Ultraviolet-Visible-Near Infrared spectrophotometry (UV-Vis-NIR) is a non-destructive, non-contact optical characterization technique used to measure reflectance, absorbance, and transmittance of liquids and solids. It can be used to refine advanced optical modeling, or to make efficient, direct measurements of standard optical properties.. The optical properties, reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance, of a material are characterized with UV-Vis-NIR by analyzing the sample response as a function of wavelength. Covalents UV-Vis-NIR systems are considered dual-beam spectrometers, in which collimated beams of light are directed in two paths, one as a reference, and one towards the sample. As the wavelength of the applied beams is scanned through an entire spectral range, the reflected or transmitted light intensities are compared between the sample and the reference path. The difference between these intensities is plotted to produce the final UV-Vis-NIR spectrum, which captures the samples ...
Does the Level of Chlamydia Serology Titre Correlate to the Degree of Tubal Disease at Laparoscopy? A Retrospective Controlled Study. B-Lines on Chest Ultrasound Predicts Elevated Left Ventricular Diastolic Pressures. Causes of Morbidity and Mortality of Wildlife Species Presented to a Wildlife Clinic in East Tennessee, USA, 2000-2011. Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Time. Investigation on Silver Ion Release from Wound Dressings In Vitro and In Vivo. On Physical Nature of the Long-Range Effect during the Crystal Growth through Boundary Layers. Physician and Patient Perspective to Weight Gain in Pregnancy. Compliance in the Duration of Administration of Anticancer Chemotherapy: Comparative Study of Two Different Administration Modalities (PVC versus IVAD). Wildlife
Plasmonic gold nanostars (NSts) demonstrate an enhanced electric field in their surrounding due to large number of hot spots on their surface resulting in a unique ability to confine light within a nanometric volume. We are demonstrating beneficial properties of NSts as signal enhancers for tissue and cell imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT), microscopy, surface-enhanced vibration spectroscopy (SEVS), including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) configurations. Scattering ability of gold NSts with various sizes was investigated by OCT capillary imaging and light and confocal microscopy in vitro. The variation of NSts sizes allows one to shift plasmon resonance up to 1300 nm. The most intensive scattering signals were found from the largest NSts. NSts were applied in SEVS scenarios using plasmonic chip-based systems ...
Infrared absorption spectroscopy has proven to be one of the most powerful spectroscopic techniques available for the characterization of catalytic systems. Although the history of IR absorption spectroscopy in catalysis is long, the technique continues to provide key fundamental information about a variety Catalysis for Production of Renewable Energy
en] The structure, composition, and physico-chemical properties of lipid-protein complexes generated between dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DPMC) and the CNBr fragments of human apoA-I were studied. The fragments were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and purified on a reversed-phase column. The complexes with DMPC were isolated on a Superose column; their dimensions were obtained by gradient gel electrophoresis and by electron microscopy. The secondary structure of the protein in the complexes was studied both by circular dichroism and by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The fragments 1 and 4 of apoA-I, containing, respectively, two and three amphipathic helices, recombined with the phospholipid to generate discoidal particles with sizes similar to that of apoA-I- and apoA-II-DMPC complexes. The infrared measurements indicated that in all complexes the apolipoprotein helical segments were oriented parallel to the phospholipid acyl chains and that the protein ...
Infrared spectroscopy is used extensively in the study of isolated biomolecules, but it becomes less useful as it is applied to systems of increasing complexity. Even if the individual vibrational bands can be resolved spectroscopically, their assignment becomes problematic when they are more closely spaced than can be determined using ab initio methods. We describe a method that helps to alleviate this difficulty by measuring the direction of the vibrational transition moment for each vibrational band. The molecules of interest (adenine and cytosine) are cooled to 0.37 kelvin in liquid helium nanodroplets and oriented in a large dc electric field. A polarized infrared laser is then used to determine the directions of the infrared transition moments relative to the permanent dipole moment. Comparisons with ab initio calculations provide detailed structural information, including experimental evidence for nonplanarity of adenine and three tautomers of cytosine. ...
The relation between mechanical film properties of various adsorbed protein layers at the air/water interface and intrinsic stability of the corresponding proteins is discussed. Mechanical film properties were determined by surface deformation in shear and dilation. In shear, fracture stress, σf, and fracture strain, γf, were determined, as well as the relaxation behavior after macroscopic fracture. The dilatational measurements were performed in a Langmuir trough equipped with an infra-red reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) accessory. During compression and relaxation of the surface, the surface pressure, Π, and adsorbed amount, Γ (determined from the IRRAS spectra), were determined simultaneously. In addition, IRRAS spectra revealed information on conformational changes in terms of secondary structure. Possible correlations between macroscopic film properties and intrinsic stability of the proteins were determined and discussed in terms of molecular dimensions of single proteins ...
Infiltration synthesis, the atomic-layer-deposition-based organic-inorganic material hybridization technique that enables unique hybrid composites with improved material properties and inorganic nanostructures replicated from polymer templates, is shown to be driven by the binding reaction between reactive chemical groups of polymers and perfusing vapor-phase material precursors. Here in this paper, we discover that residual solvent molecules from polymer processing can react with infiltrating material precursors to enable the infiltration synthesis of metal oxides in a nonreactive polymer. The systematic study, which combines in situ quartz crystal microgravimetry, polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, shows that the ZnO infiltration synthesis in nominally nonreactive SU-8 polymer is mediated by residual processing solvent cyclopentanone, a cyclic ketone whose Lewis-basic terminal carbonyl ...
The synthesis of two galactose-terminated alkanethiols with the structural formula X-OC2H5NHCO(CH2)15SH (X = 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-beta-D-Gal or beta-D-Gal) is described. Single-component and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the methylated and nonmethylated compounds were prepared on gold and subsequently characterized with ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. Studies of the irreversible protein adsorption onto the SAMs using ex-situ ellipsometry revealed very low levels of fibrinogen and lysozyme adsorption onto mixed SAMs displaying advancing water contact angles between 24 degrees and 45 degrees and below 45 degrees , respectively. A monomethylated compound (X = 6-O-methyl-beta-D-Gal) was also synthesized and assembled on gold. This particular compound was found to possess wettability properties corresponding to the low adsorption regime of the mixed SAMs, and the results from the same set of fibrinogen and lysozyme adsorption experiments
Glycans at the surface of cellular membranes modulate biological activity via multivalent association with extracellular messengers. The lack of tuneable simplified models mimicking this dynamic environment complicates basic studies of these phenomena. We here present a series of mixed reversible self-assembled monolayers (rSAMs) that addresses this deficiency. Mixed rSAMs were prepared in water by simple immersion of a negatively charged surface in a mixture of sialic acid- and hydroxy-terminated benzamidine amphiphiles. Surface compositions derived from infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and film thickness information (atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry) suggest the latter to be statistically incorporated in the monolayer. These surfaces affinity for the lectin hemagglutinin revealed a strong dependence of the affinity on the presentation, density, and mobility of the sialic acid ligands. Hence, a spacer length of 4 ethylene glycol and a surface density of 15% resulted in a ...
Determining the chemical and structural modifications occurring within a protein during fundamental processes such as ligand or substrate binding is essential to building up a complete picture of biological function. Currently, significant unanswered questions relate to the way in which protein structural dynamics fit within the structure-function relationship and to the functional role, if any, of bound water molecules in the active site. Addressing these questions requires a multidisciplinary approach and complementary experimental techniques that, in combination, enhance our understanding of the complexities of protein chemistry. We exemplify this philosophy by applying both physical and biological approaches to investigate the active site chemistry that contributes to the inhibition of the Corynebacterium glutamicum catalase enzyme by nitric oxide. Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) experiments exploit the NO ligand as a local probe of the active site molecular ...
Atmospheric corrosion, the most common form of metal corrosion, occurs within the interfacial region between a solid, and the surrounding atmosphere. In fact three phases and two interfaces are involved: the gas, a thin liquid layer, a solid, the gas/liquid and the liquid/solid interfaces. In this thesis, the vapor/liquid and liquid/metal interfaces have been studied by the in-situ techniques vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), and infrared reflection/absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). The main focus has been on characterization of the corrosive organic molecules formic acid, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde, at the two interfaces. Additionally, the headgroup of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been examined at the air/water interface.. VSFS is an inherently surface sensitive laser spectroscopy technique, which provides vibrational spectra solely of the molecules residing at the surface of for example a liquid, despite the vast excess of the same molecules in the bulk. To obtain a ...
Infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy directly probes the vibrational modes associate with the molecular bonds in a sample by measuring absorption in the mid-infrared spectral region, ~ 3 - 20 microns. IR spectroscopic measurements are thus intrinsically endowed with a level of chemical specificity and information content far exceeding that of most other optical measurement techniques.[1] Despite their potential, IR absorption measurements suffer not only from limited sensitivity, but are severely hindered by the strong, broad absorption of water that overlaps the bands of most organic compounds of interest. While recent surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy measurements have shown that IR resonant nanoantennas can be leveraged to dramatically increase sensitivity, [2-3] these have all been performed in dry environments and without time-resolution ...
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We are using ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy and other multi-dimensional IR methods, which we have pioneered, to study dynamics of molecular complexes, water confined on nm lengths scales with a variety of topographies, molecules bound to surfaces, ionic liquids, and materials such as metal organic frameworks and porous silica. We can probe the dynamic structures these systems. The methods are somewhat akin to multidimensional NMR, but they probe molecular structural evolution in real time on the relevant fast time scales, eight to ten orders of magnitude faster than NMR. We are obtaining direct information on how nanoscopic confinement of water changes its properties, a topic of great importance in chemistry, biology, geology, and materials. For the first time, we are observing the motions of molecular bound to surfaces. In biological membranes, we are using the vibrational echo methods to study dynamics and the relationship among dynamics, structure, and function. We are also ...
Author: Wang, X. L. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2005; Title: Hydrolysis reaction analysis of L-alpha-distearoylphosphatidyleholine monolayer catalyzed by phospholipase A2 with polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mid-IR pulse shaping for enhanced 2D IR spectroscopy. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Zanni MT. Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy measures the structural dynamics of a self-assembled film only one molecule thick. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2016 ;113:4890-4891. ...
Kratochvil HT, Maj M, Matulef K, Annen AW, Ostmeyer J, Perozo E, Roux B, Valiyaveetil FI, Zanni MT. Probing the Effects of Gating on the Ion Occupancy of the K+ Channel Selectivity Filter Using Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2017 ;139:8837-8845. ...
Alperstein AM, Ostrander JS, Zhang TQO, Zanni MT. Amyloid found in human cataracts with two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 ;116:6602-6607. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An infrared study of crystallization in sodium-disilicate glasses containing iron oxides. AU - Park, J. W.. AU - Chen, Haydn. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The infrared absorption spectra of sodium-disilicate glasses containing various amounts of Fe2O3 ([Na2O · 2 SiO2]1-x [Fe2O3]x, where x = 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2) were investigated in the wavenumber range from 200-2000 cm-1. The addition of Fe2O3 to the sodium-disilicate glass does not seem to introduce any new absorption band as compared with the spectrum of a pure sodium-disilicate glass; nevertheless, a general shift of the existing absorption bands toward lower wavenumbers is observed. The amount of shift is, in fact, proportional to the content of Fe2O3 in the glass. This observation is consistent with the recently proposed structural model for the bonding of Fe3+ ions in the iron-sodium-silicate glass system. Annealing of 20 mol% iron oxide glasses at 550 and 580°C produced an extra sharp infrared absorption peak at ...
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the United States, inflicting more than 20.8 million people and expanding at epidemic rates in some are...
Vibrational and electronic transition dipole strengths are often good probes of molecular structures, especially in excitonically coupled systems of chromophores. One cannot determine transition dipole strengths using linear spectroscopy unless the concentration is known, which in many cases it is not. In this paper, we report a simple method for measuring transition dipole moments from linear absorption and 2D IR spectra that does not require knowledge of concentrations. Our method is tested on several model compounds and applied to the amide I band of a polypeptide in its random coil andα-helical conformation as modulated by the solution temperature. It is often difﬁcult to conﬁdently assign polypeptide and protein secondary structures to random coil or α-helix by linear spectroscopy alone, because they absorb in the same frequency range. We ﬁnd that the transition dipole strength of the random coil state is 0.12 ± 0.013 D^2, which is similar to a single peptide unit, indicating that ...
There are six types of Cl. botulinum (Types A, B, C, D, E, and F). The differentiation between these types is based upon the antigenic structure of the toxin. Many strains of these various types have been isolated. In addition, a number of nontoxigenic type Elike strains have come to light. It would be of great value to have a rapid method of distinguishing between these strains, or of identifying the type of toxigenic culture. This thesis discusses an investigation into the possibilities of the use of infra-red in an approach to this problem. Smears of bacterial cells were prepared by scraping a small amount of growth from the agar surface of a petri plate, and dissolving it in a drop of water on the surface of a silver chloride disc. In the case of broth cultures, growth to be placed on the discs was first obtained by centrifugation. A second empty disc was then placed over the first with a bit of lens tissue under one edge to prevent the formation of interference fringes. The two discs were ...
We report a new approach to achieving super-resolution in point-scanning microscopy through polarization modulation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By modulating linearly polarized incident light, the emission extent of fluorescent dyes changes periodically, adding sparsity in each recording, which contributes to the super-resolution reconstruction. To recover the super-resolution result, a sparse penalty-based deconvolution method is implemented onto the polarization-modulated dataset subsequently. By simply inserting a vortex half-wave retarder into a typical confocal microscope, we obtain the super-resolution experimental results of both nuclear pore complex proteins and tubulins in vero cells, which evidence a sub-diffraction resolution of ...
In order to characterize the molecular structure and organization of the lipids, we performed attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements. Fig. 3a shows the absorption bands characteristic for the stretching vibrations of the lipid acyl chains for the lipid monolayer (black line) and for the lipid-graphene assembly (red line).28 The presence of these peaks confirms that the lipids remain underneath the graphene. Depending on whether the lipids are in contact or not with graphene, a shift in the peaks maxima is observed, characteristic for changes in the lipid conformation.29 Additionally, a shift was observed in the asymmetric methylene vibration (CH2) from ∼2915 to 2912 cm−1 and in the symmetric methylene vibration (CH2) from ∼2848 to 2844 cm−1, respectively. Furthermore the intensity of the asymmetric and symmetric CH2 bands of the lipid-graphene assembly increased. The observed shift is attributed to a change of the physical properties of the lipids film, ...
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X-irradiation of an Ar matrix doped with {\it p}-benzoquinone (PBQ) at 10 K leads to formation of the PBQ radical cation (PBQ$^{\bullet +}$) and radical anion (PBQ$^{\bullet -}$). The IR spectrum of PBQ$^{\bullet +}$ exhibits broad and dense absorption bands in the 2000 cm$^{-1}$ and higher energy region. Another characteristic of the spectrum is the presence of three intense peaks in the lower energy region. Equation-of-motion coupled-cluster calculations have been performed to analyze the spectrum with the quasi-diabatic model Hamiltonian technique. A spectral simulation based on the model Hamiltonian reproduces the observed IR spectrum very well, revealing that the electronic transition to the low-lying excited state, ${\tilde A}\,^2B_{2u} \leftarrow {\tilde X}\,^2B_{3g}$, is severely affected by nonadiabatic interaction of the two states, to which the aforementioned features are attributed. In particular, three $b_{1u}$ fundamental peaks for ${\tilde X}\,^2B_{3g}$ PBQ$^{\bullet +}$ gain ...
A new, full (nine)-dimensional potential energy surface and dipole moment surface to describe the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is reported. The PES is based on fitting of roughly 32 000 CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ electronic energies. The surface is a linear least-squares fit using a permutationally invariant basis with Morse-type variables. The PES is used in a Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) complexes. Using the calculated ZPE the dissociation energies of the clusters are reported. Vibrational configuration interaction calculations of NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) using the MULTIMODE program are performed. The fundamental, a number of overtone, and combination states of the clusters are reported. The IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is calculated using 4, 5, 7, and 8 modes VSCF/CI calculations. The anharmonic, coupled vibrational calculations, and IR spectrum show very good ...
ZnGeP2(ZGP) single crystal with size of 24 mm in diameter and 70 mm in length was grown by a modified vertical Bridgman(VB) method in a three-zone furnace. The crystal was annealed in Zn Ge P2 powder at 600 ℃ for 500 h. X-ray diffraction(XRD), X-ray fluorescence(XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry(FTIR) were employed to characterize its properties. A ZGP optical parametric oscillator(ZGP-OPO) device was fabricated from the annealed sample. Laser experiment was carried out on the device. Tunable mid-infrared laser in the range of 3~5 μm was realized on the ZGP-OPO pumped by 2.1 μm, 7 k Hz laser. All the results indicate that our grown crystal is in good quality and can be used for nonlinear optical applications.
Researchers have succeeded in observing the forbidden infrared spectrum of a charged molecule for the first time. These extremely weak spectra offer perspectives for extremely precise measurements of molecular properties and may also contribute to the development of molecular clocks and quantum technology ...
Infrared absorption of some 3,4-disubstituted pyridines and pyridine 1-oxides Australian journal of chemistry CSIRO Publishing 0004-9425 10.1071/CH9650583
The spectral dependence of the infrared absorption cross section of As in Si near 0 K has been determined from infrared transmission measurements for three As concentrations (5.3, 8.4, and 15.9 × 1017 cm−3) in the impurity band regime. The results demonstrate some features of physical interest. With increasing As concentration, the lines associated with the intra-atomic transitions broaden asymmetrically, while the integral of the total absorption cross section over photon energy is conserved as required by the oscillator strength sum rule. It thus appears that the cross section for the intra-atomic transitions is conserved as the lines hybridize with the continuum. Comparison of our results with photoionization cross-sectional data suggests that the lines contribute to the cross section for photoionization through field and thermally assisted transitions when they are near the threshold for photoionization.. © 1989 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
In this study, we provide the first Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) analysis of a vibrational fingerprint of erlotinib, a drug which is applied in non-small cell lung cancer therapy, in solid state and solution in different pH conditions. Additionally, the performed DFT theoretical calculations in vacuum and PCM models support the interpretation of vibrational spectra and give insight into an optimized spatial configuration of the investigated drug. The present considerations show vibrational structure of erlotinib and details of its molecular geometry. Furthermore, we discuss the pH condition where the protonated –NH|sup|+|/sup| and C=N|sup|+|/sup| forms occur and indicate the spectral changes characteristic for the erlotinib protonation. It is of great of importance to better understand biological activity of the drug and to develop new tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
A molecular mechanics (MM) force field-based empirical electrostatic potential map (MM map) for amide-I vibrations is developed with the aim of seeking a quick and reasonable approach to computing local mode parameters and their distributions in solution phase. Using N-methylacetamide (NMA) as a model compound, the instantaneous amide-I normal-mode parameters (transition frequency and dipole) obtained at the level of MM force fields are converted to solution phase values by a four-site potential scheme, but without the need for quantum mechanical frequency computations of solute-solvent clusters as are required in constructing ab initio-based electrostatic potential or field maps. The linear IR line shape of the amide-I mode in NMA obtained from the frequency-time correlation function on the basis of the MM map are found to be comparable to those from the ab initio-based maps. Our results show that the amide-I local mode parameters are largely determined by the solvated peptide structure rather ...
Infrared spectrophotometry (IR) uses similar instrumentation to UV-vis spectrophotometry but it uses a different light source (infrared frequencies of ~1011 to 1014 Hz). The instrumentation consists of an infrared beam that is split into two identical beams (reference beam and analytical beam).. The analytical beam passes through the sample so that molecular vibrational absorption can occur. The intensity of the two beams are compared over the range 2.5 µm to 16 µm and plotted as a function of wavenumber (the reciprocal of the wavelength in cm-1). ...
E. e. J + 1) for the R branch. The values of ν P , R at nonzero integral values of m are the transition wavenumbers of the allowed rotational lines associated with a given (v′,v″) band. A plot of ν P , R vs. m forms a parabola, usually called the Fortrat parabola. 7 presents the Fortrat parabola for the CN B - X (0,0) band. , 2006). We see that there are no lines with transition wavenumbers greater than that of the vertex of the parabola. The vertex can be seen in the spectrum as a sharp edge to the band and is called the band head. 35]. For example, vibrational transitions in homonuclear diatomic molecules can be observed in Raman spectroscopy, but not in infrared absorption or emission as discussed above. Further details about infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy can be obtained from graduate spectroscopy textbooks, for example Bernath (2005), or specialist books. 4 Rotational structure A good first-order model of rotation is the rigid-rotor model, in which the internuclear ...
While peak height measurements were faster, they were still labor-intensive. There was one benefit to these methodologies: you were intimately familiar with the data. If anything was even a little off-including unexpected peaks, distortion of peak shapes, etc.-it was immediately noticeable and important because that meant that there was something unexpected in the sample, which could mean serious contamination. Part of the analysts role was to identify those contaminants, which usually meant multiple injections and cold trapping of the peak components as they left the column. In the past, infrared spectrophotometry was used to scan the trapped material. Today, people use mass spectrometry methods, e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Anything that could make those measurements easier and faster was welcomed into the lab (depending on your budget). Anything began with electronic integrators built around the Intel 4004 and 8008 chips[5][6] The integrators, connected to the ...
Kinetic IR spectroscopy was used to reveal β-sheet formation and water expulsion in the folding of single-chain monellin (SMN) composed of a five-stranded β-sheet and an α-helix. The time-resolved IR spectra between 100 μs and 10 s were analyzed based on two consecutive intermediates, I1 and I2, appearing within 100 μs and with a time constant of ≈100 ms, respectively. The initial unfolded state showed broad amide I′ corresponded to a fluctuating conformation. In contrast, I1 possessed a feature at 1,636 cm−1 for solvated helix and weak features assignable to turns, demonstrating the rapid formation of helix and turns. I2 possessed a line for solvated helix at 1,637 cm−1 and major and minor lines for β-sheet at 1,625 and 1,680 cm−1, respectively. The splitting of the major and minor lines is smaller than that of the native state, implying an incomplete formation of the β-sheet. Furthermore, both major and minor lines demonstrated a low-frequency shift compared to those of the ...
The study of membrane proteins (MPs) remains a major challenge in protein biochemistry mainly because of problems of protein aggregation and thermal instability in nonnative preparations of MPs in detergents, or native-like but insoluble preparations in liposomes. As a result, nonconventional surfactants with properties intermediate to lipids and detergents are becoming increasingly popular as alternative platforms for MPs (Bayburt and Sligar, 2002; Boldog et al., 2006; Park et al., 2007; Dalal et al., 2009; Popot, 2010). Discoidal lipoproteins, which include reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles, nanodiscs, and nanoscale apolipoprotein-bound bilayers (NABBs), constitute a type of nonconventional platform that has enabled novel assays on MPs sequestered in a well-defined, soluble native-like lipid environment, such as single-particle imaging, surface plasmon resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (Banerjee et al., 2008; Das et al., ...
RequirePackage{filecontents} \begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib} @Article{Adato2013, author = {Adato, Ronen and Altug, Hatice}, title = {In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas}, journal = {Nat. Commun.}, year = {2013}, volume = {4}, } \end{filecontents} \documentclass{scrbook} \usepackage[nottoc,numbib]{tocbibind} \begin{document} \chapter{chapter1} text \cite{Adato2013} text \bibliographystyle{plain} % nature_style \bibliography{\jobname} % calls bib file created with filecontents! \end{document ...
A method for obtaining a high-contrast visible-light signal from infrared absorption in low-absorbance samples is described. This method is based on a beam-fanning optical limiter in photorefractive BaTiO3. The resulting signal is not linear but does exhibit an enhanced signal-to-background ratio that is 4 to 6 orders of magnitude better than that of conventional infrared absorption spectrophotometry in the shot-noise limit. A simple model for the beam-fanning, optical-limiter-based, pulsed-laser-excited photothermal spectroscopy detector is found to describe the experimental data adequately. This technique using photothermal spectroscopy detection may have advantages for rapid signal analysis and for two-dimensional visible imaging of infrared absorption.
The Near Infrared Reflectance Accessory (NIRA) is designed for diffuse reflectance measurements of light-scattering solids, liquids, and powders using the Frontier FT-NIR or FT-IR/NIR spectrometer.
Request Report Methodology @ https://www.persistencemarketresearch.co/methodology/26926 The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:. Chapter 1, to describe Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrometer product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.. Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrometer , with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrometer in 2017 and 2020.. Chapter 3, the Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrometer competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.. Chapter 4, the Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrometer breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2020.. Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue and market share for ...
The 37-residue human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) self-assembles into fibers, the assembly of which has been associated with the disease mechanism of type II diabetes. Infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with isotope labeling is proving to be a powerful tool for studying the aggregation process of hIAPP and other amyloid forming proteins with residue specific structure and kinetic information, but the relationship between the spectroscopic observables and the structure is not fully established. We report a detailed analysis of the linear and 2D IR spectra of hIAPP fibers isotope labeled at seven different residue positions. The features of the 2D IR spectra, including the frequencies, linewidths, intensities, and polarization dependence of the diagonal and cross-peaks, rely heavily on the position of the isotope labeled residue. In order to understand how these measured parameters depend on fiber secondary and tertiary structure, we have simulated 1D and 2D IR spectra utilizing ...
A detailed study of the mechanism by which a dizinc catalyst copolymerizes cyclohexene oxide and carbon dioxide is presented. The catalyst, previously published by Williams et al. ( Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 931), shows high activity under just 1 bar pressure of CO2. This work applies in situ attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to study changes to the catalyst structure on reaction with cyclohexene oxide and, subsequently, with carbon dioxide. A computational investigation, using DFT with solvation corrections, is used to calculate the relative free energies for various transition states and intermediates in the cycle for alternating copolymerization catalyzed by this dinuclear complex. Two potentially competing side reactions, sequential epoxide enchainment and sequential carbon dioxide enchainment are also investigated. The two side-reactions are shown to be thermodynamically disfavored, rationalizing the high selectivity exhibited in experimental studies using ...
2010.12.13 The reseach article Noradrenaline and a Thiol Analogue on Gold Surfaces: an IRAS, XPS and NEXAFS Study. was published in Journal of Physical Chemistry C. Self-assembled monolayers and multilayers of a noradrenaline analogue (Nor-Pt) on gold substrates as well as multilayers of noradrenaline have been investigated by means of the molecular orientation, the molecule−surface interaction, the molecular composition and the functional group availability for further biointeraction processes, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection−absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy ...
Exploration of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration to measure immunoglobulin G in human sera
Diffuse-reflectance IR Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was used to study in situ, the low-temp. (T |200 Deg) methanation of CO2 over Ru on TiO2 and on Al2O3 supports. For 3.8% Ru/TiO2, the reaction exhibits an activation energy (Ea) of 19 kcal/mol, is 0.43 +- 0.05 order in H2 concn., and essentially independent of CO2 concn. At 110 Deg, 40% of the available metal sites are occupied by CO (qCO = 0.4), a known methanation intermediate. In contrast to Ru/TiO2, Ru/Al2O3, despite having the same Ea and qCO = 0.2, is 15 times less active. Batch catalyst screening expts. showed no dependence of methanation activity on adsorbed CO(COa) formation rate (as modeled by HCOOH dehydration) or on qCO. In view of this, and the fact that CO dissocn. is structure-sensitive, heterogeneity in the active sites is invoked to reconcile the data. The high Ru dispersion on TiO2 is believed to contribute to the enhanced activity over this support. Adsorbed CO2 and H2 react, possibly at the metal-support interface, to form
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structures, vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of L-alanine in aqueous solution: a density functional theory and RHF study. AU - Frimand, K.. AU - Bohr, H.. AU - Jalkanen, K.J.. AU - Suhai, S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article. VL - 255. SP - 165. EP - 194. JO - Chemical Physics. JF - Chemical Physics. SN - 0301-0104. ER - ...
The relative configuration of a key subunit of hemicalide, a recently isolated, highly bioactive marine natural product having potent antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, was assigned by combining stereocontrolled synthesis of model substrates with NMR, IR, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. The assignment of the absolute configuration of asymmetric carbon center C42 in two structurally complex epimeric substructures containing six stereocenters by VCD analysis illustrates the power and reliability of combining methods. ...
Nicu, V. and Neugebauer, J. and Wolff, S. and Baerends, E. 2008. A vibrational circular dichroism implementation within a Slater-type-orbital based density functional framework and its application to hexa- and hepta-helicenes. Theoretical Chemistry Accounts: Theory, Computation, and Modeling (Theoretica Chimica Acta). 119: pp. 245-263 ...
essentially a graph plotted with the infrared light absorbed on the Y-axis The compound is: The most appropriate spectroscopy for the identification of a nitrile group is: Compound I gives a strong infrared absorption at 1730 cm-1. Each of the following IR spectra (shown below) corresponds to one of the five isomers of C … By an intense pulse of radiation which contains a wide range of frequencies Why is UV-Vis Spectroscopy not like IR Spectroscopy UV/Vis Spectroscopy is where electromagnetic radiation in the UV to Visible range is shone at a sample to be analysed. What is the name given to the relaxation process due to an interaction between an excited nucleus and the magnetic fields caused by nuclei in molecules moving around in the sample? The solved questions answers in this Test: Spectroscopy- 3 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. This question is going to give you three isomeric compounds and three IR spectra. Multiple choice questions on principles, IR ...
2017-2022 Southeast Asia and Regional Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrometer Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to in situ analysis of atheromatous plaques in aorta. AU - Nakamura, Atsushi. AU - Koga, Takehiro. AU - Fujimaki, Makoto. AU - Ohki, Yoshimichi. AU - Sota, Takayuki. AU - Lipinska-Kalita, Kristina. AU - Nagae, Tsuneyuki. AU - Ishimaru, Shin. AU - Aizawa, Katsuo. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Ex vivo infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopic studies have been carried out to observe the accumulation of cholesterol ester in atheromatous plaques. It has been found that ATR spectra can be successfully obtained from the intima side of aorta and give the same information as the transmission spectra. This means, the ATR spectra include information about the chemical composition of atheromatous plaques together with the degree of eventual lesions. We have demonstrated that ATR microspectroscopic measurements can give images of atheromatous plaques distribution and enable in situ observation of the relative amount ...
The electrode potential dependence of the hydration layer on an n-Ge(100) surface was studied by a combination of in situ and operando electrochemical attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and real space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Constant-potential DFT calculations were coupled to a modified generalised Poisson-Boltzmann ion
TY - JOUR. T1 - The oxidation of hydroxylamine on Pt-, and Pd-modified Au electrodes in aqueous electrolytes. T2 - Electrochemical and in situ spectroscopic studies. AU - Jebaraj, Adriel Jebin Jacob. AU - De Godoi, Denis Ricardo Martins. AU - Scherson, Daniel Alberto. PY - 2013/3/15. Y1 - 2013/3/15. N2 - The electrooxidation of hydroxylamine, NH2OH, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB, pH = 7) on Pt-, and Pd-modified Au electrodes prepared by galvanic displacement of underpotential deposited Cu, was investigated by electrochemical techniques and three and in situ vibrational probes, substrate-induced surface enhanced Raman scattering, SI-SERS, surface enhanced infrared absorption, SEIRAS, and Fourier transform infrared reflection-absorption, IRAS, spectroscopies. Analyses of the results obtained made it possible to identify at low overpotentials, solution phase (sol) and adsorbed (ads) nitric oxide, NO, as well as solution phase nitrous oxide, N2O. As the potential was increased, the peak(s) ascribed ...
Applications and Uncertainties Associated with Measurements Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Selective Ion Electrode Method in Fire Suppression Tests
Milk, preheated at 82°C for 30 minutes, was heated to 146°C for four seconds (UHT-treated) and cooled to 5°C in a tubular heat exchanger. Immediately after heat treatment, 20 gallons of heated milk were vacuum distilled at 30°C in a semi-continuous, reduced pressure glass apparatus. Twenty gallons of non-heated milk were distilled in a similar manner to serve as a control. Continuous liquid-liquid ethyl ether extractions were employed to recover the compounds from the aqueous distillates. Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry and odor confirmation were used to characterize the compounds in the flavor concentrates. A technique for collecting and transferring packed column gas chromatographic fractions to capillary columns for mass spectral analysis was developed. The following compounds were identified in UHT-treated milk (the underlined compounds appeared to result from the heat treatment): the C₃, ₄, ₅, ₇, ₈, ₉, ₁₀, ₁₁, ₁₃ n-methyl ...
Solvent-solute interactions influence the mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution, but the response of the solvent is often slower than the reactive event. Here, we report that exothermic reactions of fluorine (F) atoms in d3-acetonitrile and d2-dichloromethane involve efficient energy flow to vibrational motion of the deuterium fluoride (DF) product that competes with dissipation of the energy to the solvent bath, despite strong solvent coupling. Transient infrared absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations show that after DF forms its first hydrogen bond on a subpicosecond time scale, DF vibrational relaxation and further solvent restructuring occur over more than 10 picoseconds. Characteristic dynamics of gas-phase F-atom reactions with hydrogen-containing molecules persist in polar organic solvents, and the spectral evolution of the DF products serves as a probe of solvent reorganization induced by a chemical reaction. ...
Time-resolved infrared absorption spectra of the C[triple bond]N bands of photoexcited TMABN and DMABN have been measured in non-polar hexane, polar aprotic THF and polar protic butanol with high temporal and spectral resolution (|0.5 ps and 5 cm(-1), respectively). In butanol, the intramolecular …
This article describes the application of multivariate statistical process control techniques to a series of mid-infrared spectra collected online from a styrene/ 2-ethylhexyl acrylate emulsion copolymerization process. Principal component analysis of the mid-infrared spectral data indicated that in situ monitoring of the complex copolymerization process was feasible in the spectral region of interest. It was also observed that projection to latent structures or partial least squares (PLS) could be used for the effective indirect online prediction of individual monomer conversions and copolymer compositions over a substantial range of process operating conditions. A combination of the developed PLS methodology with a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection probe proved to be an effective tool for the efficient online characterization of polymer quality, thereby overcoming the lack of robust online conversion and composition measuring devices. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci ...
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the anomaly known as yellow stain on cork granulate. Detecting this anomaly is crucial to the cork granulate stopper industry, since it is associated with the presence of 2.4.6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), this compound having been identified as the main agent responsible for cork off-flavours. Samples for the NIRS spectra were prepared by mixing in different proportions cork granulate with high visual quality and cork granulate with yellow stain, obtaining 120 samples with 8 different percentages of yellow stain (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 50 and 100%). Two spectra per sample were collected using a Bruker MPA spectrophotometer and the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to obtain numerous equations. The best equation was obtained by utilizing the standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing, making use of only one specific part of the near infrared spectral range: 9400-4250 cm-1. This
This project will design and deliver a high accuracy monitor for the photo-chemically coupled pollutants nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone using infrared absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade (QC) lasers. The target molecules are monitored at air quality stations worldwide using instruments which require frequent calibration and are subject to significant chemical interferences (in the cases of NO2 and O3). This QC monitor will initially provide a portable measurement standard to calibrate the existing network and could eventually replace existing instruments. QC lasers are spectroscopically stable and can be operated near room temperature when in pulsed mode. This allows the design of compact, rugged, monitors which are also highly accurate. The main Phase 2 objectives are to complete the detailed design and construction of an instrument which can simultaneously measure all three species with high time resolution and high accuracy. This instrument will be delivered to NIST ...
Infrared reflection absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies are used to show that the process of carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation can occur on the surface of
Figure 2. B3LYP-D3(BJ)/def2-TZVP optimized geometry of the 2/(+)-1 and 2/(-)-1. Of interest to readers of this blog will be the DFT study of these complexes. The authors used three different well-known methods - B3LYP-D3(BJ)/def2-TZVP, M06-2x/def2-TZVP, and ωB97X-D/def2-TZVP - to compute structures and (most importantly) predict the vibrational frequencies. Interestingly, M06-2x/def2-TZVP and ωB97X-D/ def2-TZVP both failed to predict the vibrational frequency difference between the complexes with the two stereoisomers of α-pinene. However, B3LYP-D3(BJ)/def2-TZVP performed extremely well, with a mean average error (MAE) of only 1.9 cm-1 for the four different terpenes. Using this functional and the larger may-cc-pvtz basis set reduced the MAE to 1.5 cm-1 with the largest error of only 2.5 cm-1.. As the authors note, these complexes provide some fertile ground for further experimental and computational study and benchmarking.. ...
I.r. difference spectra are presented for 3-(indol-3-yl)acryloyl-, cinnamoyl-, 3-(5-methylthien-2-yl)acryloyl-, dehydrocinnamoyl- and dihydrocinnamoyl-chymotrypsins at low pH, where the acyl-enzymes are catalytically inactive. At least two absorption bands are seen in each case in the ester carbonyl stretching region of the spectrum. Cinnamoyl-chymotrypsin substituted at the carbonyl carbon atom with 13C was prepared. A difference spectrum in which 13C-substituted acyl-enzyme was subtracted from [12C]acyl-enzyme shows two bands in the ester carbonyl region and thus confirms the assignment of the features to the single ester carbonyl group. The frequencies of the ester carbonyl bands are interpreted in terms of differential hydrogen-bonding. In each case a lower-frequency relatively narrow band is assigned to a productive potentially reactive binding mode in which the carbonyl oxygen atom is inserted in the oxyanion hole of the enzyme active centre. The higher-frequency band, which is broader, is ...
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Philip J. Stephens was a theoretical chemist who brought to fruition two new forms of optical spectroscopy, using circularly polarized light, for the determination of electronic structure and molecular stereochemistry. The first was magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), the wavelength dependence of the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light induced by a magnetic field applied parallel to the light beam. Stephens established a methodology for extracting from MCD spectra the angular momentum characteristics of ground and excited electronic states and demonstrated applications to the assignment of the optical spectra of coordination complexes of transition metals and to metalloproteins. In the second half of his career Stephens led the field of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), the measurement of the natural circular dichroism (CD) arising from the vibrational transitions of chiral molecules. He developed instrumental techniques to measure this weak dichroism over a ...
Near infrared spectroscopy offers the possibility of noninvasive and continuous bedside investigation of cerebral oxygenation in newborn infants. Using this technique we investigated the relationship between changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics, and changes in some physiological variables during blood transfusion in anaemic preterm infants.
The critical cooling rate for glass formation, Rc, and the crystallization kinetics of the compositions 1 2(100 - x)BaO- 1 2(100 - x)TiO2-xSiO2 with x = 20, 25, 30, 33.3 and 40 mol.% were studied using a thermal image furnace. Crystallization was studied under nonisothermal conditions and the data were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation. The Rc and activation energy for crystallization both decrease with increasing silica content. Fresnoite, Ba2TiSi2O8, crystallized from all of the glasses when they were reheated. The infrared absorption spectra of the glasses and crystals show that they both contain (Si2O7) and square pyramidal (TiO5) groups.
In 1980 Harstein et al. [1] discovered that when a molecule was absorbed on metal surfaces, its infrared absorptions appeared more intense than what would be expected for traditional measurements. This effect was named Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption (SEIRA), to recall the analogy with SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy), which was already known since the beginning of 70th [2],[3]. Many papers have been published trying to explain the enhancement mechanism which may be related to the result of the enhanced optical field at the surface of metal nano-particles when illuminated at the phonon resonance frequencies. In analogy with the interpretation of the SERS effect, Osawa [4] suggested that the total enhancement is produced by the combination of electromagnetic and chemical mechanisms. Moreover, it was noticed that the enhancement was significant for the first monolayer directly attached to the metal surface and decayed sharply within 5 nm from the surface. In addition, vibrational ...
The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy facility at the CEA Paris-Saclay is located at the Laboratory of Fundamental Mechanisms in Bioenergetics (UMR 9198). It provides the users with advanced FTIR spectrometry and responds to most of the needs of FTIR analyses.. The FTIR platform includes 4 spectrometers with many accessories: Transmission cell, ATR accessories, thermostatable liquid cells, cryostat for low temperature studies … It enables the analysis of various samples under different physical forms (see below). The laboratory has a specialization in FTIR difference spectroscopy, time-resolved FTIR, low temperature FTIR, and an expertise in the investigation of biochemical reactions and photo-induced reactions.. Equipment:. - Bruker Vertex 80V (under vacuum - to reduce noise and water vapor contamination; cryostat option; detectors: Bolometer, DTGS, MCT; spectral range between 100 and 6000 cm-1). It is interfaced with a pulsed laser Continuum Surelite+OPO (tunable between 440 and 670 ...
Results of protein secondary structure analysis are shown in Table 5. The protein internal structure α-helix and β-sheet were modeled and identified using secondary derivative function based on amide I component peaks centered at ca. 1,650 and 1,625 cm−1, respectively. We found the absorbance peak height and area intensities of protein amide I, amide II, α-helix and β-sheet height as well as their ratio in SBM, CM, and RSM. All parameters of protein secondary structure were significantly different (p,0.05) among SBM, CM, and RSM except amide I to amide II area ratio (p = 0.53). Amide I area, Amide I peak height, Amide II area, α-helix and β-sheet height in RSM were significantly lower than those in SBM and in CM (p,0.05). Reports showed that amide I region mainly resulted from C=O stretching vibration and C-N stretching vibration. The region of amide II was primarily associated with NH in-plane bending and C-N stretching, also related to C=O stretching, C-C stretching and N-C stretching ...
We believe in loving Anything you do, and undertaking Anything you really like. Je Ballet is often a designer of premium ballet gear. Our flagship solution could be the Turning Pointe, a next level coaching Device for dancers of all types. Designed on the need to deliver the dance Neighborhood with strategies to further improve, we operate with dancers across the globe to produce items that are not merely wonderful, but also extremely functional ...
Infrared wavelengths exist on the invisible spectrum of light and cannot be seen with the human eye, but are experienced kinetically as heat. The infrared spectrum of light penetrates deeply into the epidermis and therefore fully engages the cellular and molecular network. As the rays of infrared light burrow into the epidermis, the largest human organ, they heat the body up from the inside out. The body responds to both infrared heat therapy and light to reduce inflammation by increasing circulation. Improved blood circulation intrinsically flushes inflammation out of the joints by creating a current of hyperoxygenated hemoglobin through the affected areas of the body.. When the body is exposed to the healing rays of the infrared spectrum, the living anatomy of the human body invites the light into its network system to create a domino effect on the cellular activity to decrease inflammation.. As the infrared light seeps beyond the initial membrane of the skin to penetrate into the soft tissue ...
The real problem with a small group of people who control these technologies unwatched by the public eye is its potential for great abuse. For example, we can never fully solve any accident or crime and know whether it was an EEG heterodyned crime or a regular one. Princess Dianas driver could have been EEG heterodyned and made to crash into the barrier. John Hinckley could have been made to believe that only by shooting President Reagan could he get Jody Foster to love him. I met a Colonel in the Air Force who test flew the new exotic airplanes and who was menticized after discovery of all sorts of corruption with Halliburton defense contracts. False memories were implanted in him and he was made to believe he was married and had a kid with some music star for two years. Clearly the capability exists to create Manchurian Candidates like John Hinckley. JFK junior could have been made to misinterpret the horizon or his aircraft instruments to malfunction.. All these events could have been ...
Financial support by Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur, Programme Interdisciplinaire Energie CNRS and ANR Bioénergie. We thank Dr. A. Ronda and NanoTecMat technological facility for atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, Dr. S. Canaan and S. Robert for TLC experiments, and M. Bauzan for growing the bacteria. PM-IRRA=polarization modulation infrared reflection adsorption. ...
1. Abe, H., T. Kusama, S. Kawano, and M. Iwamoto, 1995. Non-destructive determination of protein content in a single kernel of wheat and soybean by near infrared spectroscopy. In: A.M.C. Davies & P. Williams (Eds.), Near Infrared Spectroscopy: the Future Waves, pp. 457-461. NIR Publications, Chichester, UK.. 2. Dyer, D.J., and P. Feng, 1995. Near infrared applications in the development of genetically altered grains. In: A.M.C. Davies & P. Williams (Eds.), Near Infrared Spectroscopy: the Future Waves, pp. 490-493. NIR Publications, Chichester, UK.. 3. Orman, B.A., and R.A. Schumann, Jr., 1992. Nondestructive single-kernel oil determination of maize by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 69:1036-1038.. 4. Patrick, B.E., and G.D. Jolliff, 1997. Nondestructive single-seed oil determination of meadowfoam by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 74:273-276.. 5. R bbelen, G., 1990. Mutation breeding for ...
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy) covers a wide range of chemical applications, especially for polymers and organic compounds. Learn more about the basics of this chemical analysis technique.
A single photon detector is the key device needed to build highly sensitive instruments for measuring spectra. For the past 30 years, scientists have made steady progress increasing the efficiency and sensitivity of visible and ultraviolet photon detectors while methods for detecting elusive single photons in the near-infrared (NIR) range have faltered. The methods presently in use are too static-laden, inefficient and slow, or depend on superconducting detectors, which require expensive, low-temperature operating environments. The NIST group, Lijun Ma, Oliver Slattery and Xiao Tang, wanted to develop a way to use existing detectors such as avalanche photodiode detectors (APD), which work very well for detecting visible light and are widely used, but are ineffective for the detection of NIR.. Their approach was to adapt a technique developed two years ago at NIST for quantum cryptography that up converts photons at one frequency to a higher frequency. The technique promotes the infrared ...
Pardo, Leonardo; Sepulcre Sánchez, Francesc; Cladera Cerdà, Josep Bartomeu; Duñach, Mireia; Labarta, A.; Tejada, J.; Padrós Morell, Esteve ...
The IUCr is a scientific union serving the interests of crystallographers and other scientists employing crystallographic methods ...
I am getting tired of the Greg and OP show, so I want to address some of the comments from perspective. I first want to warn you about learning science from fiction writers! It is true that CO2 makes up a small percentage of our atmosphere, much less than 1%. It is 4th on the list, behind N2, O2 and Ar. However, none of these three major constituents absorb in the infrared, while CO2 is a very strong absorber. This IR absorption is what holds in the heat and causes the warming. Imagine your football field is a tank of extremely pure and absolutely transparent water. Now add a very small bit of highly-concentrated red dye. Even a little bit would make a big difference to your ability to see through the water. CO2 is basically a dye in the infrared spectrum, absorbing certain wavelengths that would otherwise pass out of the atmosphere and back into space. Man-made sources of CO2 are presently contributing less about 5% of the total CO2 into the atmosphere, but that is enough to tip the balance ...
Twardowski, J.; Nowak, I.; Stufkens, D.J.; Snoeck, T.L., 1984: Raman and ir studies of homogeneous forms of acid phosphatase ec 3.1.3.2 from rat liver