driving behavior are unknown. Therefore, we measured activity of the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes during driving using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cortical activation patterns were examined in relation to driving behaviors, such as steering motion, accelerator pedal motion, and speed control. Six healthy adults participated in the experiment. Cerebral oxygen exchange (COE) was calculated based on the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations measured by fNIRS. The COE and driving behavior data were collected every 1 m and averaged for all subjects. Functional NIRS data for all 98 channels were extracted using principal component analysis. Similarity between extracted components and driving behaviors were confirmed by |cosine similarity||0.3. Among the factors with confirmed similarity, we identified brain regions with high principal component loading (|PCL||0.4). Among the 16
ICARDA. 2014. Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) equation: ICARDA faba bean legume crop residue calibration model. Addis Ababa: ...
The present study was undertaken to determine whether near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to noninvasively assess skeletal muscle oxygenation in patients with heart failure. The difference between light absorption at 760 and 800 nm was used to assess hemoglobin-myoglobin oxygenation. Initial studies conducted in isolated canine gracilis muscle demonstrated that 760-800-nm absorption correlated closely (r = -0.97 +/- 0.01) with venous hemoglobin O2 saturation when the muscle was stimulated to contract at 0.25-5.0 Hz. In normal subjects (n = 6) and patients with heart failure (n = 8), 760-800-nm absorption changes from the vastus lateralis muscle were monitored at rest, during progressive maximal bicycle exercise, and during thigh cuff inflation to suprasystolic pressure, an intervention designed to assess minimal hemoglobin-myoglobin oxygenation. Absorption changes were expressed relative to the full physiologic range noted from rest to thigh cuff inflation. During exercise, normal subjects ...
Humans typically read at incredibly fast rates, because they predict likely occurring words from a given context. Here, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to track the ultra-rapid hemodynamic responses of words presented every 280 ms in a naturally paced sentence context. We found a lower occipital deoxygenation to unpredictable than to predictable words. The greater hemodynamic responses to unexpected words suggest that the visual features of expected words have been pre-activated previous to stimulus presentation. Second, we tested opposing theoretical proposals about the role of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC): Either OFC may respond to the breach of expectation; or OFC is activated when the present stimulus matches the prediction. A significant interaction between word frequency and predictability indicated OFC responses to breaches of expectation for low- but not for high-frequency words: OFC is sensitive to both, bottom-up processing as mediated by word frequency, as well
The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5-to 6-month-old infants hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5-to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times
COZZOLINO, Daniel et al. Usefulness of near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics to discriminate between fishmeal, meat meal and soya meal samples. Cienc. Inv. Agr. [online]. 2009, vol.36, n.2, pp.209-214. ISSN 0718-1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202009000200005.. Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with chemometrics to discriminate between fishmeal, meat meal and soya meal samples. Samples were obtained from commercial feed miles and scanned in the NIR region (1100 - 2500 nm) in a monochromatic instrument in reflectance mode. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis were used to classify samples based on their NIR spectra. Full cross-validation was used in the development of classification models. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) correctly classified 85.7% of the fishmeal samples and 100% of the meat meal and soya meal samples. These results demonstrate the usefulness of NIR spectra ...
Extinction coefficient (ε) is a critical parameter for quantification of oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin concentrations (Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb], Δ[tHb]) from optical measurements of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). There are several different ε data sets which were frequently used in NIRS quantification. A previous study reported that even a small variation in ε could cause a significant difference in hemodynamic measurements. Apparently the selection of an optimal ε data set is important for NIRS. We conducted oxygen-state-varied and blood-concentration-varied model experiments with 57 human blood samples to mimic tissue hemodynamic variations. Seven reported ε data sets were evaluated by comparisons between quantifications and assumed values. We found that the Moaveni et al (1970) ε data set was the optimal one, the NIRS quantification varied significantly among different ε data sets and parameter Δ[tHb] was most sensitive to ε data sets selection.. © 2017 Optical Society of ...
Guidelines do not include cerebral oximetry among monitoring for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the detection of clamping ischemia and in the prevention
Additional file 3: of Near-infrared spectroscopy for assessing tissue oxygenation and microvascular reactivity in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study
... brain imaging suitable for use in virtually all subject and patient populations. left IFG <-> right IFG) than between IFG and MFG in the same hemisphere. Laterality indexes were calculated as t-values for the left > right comparisons of intrinsic connectivity within each regional group of channels in each subject. Regardless of handedness, the group average laterality indexes were negative thus revealing significantly higher connectivity in the right hemisphere in the majority of RH subjects and in both LH subjects. The analysis of Granger Causality between hemispheres has also shown a greater flow of info from the proper left hemisphere which might point to a significant role of the proper hemisphere in the relaxing condition. These data motivate additional exploration of the NIRS connection and its software for the evaluation of hemispheric interactions within the practical architecture of the mind. ...
Objectives Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), suitable for dynamic measurements, is not routinely utilised for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We propose a dynamic NIRS-based measurement to quantify variations in muscle metabolism in PAD. Method: Sixty-seven consecutive PAD patients (males=56, age 71.6±8.7 years) and twenty-eight healthy subjects (males=12, age 30.4±11.9 years) were studied. An echo-colour doppler (ECD) was performed and the ankle-brachial-index (ABI) was calculated. Participants performed an incremental treadmill test with NIRS probes on the gastrocnemius. Variations in oxygenated (HbO2), deoxygenated (HHb), total (tHb=HbO2+HHb), and differential (dHb=HbO2-HHb) haemoglobin were recorded and quantified as area-under-curve (AUC) within the range 1.7-3.0 Km/h. Heart rate was recorded, and the number of beats in the same interval was calculated (dHr). Results: O2HbAUC, HHbAUC, and dHbAUC differed between diseased and non-diseased legs (P,0.0001) and exhibited different ...
Near infrared spectroscopy offers the possibility of noninvasive and continuous bedside investigation of cerebral oxygenation in newborn infants. Using this technique we investigated the relationship between changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics, and changes in some physiological variables during blood transfusion in anaemic preterm infants.
Since the first study of Otsuka et al. (2007), we have clarified the neural responses to face perception using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with awake infants (Nakato et al., 2009; Honda et al., 2010; Ichikawa et al., 2010; Nakato et al., 2011; Nakato et al., in press). These studies demonstrated that the right temporal cortex of infants brain was activated during the presentation of faces and that the neural responses to face processing can be matured by the age of 7 to 8 months. However, it remains unknown how the neural mechanism related to face perception is matured during infancy.. The present study was a longitudinal investigation of the neural responses in infants aged from 3 to 8 months. All participants were measured the hemodynamic responses with NIRS at each age. The experimental stimuli were images of 5 unfamiliar female frontal and profile views as the test stimulus, and those of 5 different vegetables as the base stimulus. Measurement area for brain activity was in the ...
This project focuses on the development of research tools and methods that are used to study the relationship between neural activity and subsequent hemodynamic responses in the human brain. This relationship, referred to as neurovascular coupling, involves complex interactions between neurons, glial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Noninvasive functional neuroimaging studies that combine multiple modalities can be used to study neurovascular coupling to identify its characteristics in various populations. Neurovascular coupling has been studied using a variety of combinations of brain imaging systems such as electroencephalography (EEG), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transcrannial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and positron emission tomography (PET), among others. It has been studied to gain a better understanding of brain function, and to better understand a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and the ...
Despite the importance of our ability to interact and communicate with others, the early development of the social brain network remains poorly understood. We examined brain activity in 12- to 14-month-old infants while they were interacting live with an adult in two different naturalistic social scenarios (i.e., reading a picture book versus singing nursery rhymes with gestures), as compared to baseline (i.e., showing infants a toy without eye contact or speech). We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) recorded over the right temporal lobe of infants to assess the role of the superior temporal sulcus-temporoparietal junction (STS-TPJ) region during naturalistic social interactions ...
Cerebral autoregulation is defined as the whole of regulatory mechanisms that maintains a constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) during changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Cerebrovascular resistance adjusts when CPP changes in order to keep CBF constant. In contrast with this concept of pressure-mediated autoregulation, it is suggested that cerebral autoregulation is focused on maintaining homeostasis of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). We assume that both flow and pressure contribute to the regulation of CMRO2.. Assessment of cerebral oxygenation - Cerebral oxygen saturation will be monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS allows simple, continuous and non-invasive measurement of cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2)and primarily cerebral venous saturation. Cerebral oxygen saturation will be monitored with a FDA-approved devices: INVOS 5100 (Somanetics Corporation, Troy, MI, USA).. To study the effects of changes in pressure and in flow, we need a condition where ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcutaneous glucose measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy during hypoglycemia. AU - Gabriely, Ilan. AU - Shamoon, Harry. PY - 2000/8/24. Y1 - 2000/8/24. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033852074&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033852074&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:0033852074. VL - 23. SP - 1209. EP - 1210. JO - Diabetes Care. JF - Diabetes Care. SN - 1935-5548. IS - 8. ER - ...
Basic Study on the Effect of Scent on Arousal Level Using Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (MNIRS): 10.4018/978-1-60960-559-9.ch023: As a result, it is verified that not only characteristics of the scent but also the drivers preference and subjective judgment of scent changes affect on the
Today versatility of non-invasive photonic techniques has been developed to measure real-time characteristics of haemodynamics and microvascular system in health and pathology conditions in different organs and tissues. Compact laser instruments for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), NIRS flow oximetry, Raman spectroscopy, and others are used now for non-invasive rapid measurement of different parameters of haemocirculation such as blood flow, mean arterial pressure, oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations and others. Development and introduction of these methods to clinic lead to step-by-step substitution of laboratory analysis and enable bed-side diagnostics. Design of hybrid optical techniques and their combination with imaging tissues and organs by optical coherence tomography allows measuring dynamic characteristics of complex functionality and regulation of microvascular systems in health and pathology. Today
Using Google Glass, a team of researchers is developing a smart portable system that will use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure
Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and secondary somatosensory area (S2), as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI), and with reference to voluntary (VOL) wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin concentrations were ...
Schuster-Amft, C; Eng, K; Lehmann, I; Schmid, L; Kobashi, N; Thaler, I; Verra, M; Henneke, A; Signer, S; McCaskey, M; Kiper, D (2014). Using mixed methods to evaluate efficacy and user expectations of a virtual reality-based training system for upper-limb recovery in patients after stroke: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials, 15:350.. Zimmermann, Raphael; Marchal-Crespo, L; Lambercy, O; Fluet, M C; Metzger, J C; Edelmann, J; Brand, J; Eng, K; Riener, R; Wolf, M; Gassert, R (2013). Whats Your next move? Detecting movement intention for stroke rehabilitation. In: Guger, C; Allsion, B Z; Edlinger, G. Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary. Berlin: Springer, 23-37.. Kobashi, N; Holper, L; Scholkmann, F; Kiper, D; Eng, K (2012). Enhancement of motor imagery related cortical activation during first-person observation measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. European Journal of Neuroscience. Supplement, ...
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the anomaly known as yellow stain on cork granulate. Detecting this anomaly is crucial to the cork granulate stopper industry, since it is associated with the presence of 2.4.6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), this compound having been identified as the main agent responsible for cork off-flavours. Samples for the NIRS spectra were prepared by mixing in different proportions cork granulate with high visual quality and cork granulate with yellow stain, obtaining 120 samples with 8 different percentages of yellow stain (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 50 and 100%). Two spectra per sample were collected using a Bruker MPA spectrophotometer and the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to obtain numerous equations. The best equation was obtained by utilizing the standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing, making use of only one specific part of the near infrared spectral range: 9400-4250 cm-1. This
A solid-state based near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer is described and evaluated for the clinical measurements of glucose and urea. The development of a novel solid-state spectrometer advances noninvasive sensing technology by providing instrumentation capable of simple, robust, and reliable analytical measurements. The resulting solid-state systems promise the established features of NIR spectroscopy, including nondestructive, noninvasive, and reagent-less measurements. These features make solid-state NIR sensing attractive for bedside or near patient clinical applications associated with the treatment of diabetes and renal failure. A solid-state based optical micro-sensor is described and a preliminary evaluation for continuous glucose monitoring is detailed. Partial least-squares (PLS) and net analyte signal (NAS) calibration models are developed based on in vitro data to demonstrate the analytical features of selectivity, sensitivity and accuracy for the measurements of glucose, urea, and lactate in
The study focused on the use of the Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy in determining the content of selected fatty acids in raw non-homogenized sheep milk. The raw sheep milk sample spectra were scanned in reflectance mode using the FT NIR Antaris spectrophotometer. The reliable functional calibration models were created for estimation of the contents of myristic, oleic, lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids (with calibration correlation coefficients of R = 0.999; 0.999; 0.993; 0.992; 0.858) and with standard errors SEC = 0.056; 0.152; 0.066; 0.367; 1.36 ...