Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) 1thickness analysis of thin films by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciencesFoot District - tu tienda online de zapatillas. La mejor selección de nike, adidas, NB y muchas otras más. Envío Gratis. Entrega al día siguiente.Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of .edsonsemprimer.pdf - Download as . Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy . The probability of absorption then increases again as the X-ray energy approaches the .CHAPTER 16 X-ray Spectroscopy by Manne Siegbahn 16.1.Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Detector . State-of the Art Ethernet X ray Electronic interface 10/100 megabits per .High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: . Download Paper . DOI Link. Keywords . X-ray ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pre-Columbian alloys from the royal tombs of Sipán; energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with a portable equipment. AU - Cesareo, R.. AU - Calza, C.. AU - Dos Anjos, M.. AU - Lopes, R. T.. AU - Bustamante, A.. AU - Fabian S., J.. AU - Alva, W.. AU - Chero Z., L.. PY - 2010/4/1. Y1 - 2010/4/1. N2 - On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished approximately between 50 and 700 AD, the Moche civilization. It was an advanced culture and the Moche were sophisticated metalsmiths, so that they are considered as the finest producers of jewels and artefacts of the region. The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated by the objects discovered by Walter Alva and coworkers in 1987, in the excavations of the Tumbas Reales de Sipán. About 50 metal objects from these excavations, now at the namesake Museum, in Lambayeque, north of Peru, were analyzed with a portable equipment using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This portable equipment is mainly composed ...
Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) 1thickness analysis of thin films by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciencesFoot District - tu tienda online de zapatillas. La mejor selección de nike, adidas, NB y muchas otras más. Envío Gratis. Entrega al día siguiente.Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of .edsonsemprimer.pdf - Download as . Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy . The probability of absorption then increases again as the X-ray energy approaches the .CHAPTER 16 X-ray Spectroscopy by Manne Siegbahn 16.1.Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Detector . State-of the Art Ethernet X ray Electronic interface 10/100 megabits per .High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: . Download Paper . DOI Link. Keywords . X-ray ...
The elemental analysis of plant material is a frequently employed tool across biological disciplines, yet accurate, convenient and economical methods for the determination of some important elements are currently lacking. For instance, digestion-based techniques are often hazardous and time-consuming and, particularly in the case of silicon (Si), can suffer from low accuracy due to incomplete solubilisation and potential volatilization, whilst other methods may require large, expensive specialised equipment.. Here, we present a rapid, safe and accurate procedure for the simultaneous, non-consumptive analysis of Si and phosphorus (P) in as little as 0.1 g dried and ground plant material using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF).. We used certified reference materials from different plant species to test the analytical performance of P-XRF and show that the analysis suffers from very little bias and that the repeatability precision of the measurements is as good as or better than ...
During the past five decades, the use of X-ray analytical methods has increased in the areas of materials characterization and phase identification. The wide range of applicability of the X-ray fluorescence method has made it a technique employed in thousands of laboratories all over the world. Over the years, many techniques and procedures have been developed that greatly enhance the versatility of the method. The purpose of the X-ray clinic is to combine theoretical and practical application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ...
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Progress in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. Tiwari, M. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Gowrisankar, B.; Singh, A. K.; Bhalerao, G. M.; Sinha, A. K.; Das, Arijeet; Verma, A.; Nandedkar, R. V. // Current Science (00113891);9/10/2008, Vol. 95 Issue 5, p603 Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy has attracted interest in recent years. Using this technique, almost all elements ranging from sodium (Z = 11) to uranium (Z = 92) in the periodic table can be detected and analysed in a wide concentration range in a single measurement. The... ...
ASTM-D7220 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - automotive fuel; diesel; gasoline; petroleum; polarization; spectrometry; sulfur; X-ray;; ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
In the present paper a method for the determination of strontium, barium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, aluminum and sulfur in the product of strontium carbonate by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with pressed powder sample preparation was developed, and the standard samples were synthesized by high purity reagent. As the contents of strontium in the product of strontium carbonate were very high, the phenomenon of spectrum-peak-saturated occurred and the count rate was overflowed according to the measuring condition which was automatically given by the software system of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. As a result, the deviation of the measurement is greater. According to analyzing the measuring condition of strontium, a method was given for reducing the count rate by reducing the measuring power of strontium, thus achieving the goal of measurement. When sulfate was measured with pressed powder sample, the results were enhanced with the increase in measuring number. In light of this ...
G. Vankó, P. Glatzel, V. Pham, R. Abela, D. Grolimund, C. N. Borca, S. L. Johnson, C. Milne, W. Gawelda, A. Galler, and C. Bressler, Time-Resolved X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy, in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper TuD3 ...
The present study was conducted to (i) determine the precision and accuracy of arsenic measurement in soil samples using ST-EDXRF by comparison with the results of ICP-MS analyses and (ii) identify the relationship of As concentration with soil characteristics. For the analysis of samples, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) were performed. According to the results found in the soil samples, the addition of HCl to HNO3, used for the digestion gave significant variations in the recovery of As. However, spectral interferences between peaks for As and Pb can affect detection limits and accuracy for XRF analysis. When comparing the XRF and ICP-MS results a correlation was observed with R2 = 0.8414. This means that using a ST-EDXRF spectrometer, it is possible to achieve accurate and precise analysis by the calibration of certified reference materials and choosing an appropriate secondary target. On the other hand, with ...
|span style=font-weight: bold;|Horizon|/span| is the new Benchtop Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (TXRF) for multi elemental qualitative and quantitative analyses for major constituents and ultra-trace in suspension as well as liquid samples, manufactured by GNR. Verify the new product page here |link products/x-ray-fluorescence/horizon/|http://www.gnr.it/products/x-ray-fluorescence/horizon/|/link| 
This study discloses a method for quickly qualitatively detecting the phosphorus element for fireworks and firecrackers based on energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF), including the following steps: preparation of samples, establishment of detection methods, determination of the characteristic line fluorescence intensity values of Sb element in samples. The method of the study has the advantages that: (1) the method is simple to operate, and the method can be repeatedly called for testing. Only one new test method needs to be built before the sample test. After the method is established, the test can be repeated at different times without re-establishing the test method for each test. After the first establishment of the new test method, the entire test process only includes three steps: sample preparation, sample loading into the sample cup and on-board testing. (2) The detection period is extremely short. After the sample is prepared, the entire measurement process takes ...
The electrodeposition of FeNi alloy films was performed galvanostatically in the sulfate solution (Fe2+/Ni2+ mass ratio 1:2) in order investigate their co-deposition mechanism. The FeNi layers were deposited at variable substrates (copper, brass, silver) under the same chemical (electrolyte composition) and electric plating (current density value) conditions. After applying various time, substrates and external magnetic field orientation, the quality of the obtained film was examined. The surface morphology and crystallographic texture variation were investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope (LCSM). The anomalous co-deposition of iron group metals is evidently dependent on the substrate.
misc{ecc82857-fb61-4074-a7eb-b66b46ce0ed0, author = {Ahlberg, Mats and Akselsson, Roland and Johansson, Gerd and Johansson, Thomas B and Malmqvist, Klas}, keyword = {thick samples,particle induced X-ray emission,PIXE}, language = {eng}, title = {Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Applied to Thick Samples}, year = {1975 ...
China Med-D-Jy10 10mA Portable X-ray Unit, Find details about China Portable X-ray Unit, 10mA X-ray Macjhine from Med-D-Jy10 10mA Portable X-ray Unit - Guangzhou Med Equipment Co., Ltd.
Due to the excellent selectivity and precision, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is the ideal technique for monitoring TaNx films.
The S8 DRAGON is a truly simultaneous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer for precise, high-speed elemental analysis for process control in metal production and foundries.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate carbon based molecular materials at first principles levels. Special attention has been paid to simulations of X-ray spectroscopies, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron, and X-ray emission spectroscopy, which can provide detailed information about core, occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals of the systems under investigation. Theoretical calculations have helped to assign fine spectral structures in high resolution NEXAFS spectra of five azabenzenes (pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine and s-triazine), and to identify different local chemical environments among them. With the help of NEXAFS, the characters of important chemical bonds that might be responsible for the unique magnetic properties of the tetracyanoethylene compound has been revealed. Calculations have demonstrated that X-ray spectroscopies are powerful tools for isomer identification and structure determination of fullerenes and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tracer analysis of tumor by proton-induced X-ray spectroscopy. AU - Ishii, K.. AU - Kamiya, M.. AU - Sera, K.. AU - Morita, S.. AU - Chu, T. C.. AU - Matsuzawa, T.. AU - Shishido, F.. AU - Tawara, H.. PY - 1976/10/1. Y1 - 1976/10/1. N2 - Small amounts of Ga, Yb, and Tl were injected into rats implanted with several kinds of tumor. Samples of liver, serum, brain and tumor, taken out from these rats, were bombarded by 3.5 MeV protons and the induced X-rays were analysed using a Si(Li) detector. Absolute concentrations of these elements taken up by these tissues were determined referring to a known concentration of doped uranium. Some concentration of elements and species of tumor are found.. AB - Small amounts of Ga, Yb, and Tl were injected into rats implanted with several kinds of tumor. Samples of liver, serum, brain and tumor, taken out from these rats, were bombarded by 3.5 MeV protons and the induced X-rays were analysed using a Si(Li) detector. Absolute concentrations of ...
Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify the total amount of trace elements in retina from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6). Concentration of trace elements within individual retinal areas in frozen sections of the fellow eye was established with the use of two methodologies: (1) particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with 3D depth profiling with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and (2) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy. The most abundant metal in the retina was zinc, followed by iron and copper. Nickel, manganese, chromium, cobalt, selenium and cadmium were present in very small amounts. The PIXE and SXRF analysis yielded a non-homogenous pattern distribution of metals in the retina. Relatively high levels of zinc were found in the inner part of the photoreceptor inner segments (RIS)/outer limiting membrane (OLM), inner nuclear layer and plexiform layers. Iron was found to accumulate in the retinal ...
This one-hour webinar will demonstrate the use of Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy in biopharmaceutical production, clinical testing and academic research. It will highlight the ease-of-use and suitability for routine monitoring and research investigations.. This webinar will give you an overview of trace element analysis of cell culture media in biopharmaceutical production. During the second part the analysis of minute amounts of protein samples and blood serum from mice and the benefits for biomedicine and biochemical research will be described.. Whether you are interested in modern analytical technologies without complex lab installation requirements, low operation and maintenance costs, this webinar will give you the information you need on the capabilities of the TXRF technique.. ...
Austin, TX- February 17, 2017. Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc. has published a new application report that describes the utility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) in academia for teaching and basic research. Rigaku Application Note EDXRF 1654 details useful topics for teaching including principles of X-ray fluorescence, spectra and quantitative comparisons, empirical calibration and use of Fundamental Parameters. 1074189568
The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the
The development of iron granules in honey-bee tissues was investigated using both anatomical and analytical methods. Iron granules are present only in the trophocytes of post-eclosion adults and have the same elemental composition as those in foraging adults. The granules increase in both size and number during ageing. Iron levels in developing worker honey-bees were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. The rate of iron accumulation was directly related to iron levels in the diet, and the iron can be obtained from pollen and honey, both major food sources of the bee. In adults, the iron content of the fat body reached a maximum level (2.4 +/− 0.15 micrograms mg-1 tissue), regardless of the amount of iron available for ingestion. Maximal iron levels are reached at the time when honey-bee workers commence foraging behaviour, suggesting that iron granules may play a role in orientation. Alternatively, accumulation of iron in granules may be a method of maintaining iron ...
Abstract With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam-sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors-namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge-that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample, in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2-5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces ...
The report summarizes the initial work conducted on the rock art pigments for important, primarily Chumash Indian, sites in the vicinity of California. The purpose of this study was the analysis of fifteen red and yellow pigment samples by polarized light microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy energy dispersive. Further work concerning the characterization of these pigments was carried out by X-ray diffraction and the pigments were primarily identified as red ochres and yellow ochres. X-ray powder diffraction work was carried out on a number of the pigment microsamples with the result that many of them proved to be admixtures of quartz and haematite. Components such as goethite or lepidocrocite were comparatively less common in this material suggesting that the source of the pigment was either a relatively pure haematite or that some conversion to haematite had been deliberately created. Common impurities from the Santa Barbara Channel Island areas include albite or ...
The MESA-7220 is based on the latest advances in Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technology. It utilizes a proprietary X-ray optical technology and produces a polarized, monochromatic X-ray source. This approach is critical for a user to achieve an ultra low noise background for the best limits of detection for sulfur and chlorine. This provides excellent performance at high concentration (multiple wt.% levels), simultaneous multi-element analysis and applicability over a wide range of sample types, and excellent low ppm capabilities.. *Available in the Americas. For additional information, please contact us. ...
Austin, TX - June 11, 2013. Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc. today announced a new empirical method for the analysis of finished cement. Application Note #1273 demonstrates the capabilities of the Rigaku NEX QC+ energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for quality control during the cement production process. The report includes complete information regarding sample preparation, method calibration and repeatability. 2012675269
Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc., a division of Rigaku Corporation, announced the global introduction of the new Rigaku NEX OL on-line process elemental analyzer at the 64th annual Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (Pittcon 2013) held March 17 - 21, 2013 at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ART also introduced a new compact benchtop energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyzer, the Rigaku NEX QC+, at PittCon.
B568 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thickness by X-Ray Spectrometry. B890 Standard Test Method for Determination of Metallic Constituents of Tungsten Alloys and Tungsten Hardmetals by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. B953 Standard Practice for Sampling Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys for Spectrochemical Analysis. B954 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys by Atomic Emission Spectrometry. B985 Standard Practice for Sampling Aluminum Ingots, Billets, Castings and Finished or Semi-Finished Wrought Aluminum Products for Compositional Analysis. C125 Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates. C1109 Standard Practice for Analysis of Aqueous Leachates from Nuclear Waste Materials Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. C1111 Standard Test Method for Determining Elements in Waste Streams by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. C1254 Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium in Mineral ...
Prof. Dr. Serena DeBeer. Ex situ and in situ advanced X-ray spectroscopic approaches will be utilized in Project B6 to characterize spinel-based oxidation catalysts. Using X-ray emission spectroscopy time-resolved element-specific changes in the electronic structure of a catalyst will be tracked. Furthermore, two-dimensional resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy will be applied to specifically select for a metal and conclude on its oxidation state, d-to-d excitations and/or site symmetry.. ...
Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS) in combination with micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) are powerful tools for spatially resolved micro-scale investigations of retention processes in heterogeneous systems. We have successfully applied these techniques in the investigations of uptake processes in argillaceous rocks and hardened cement paste. Here one of the essential questions is On what mineral phase or phases is sorption occurring in the complex mineral assemblage? and Is it the same phase(s) assumed in the modeling? In some cases minor minerals may well be important. Furthermore, we were able to shine light into the alkali-aggregate reaction, which is a severe alteration process limiting the lifetime of concrete structures exposed to water or moisture ...
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A method is described, employing as the sample bottom mud from Linsley Pond, North Branford, Connecticut, for the determination of all detectable exchangeable cations lying between lithium and uranium on the periodic table. Dried (48 h 110°C) and ground (200 mesh) lake mud samples are leached successively with IN, ,i,p,/i,H 6.9 ammonium acetate. Another set of similarly prepared samples are leached with doubly distilled deionized water. The leachate is made up to 100 ml. This volume is then added to a beaker containing two grams of terephthalic acid. The liquid is evaporated on to the water-insoluble terephthalic acid. The dried material is ground and pressed into a pellet. Another set of samples is treated in a similar fashion except that methyl cellulose is used as a substrate. The advantages and disadvantages of the two substrates are discussed. The pressed pellets containing the absorbed detectable exchangeable cations are examined with a G. E. x-ray emission spectroscope for those elements ...
The electronic structures of complex systems have been studied by theoretical calculations of soft x-ray spectroscopies like x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray emission spectroscopies. A new approach based on time dependent density functional theory has been developed for the calculation of shake-up satellites associated with photoelectron spectra. This method has been applied to the phthalocyanine molecule, describing in detail its electronic structure, and revealing the origin of controversial experimental features. It is illustrated in this thesis that the theoretical intepretation plays a fundamental role in the full understanding of experimental spectra of large and complex molecular systems. Soft x-ray spectroscopies and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies have proved to be powerful tools for isomer identification, in the study of newly synthesized fullerene molecules, the azafullerene C48N12 and the C50Cl10 molecule, as well as for ...
The electronic structures of complex systems have been studied by theoretical calculations of soft x-ray spectroscopies like x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray emission spectroscopies. A new approach based on time dependent density functional theory has been developed for the calculation of shake-up satellites associated with photoelectron spectra. This method has been applied to the phthalocyanine molecule, describing in detail its electronic structure, and revealing the origin of controversial experimental features. It is illustrated in this thesis that the theoretical intepretation plays a fundamental role in the full understanding of experimental spectra of large and complex molecular systems. Soft x-ray spectroscopies and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies have proved to be powerful tools for isomer identification, in the study of newly synthesized fullerene molecules, the azafullerene C48N12 and the C50Cl10 molecule, as well as for ...
The element-specific valence- and conduction-band densities of states for the high-dielectric-material CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 have been measured using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. Ti L a , b ,Cu L a , b , and O K soft x-ray emission spectra of CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 were measured with monochromatic photon excitation on selected energies above the Ti and Cu L 2,3 and O K absorption edges, respectively. X-ray absorption spectra were recorded at the same edges. The electronic structure was also calculated using density functional theory employing the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Excellent agreement is seen between the results of these calculations and the measured x-ray emission and absorption spectra. This agreement is particularly good at the O K edge where the resonant behavior of the x-ray emission spectrum can be attributed directly to s - and p -state emission from valence-band O 2 p states when in resonance with p * and s * conduction-band O 2... ...
Bismuth complex oxides, in particular, bismuth tungstate, have recently attracted attention as promising photocatalytic materials for water treatment processes. In the present work, photocatalytic bismuth tungstate films were prepared by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering of Bi and W targets in an Ar/O2 atmosphere onto spherically-shaped glass beads. The uniform coverage of the substrate was enabled by the use of oscillating bowl placed underneath the magnetrons. The atomic ratio of Bi/W was varied through the variation of the power applied to the magnetrons. The deposited coatings were analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the films were studied via the methylene blue (MB) degradation process under artificial (fluorescent light) and natural (sunlight) irradiation, and compared to the photocatalytic
Although the content of Mg2+ in hard tissues is very low (typically 1.5wt%), its incorporation into synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles and its role in the minerals properties are still subject of intensive debate. A combined experimental-computational approach is used to answer many of the open questions. Mg2+-enriched HAp particles are prepared using different synthetic approaches and considering different concentrations of Mg2+ in the reaction medium. The composition, morphology and structure of the resulting particles are investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, FTIR, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. After this scrutiny, the role of the Mg2+ in the first nucleation stages, before HAp formation, is investigated using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Saturated solutions are simulated with and without the presence of DNA, which has been recently used as a soft template in the ...
The soft x-ray emission from plasma produced in polyacetal and polyethylene capillary discharges excited by current pulses 100 ns full-width half-maximum (FWHM), 50 ns risetime, and peak currents up to 60 kA has been studied. Time-resolved spectra show that intense Cᴠɪ line emission dominates in the polyethylene discharges, peaking shortly after the maximum of the current and vanishing before the end of the current pulse. Polyacetal capillary spectra are dominated by Oᴠɪ lines and show weak Cᴠɪ emission. Plasma density and temperature for the polyethylene discharge were derived from the Stark ...
Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3 was applied to modify the surface and to tailor the diameter of nanochannels in etched ion-track polycarbonate membranes. The homogeneity, conformity, and composition of the coating inside the nanochannels are investigated for different channel diameters (18-55 nm) and film thicknesses (5-22 nm). Small angle x-ray scattering before and after ALD demonstrates conformal coating along the full channel length. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy provide evidence of nearly stoichiometric composition of the different coatings. By wet-chemical methods, the ALD-deposited film is released from the supporting polymer templates providing 30 μm long self-supporting nanotubes with walls as thin as 5 nm. Electrolytic ion-conductivity measurements provide proof-of-concept that combining ALD coating with ion-track nanotechnology offers promising perspectives for single-pore applications by controlled ...
Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) are designed for the sustainable industrial production of uniform isotropic components with three-dimensional magnetic properties. The nanocoating covering the surface of water-atomized iron powder is the paramount feature of SMC technology that gives the material the high resistivity needed for minimizing the negative effects of eddy currents. An analysis of its initial state/composition on a micro level and any changes during further compaction and heat treatment is thus of great importance. Therefore, a method for the evaluation of composition and thickness of such insulating coatings was developed in this study. High resolution imaging combined with surface analytical and depth profiling techniques (high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) were used. Analyses were performed on commercially available SMC powder grades having a phosphate-based coating. Depth profiling was
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to quantify 36 inorganic chemical elements in aerosols from disposable electronic cigarettes (ECs) and electronic hookahs (EHs), examine the effect of puffing topography on elements in aerosols, and identify the source of the elements. METHODS: Thirty-six inorganic chemical elements and their concentrations in EC/EH aerosols were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and their source was identified by analyzing disassembled atomizers using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: Of 36 elements screened, 35 were detected in EC/EH aerosols, while only 15 were detected in conventional tobacco smoke. Some elements/metals were present in significantly higher concentrations in EC/EH aerosol than in cigarette smoke. Concentrations of particular elements/metals within EC/EH brands were sometimes variable. Aerosols generated at low and high air-flow rates produced the same pattern of elements, although ...
In this article we report about the synthesis of superparamagnetic bare Fe₃O₄ nanostructures and core/shell (Fe₃O₄/alginate) nanocomposites by simple low-temperature based method at pH values 5, 9, and 14. The structural morphology and magnetic behavior of Fe₃O₄ nanostructures and core/shell (Fe₃O₄/alginate) nanocomposites (Fe₃O₄/alg NCs) have been investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The particle size was calculated by TEM measurements and it turns out to be ∼10nm and ∼14nm for bare Fe₃O₄ nanoparticle and Fe₃O₄/alg NCs with core/shell structure, respectively. The magnetic properties of the synthesized products were found to be function of pH at which the synthesis has been done. The synthesized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticle ...
The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by microorganisms is an area attracting growing interest in nanobiotechnology, due to the applications of these nanoparticles in various products including cosmetics and biosensors, and in the biomedical, clinical, and bioimaging fields as well. Various microorganisms have been found to be able to synthesize AgNPs when silver salts are supplied in the reaction system. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of synthesis of AgNPs by the strain Bacillus methylotrophicus DC3, isolated from the soil of Korean ginseng, a traditionally known oriental medicinal plant in Korea. The AgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416 nm, when assayed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The field emission transmission electron micrograph (FE-TEM) results showed that the particles were spherical and 10-30 nm in size. In addition, the product was also characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which displayed a 3 keV peak
We report on the plume dynamics of the plasma induced by laser ablation of a swine skeletal muscle tissue sample in different vacuum conditions. Pulses from a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser were focused onto a target sample and the induced plasma was allowed to expand in different air pressures. The expansion features were studied using fast photography of the overall visible emission by using a gated intensified charged coupled device. Free expansion and plume splitting were observed at different pressure levels. The expansion of the plasma plume front was analyzed using various expansion models and the velocity of the plume front was estimated. The effect of the number of accumulated laser shots on the crater volume at different ambient air pressures and an elemental analysis of the sample were performed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The surface morphology of the irradiated surface showed that increasing the pressure ...
In this research, TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by anodized oxidation method and were covered with a hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles using photodeposition and dip coating for loading silver nanoparticles and coated hydroxyapatite (HA). The morphological texture of TiO2 nanotube and Ag-HA nanoparticles on TiO2 nanotubes surface were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX analysis) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MCF-7 cell lines were treated with concentrations 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml of TiO2 nanotubes and HA/Ag/TiO2 nanotube for 24 and 48h. Finally, the cell viability and IC50% were evaluated using MTT assay. The results show that the HA/Ag/TiO2 has more positive effect on enhancing the cell death compare to TiO2 nanotubes and also exerts a time and concentration-dependent inhibition effect on viability of MCF-7 cells
Electroless deposition of Ni-P-Al2O3 and Ni-P-TiO2, in the presence of gluconate as a complexing agent, on copper substrates was studied. The dependence of the composite formation on different plating variables was investigated. The deposited coatings were characterized using different techniques, including energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hardness and corrosion resistance testing. The amount of particles incorporated in the coatings increased with increasing particle concentration in the bath. However, the particle size greatly affected the amount incorporated. The addition of these particles changed the microstructure of the Ni-matrix, and enhanced the hardness and corrosion resistance.
The N K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the purine-containing nucleotide, guanosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate (GMP), in aqueous solution are measured under various pH conditions. The spectra show characteristic peaks, which originate from resonant excitations of N 1s electrons to π* orbitals inside the guanine moiety of GMP. The relative intensities of these peaks depend on the pH values of the solution. The pH dependence is explained by the core-level shift of N atoms at specific sites caused by protonation and deprotonation. The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical spectra calculated by using density functional theory for GMP and the other purine-containing nucleotides, adenosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate, and adenosine 5{sup ′}-triphosphate. The N K-edge XANES spectra for all of these nucleotides are classified by the numbers of N atoms with particular chemical bonding characteristics in the purine moiety. ...
In situ time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements are applied to track the phase transition processes of LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which is one of the most promising positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries with its high redox potential
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of ammonia formation on Rh(111) studied by dispersive near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. AU - Nagasaka, Masanari. AU - Kondoh, Hiroshi. AU - Amemiya, Kenta. AU - Nakai, Ikuyo. AU - Shimada, Toru. AU - Yokota, Reona. AU - Ohta, Toshiaki. PY - 2010/2/11. Y1 - 2010/2/11. N2 - The reaction mechanism of ammonia formation on a Rh(111) surface was investigated by means of dispersive near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (dispersive-NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Nitrogen-covered Rh(111) surfaces were exposed to gaseous hydrogen (1.0-5.0 × 10-7 Torr) at constant surface temperatures (330-390 K) to form ammonia which desorbs immediately from the surface. Continuous data acquisition of nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra enables us to monitor coverage changes of surface species during the progress of the reaction. The obtained NEXAFS spectra were well reproduced by summation of the standard spectra for N and NH. We found that the NH species, which is considered as a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy investigation of cadmium sorption on cryptomelane (KMn8O16). AU - Randall, SR. AU - Sherman, DM. AU - Ragnarsdottir, KV. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 151. SP - 95. EP - 106. JO - Chemical Geology. JF - Chemical Geology. SN - 0009-2541. ER - ...
x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) x-ray x ray detector x ray centers in hyderabad x pole xpert dance pole x pole x frame banner stand x banner stands x banner stand x back chair x X-ray navigation X-ray microtomography X-ray emission spectroscopy X-ray emission X-ray cross section X-ray absorption spectroscopy X-ray absorption near-edge structure X-ray Physics X-ray Microscopy X-ray Diffractometry (PXRD) X-ray CT X-ray Binaries X-ray Analysis X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) X-pinch X-machines X-linked mental retardation X-inactivation X-band Radar X-Ray Optics X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy X-Ray Bursters X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (in Materials C X-Men (Marvel Comics) X-Group X-FEM X ray Inspection X ray Imaging X ray Fluorescence X ray Film X ray Equipment X ray Diffraction X ray Computed Tomography X ray Absorption X chromosome inactivation X chromosomal Inactivation X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X Ray Photoelectron X Ray Microscope X Ray Market X Ray Devices X Ray
Obtaining exact information about the chemical composition, morphology, and crystal habit of different materials is of major importance in materials science. Classical methods unveiling morphological information include scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (1), whereas chemical information about the materials is obtained by different techniques such as x-ray absorption near-edge structure (2, 3), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (4, 5), Raman, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in SEM. A more sophisticated and costly method for a comprehensive chemical analysis of bulk material is the use of nuclear physics techniques such as particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma emission (PIGE) techniques, either driven by a conventional (6) or laser-based accelerator (7). Recently, we introduced an alternative method suitable to assess the chemical composition, crystal ...
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). -EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) for determination of metal site fine structures (metal-metal and metal-ligand distances at ~0.02 Å resolution, chemical nature and number of metal ligands).. -XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) for determination of metal oxidation state and site geometry. ...read more, for example here or here X-ray absorption linear dichroism spectroscopy (XALDS) for determination of orientations of interatomic vectors within, for example, the protein matrix, in crystals and partially oriented systems (such as proteins in biological membranes). ...read more, for example here or here. XAS under elevated gas pressure ...read more, for example here. X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) for probing metal oxidation state, spin state, site geometry, electronic configuration, ligand structures, etc. ...read more, for example here or here. Time-resolved XAS/XES to follow structural changes and redox transitions at metal ...
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D5673 Standard Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. D5907 Standard Test Methods for Filterable Matter (Total Dissolved Solids) and Nonfilterable Matter (Total Suspended Solids) in Water. D6247 Standard Test Method for Determination of Elemental Content of Polyolefins by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. D7237 Standard Test Method for Free Cyanide and Aquatic Free Cyanide with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) Utilizing Gas Diffusion Separation and Amperometric Detection. D7847 Standard Guide for Interlaboratory Studies for Microbiological Test Methods. E37 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Pig Lead. E53 Standard Test Method for Determination of Copper in Unalloyed Copper by Gravimetry. E314 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Manganese in Iron Ores by Pyrophosphate Potentiometry and Periodate Spectrophotometry Techniques. E353 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Stainless, Heat-Resisting, Maraging, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local structure of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles studied by Co K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. AU - Maugeri, L.. AU - Iadecola, A.. AU - Joseph, B.. AU - Simonelli, L.. AU - Olivi, L.. AU - Okubo, M.. AU - Honma, I.. AU - Wadati, H.. AU - Mizokawa, T.. AU - Saini, N. L.. PY - 2012/8/22. Y1 - 2012/8/22. N2 - We have studied the local structure of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles by Co K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a function of particle size. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure data reveal substantial changes in the near neighbor distances and the associated mean square relative displacements with decreasing particle size. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra show clear local geometrical changes with decreasing particle size, similar to those that appear in the charging (delithiation) process. The results suggest that the LiCoO 2 nanoparticles are characterized by a large atomic disorder confined to the Co-O octahedra, similar to the distortions generated during the ...
Last week, Frank Brenker and his colleagues Bart Vekemans, Laszlo Vincze, and Manfred Burghammer analyzed the first track to be extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Collector. We suspected that this is a particle that was ejected from an impact of a high-velocity particle (either an interplanetary dust particle or an interstellar dust particle) on the port (left-side) aft solar panel. We thought that this would be the case for two reasons. We mainly based this expectation on the trajectory - it appears to be pointing back to the aft solar panel - but also on the track shape - it does not show the shock-induced flaring that one usually sees with hypervelocity impacts. Dr. Brenker and colleagues used a highly focussed x-ray beam at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. ESRF is essentially an x-ray microscope the size of a shopping mall. The incredibly tight focus of this beam (about a tenth of a micron!) is ideal for the analysis of these very tiny samples. ...
X-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the photon emission and absorption associated with the Ce 3d5/2 and Ce 3d3/2 core levels in Ce oxide. A comparison of the two processes and their spectra will be made.
Polarization-dependent grazing incidence X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were completed on oriented single crystals of magnesite [MgCO3] and brucite [Mg(OH)2] reacted with aqueous uranyl chloride above and below the solubility boundaries of schoepite (500, 50, and 5 ppm) at pH 8.3 and at ambient (PCO2 = 10-3.5) or reduced partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2 = 10-4.5). X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra show a striking polarization dependence ( = 0° and  = 90° relative to the polarization plane of the incident beam) and consistently demonstrated that the uranyl molecule was preferentially oriented with its Oaxial=U(VI)=Oaxial linkage at high angles (60-80º) to both magnesite () and brucite (0001). Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis shows that the effective number of U(VI) axial oxygens is the most strongly affected fitting parameter as a function of polarization. Furthermore, axial tilt in the surface thin films (thickness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anatase-TiO2 nanomaterials. T2 - Morphological/size dependence of the crystallization and phase behavior phenomena. AU - Fernández-García, Marcos. AU - Wang, Xianqin. AU - Belver, Carolina. AU - Hanson, Jonathan C.. AU - Rodriguez, José A.. PY - 2007/1/18. Y1 - 2007/1/18. N2 - Nanoparticulated TiO2 materials with anatase structure were synthesized by using a microemulsion method. Three different syntheses with varying surfactant-to-water molar ratio (CD) were used to obtain amorphous solid precipitates at room temperature. The structural characteristics of these solid precursors were studied by using X-ray absorption structure (X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and Raman spectroscopies, which showed that all lack 3D (tridimensional) order but contain a different degree of 2D-confmed connectivity. While heating such solid precursors under dry air, marked differences appeared in the phase behavior; the onset temperature for ...
The main objective of this paper was to study the morphology, composition and chemical state of coatings based on titanium nitride obtained using the condensation method with ion bombardment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyse the structure and composition of the coatings produced at different formation times.. It was determined that coatings formed at different times still have a sufficiently close chemical composition and contain titanium nitride (TiN), titanium oxynitride (TiNxO1-x), titanium oxide (TiOx) and titanium carbide (TiC). The paper demonstrates that the increase in the formation time of coatings leads to a decrease in the proportion of carbon in the amorphous state and an increase in the fraction of carbon which is a part of titanium carbides. In the composition of coatings formed in 15 and 50 minutes, the fraction of carbon chemically bonded to titanium differs by a factor ...
Introduction: Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is a member of the family of calcium phosphates (CP), which has many uses in bone cement. Recently, graphene and its derivatives have been studied to increase the biological and mechanical properties of CP structures and their results have been satisfactory. Objective: In this study, the main objective is to investigate the physical properties of GO/DCPD powders, which has been synthesized via a simple precipitation method. Material and Methods: Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were used as a precursor for DCPD synthesis. DCPD was precipitated in the presence of graphene oxide. The powders obtained after washing and drying were evaluated. The analysis performed in the sample includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope
Large scale hexagonal ZnMgO nanowire array and network with tunable shapes has been successfully synthesized on solid Si substrate, and flexible substrates (Au and Pd coated plastic substrates) using low temperature hydrothermal synthesis technique. The diameters of the nanowires have been controlled in the range of 150-200 nm. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies and orientations of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to determine the structural and optical properties of the as-grown nanowire architectures. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicates that the Mg concentration in the ZnMgO nanowires can reach ~2-5 atomic percent. To confirm the alloying process of Mg into ZnO and its distribution during the growth process, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy
For the first time, using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure X-ray diffraction, it is showed that MnCO3, MnWO4, Mn3(PO4)2·3H2O, MnS and Mn(VO3)2·xH2O under the water-oxidation conditions and in the presenc
A fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated with a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was fabricated and characterized. A method to overcoat the LPFGs with a homogeneous ZnO thin films was developed. Characterization of ZnO thin films, deposited simultaneously on silicon (Si) planar substrates, was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The LPFGs with ZnO coatings from 29 to 145 nm of thickness were characterized and compared in terms of the wavelength shift and the intensity of the attenuation bands changing the surrounding refractive index (SRI) from 1.300 to 1.600. An average wavelength sensitivity of similar to 7162 nm/RIU was achieved in the RI range from 1.440 to 1.456 and more than 12,000 nm/RIU at 1.440 RI. Using a ZnO film thickness of 116 nm and in the RI region between 1.320 and 1.360 the average sensitivity of similar to 806 nm/RIU was measured for a 145 nm ...
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 2014 at 4:30pm at the Environmental Science Center (21 Sachem Street, 1st Floor, Lecture Hall 110). Abstract: The UNESCO world heritage site, Mogao caves near Dunhuang, is a Buddhist temple site along the ancient Silk Road with a history that extends over 1000 years from the 4th C to the 14th C. The 45,000 square metres of wall paintings in 492 caves are an immense resource for the study of the history of art, architecture, religion, technology, politics and cultural exchange along the Silk Road. In this talk, we show an example of a systematic in situ study of the wall paintings using a range of non-invasive optical imaging and spectroscopic instruments. Microfade spectrometry, PRISMS (the remote 3D spectral imaging system), hand-held X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) will all be discussed. This talk demonstrates through examples how a combination of non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic methods can yield a wealth of ...
The one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) and their derivatives have been extensively studied due to their wide applications, such as photocatalysts, solar cell, paints and so on. Since TiO2 has a wide band gap (~3.0 eV), its photo-absorption as the photocatalyst only occurs in the UV region that wastes mostly solar energy. Therefore, the solution to higher photocatalytic efficiency has been sought for some time. This thesis presents a study of the size-dependent phase transitions of TiO2 NTs using synchrotron-based X-ray techniques. The chemical environment including local symmetry and the luminescence origin of the TiO2 NTs can be tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) technique. As a result, the anatase-to-rutile transition highly depended on the sizes of NTs with the same annealing treatment. Additionally, the shortest NTs require a lower temperature to start the amorphous-to-anatase transition.
The treatment of chromium tanned sheepskins with poly(hydroxyl urethane) and dispersion of chemically synthesized nanosilver showed the best resistance to fungi and bacterial exposure tests. These collagen-based materials containing different amounts of nanosilver were investigated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The influence of sheepskins treated with silver nanoparticles on the wound healing process was assessed and the nanoparticles concentration seems to have a positive effect up to 370 ppm and does not influence the inflammatory process above this concentration ...
To address one of the serious problems associated with permanent implants, namely bacterial infections, novel organic/inorganic coatings containing zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are proposed. Coatings were obtained by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on stainless steel 316L. Different deposition conditions namely: deposition times in the range 60-300 s and applied voltage in the range 5-30 V as well as developing a layered coating approach were studied. Antibacterial tests against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Salmonella enteric bacteria confirmed the activity of nZnO to prevent bacterial growth. Coatings composition and morphology were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, the corrosion resistance was analyzed by evaluation of the polarization curves in DMEM at 37 °C, and it was found that coatings containing nZnO increased the corrosion ...
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in most organisms but has to be carefully handled since there is a thin line between beneficial and toxic concentrations. Many bacteria have the ability to reduce selenite (Se(IV)) and (or) selenate (Se(VI)) to red elemental selenium that is less toxic. A strictly aerobic bacterium, Comamonas testosteroni S44, previously isolated from metal(loid)-contaminated soil in southern China, reduced Se(IV) to red selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm. Both energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS) and EDS Elemental Mapping showed no element Se and SeNPs were produced inside cells whereas Se(IV) was reduced to red-colored selenium in the cytoplasmic fraction in presence of NADPH. Tungstate inhibited Se(VI) but not Se(IV) reduction, indicating the Se(IV)-reducing determinant does not contain molybdenum as co-factor. Strain S44 was resistant to multiple heavy and transition metal(loid)s such as Se(IV), As(III), Cu(II), and Cd(II)
There is little information on in situ distribution of nutrient elements in N 2-fixing nodules.The aim of this study was to quantify elemental distribution in tissue components of N 2-fixing nodules harvested from Psoralea pinnata plants grown naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos. The data obtained from particle-induced X-ray emission revealed the occurrence of 20 .... [PDF ...
Maintaining or regenerating a vital pulp is a preferable goal in current endodontic research. In this study, human dental pulp cell aggregates (spheres) were applied onto bovine and human root canal models to evaluate their potential use as pre-differentiated tissue units for dental pulp tissue regeneration. Human dental pulp cells (DPC) were derived from wisdom teeth, cultivated into three-dimensional cell spheres and seeded onto bovine and into human root canals. Sphere formation, tissue-like and mineralization properties as well as growth behavior of cells on dentin structure were evaluated by light microscopy (LM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Spheres and outgrown cells showed tissue-like properties, the ability to merge with other cell spheres and extra cellular matrix formation; CLSM investigation revealed a dense network of actin and focal adhesion contacts (FAC) inside the spheres and a pronounced
Core-shell nanostructures are emerging as more important materials than alloy nanostructures and have much more interesting potential applications in various fields. In this work, we demonstrated the fast and facile synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles consisting of Pt thin layer as the shell and Ni nanoparticles as the cores. The described method herein is suitable for large-scale and low-cost production of the core-shell nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the physicochemical characterizations. Importantly, the catalytic activity of [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles was probed to develop electrocatalyst in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). This electrocatalyst was applied to ethanol oxidation reaction for first time. Thus, the electrocatalytic activity of the [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles towards ethanol oxidation reaction has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry
Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) show higher strength and lower Youngs modulus than Ti-6Al-4V alloy and SUS 316L stainless steel. This study aimed to perform in vivo evaluations of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs for osteosynthesis devices. In the study for intramedullary implants, osteotomies of the femoral bones were performed in male Wistar rats and were stabilized with Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel intramedullary nails for 12 weeks. In the study for bone surface implants, Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs ribbons were implanted on the femur surface for 6 weeks. Local effects on the surrounding soft tissues of the implanted BMGs were assessed by histological observation. Implanted materials surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). In the study for intramedullary implants, bone healing after osteotomy was assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and mechanical tests. Histological
Faceted colloidal nanoparticles are currently of immense interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. However, continuous flow synthesis that enables rapid formation of faceted nanoparticles of single or multi-elemental composition is not trivial. We present a continuous flow synthesis route for the synthesis of uniformly sized Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell nanoparticles in a single-phase microfluidic reactor, which enables rapid formation of shaped nanoparticles with a reaction time of 3 min. The PdPt core-shell nanoparticles feature a dendritic, high surface area with the Pt shell covering the Pd core, as verified using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell particles are catalytically tested during NO2 reduction in the presence of H2 in a flow pocket reactor. The Pd nanocubes exhibited low-temperature activity (i.e., <136 °C) and poor selectivity performance toward
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) synthesis was carried out via a microbial-mediated biological route and impregnated on propolis-loaded silk sutures using an in situ process. silk sutures fabricated with propolis and biosynthesized AgNPs (bioAgNP-propolis coated sutures) were intensively characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Antibacterial characteristics of the bioAgNP-propolis coated sutures was evaluated using agar plate method. Biocompatibility of the bioAgNP-propolis coated sutures was evaluated using 3T3 fibroblast cells and their wound healing potential was also investigated ...
Evidence of composition fluctuations around threading dislocations at scales ranging from atomic distances to tens of nanometers is provided by z-contrast imaging, strain measurement, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in AlxIn1-x N/GaN heterostructures. The atomic core rings of edge-type dislocations are shown to lie across highly antisymmetric elemental environments, and the indium-rich pit centers of mixed dislocation are found to lie on the tensile side of their atomic core ring. The observed composition fluctuations around pure-edge dislocations are compared with an elastostatic free energy model calculation and a good qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained. Hydrostatic stress is shown to be their principal cause: Tensile stress regions are indium rich and compressive stress regions are aluminum rich. We show that the stress field of a mixed dislocation can impact the composition of the alloy more than a hundred nanometers away from its core. Indium core segregation on pure-screw
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal behavior and viscoelastic properties of gutta-percha used for back-filling the root canal. AU - Hsu, Yung Hao. AU - Wang, Hsin Hui. AU - Shen, Yung Kang. AU - Gutmann, James L.. AU - Hsieh, Sung Chih. N1 - © 2019 Association for Dental Sciences of the Republic of China. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. N2 - Background/purpose: In clinical operations, qualitative differences in the texture and operational feeling of the regular type and soft type back-filled gutta-percha are readily discernible. This study aimed to investigate and compare the thermal behavior and physical properties of the two gutta-percha materials. Materials and methods: The chemical compositions of regular and soft type Gutta-Percha Obturator® pellets were examined via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The thermal behaviors of the pellets during heating and cooling were evaluated using a differential scanning calorimeter. Finally, the viscoelastic properties of ...
Safety and efficacy issues are associated with reprocessing of single-use electrosurgical pencils (EPs), requiring methods for assessing the reprocessing protocol before clinical reuse. This study aimed at monitoring the surface characteristics of single-use EPs subjected to multiple clinical use and in-hospital reprocessing. A total of 24 single-use-labeled EPs were divided in five test groups and one control group. The test groups were subjected to a different number of clinical uses, ranging from one to five. A multitechnique approach based on optical stereomicroscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied. The silicon coating of the tip was significantly reduced, and foreign bodies were occasionally found on reprocessed EPs. The amount of biological debris and chemical residuals increased with the number of reprocessing cycles in critical areas. The ...
The valence states of Mn in mixed-valent layer and tunnel structure manganese dioxides (MnO2), usually referred to as phyllomanganates and tectomanganates, can be measured by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with a precision and accuracy that are difficult to estimate owing to the paucity of well-characterized standards. A compilation of the Mn K-edge XANES spectra of most naturally occurring manganates, synthetic analogs of known structure and chemical composition, and pure-valence phase species is presented and made available as an open source. We intend this compilation to serve as a basis for the spectroscopic determination of the fractions of the Mn 2+, 3+, and 4+ valences in mixed-valent manganates and phase mixtures. The XANES derivatives of tectomanganates and phyllomanganates with no or little Mn3+ in the MnO2 layer exhibit intensities, shapes, and relative energy positions of the main features characteristics of a particular valence composition. For these ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - STEM EDX nitrogen mapping of nanoinclusions in milky diamonds from Juina, Brazil, using a windowless silicon drift detector system. AU - Rudloff-Grund, J.. AU - Brenker, F. E.. AU - Marquardt, K.. AU - Kaminsky, F. V.. AU - Schreiber, A.. PY - 2016/6/7. Y1 - 2016/6/7. N2 - Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with a windowless detector setup allows high-resolution imaging and chemical composition mapping even of light elements present in low concentrations. The used TEM-system combines a field emission electron source with four silicon drift detectors allowing for high detection sensitivity. We used this enhanced system to investigate 20 to 200 nm sized inclusions in milky diamonds from Rio Soriso, Juina area, Brazil. The diamonds act as a chemical inert container and therefore protect their inclusions from further chemical reactions with their surroundings. We visualize the presence and ...
The electronic properties of Au crystal and nano Au have been investigated by theory and experiment. Molecularly capped nano-Au was synthesized using the two-phase method. Au nano-particles have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). They retain the fcc crystal structure. Their sizes have been determined to be in a range from 5.5 nm to 1.7 nm. The L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) of nano-Au and Au foil have been recorded using synchrotron radiation, and examined by theoretical calculation [1] based on the first principles [2,3]. Both theory and experiment show that the nano-Au particles have essentially all the Au L3 XANES features of bulk Au in the near edge region with less pronounced resonance peaks. It is also shown that nano Au exhibits lower 4f binding energy than bulk Au in good agreement with quantum confined Au systems reported previously [3,4].
Eight patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle were examined with CT and MR. In six, surgical resection was performed and the material was subjected to histologic evaluation; the concentrations of trace elements were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission. Stereotaxic aspiration was performed in two. The investigation showed that colloid cysts are often iso- or hypodense relative to brain on CT (5/8), but sometimes have a center of increased density. Increased density did not correlate with increased concentration of calcium or other metals but did not correlate with high cholesterol content. Colloid cysts appear more heterogeneous on MR (6/8) than on CT (3/8), despite a homogeneous appearance at histology. High signal on short TR/TE sequences is correlated with a high cholesterol content. A marked shortening of the T2 relaxation time is often noticed in the central part of the cyst. Analysis of trace elements showed that this phenomenon is not related to the presence of metals ...
SEE PDF Full Length Article Writers: Ariadne C. Catto, Luís F. da Silva, Maria Inês B. Bernardi, Sandrine Bernardini, Khalifa Aguir, Elson Longo, and Valmor R. Mastelaro. Keywords: cobalt; gas sensor; ozone; XANES spectroscopy; XPS; zinc oxide. Abstract: A detailed study of the structural, surface, and gas-sensing properties of nanostructured CoxZn1-xO films is presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a decrease in the crystallization degree with increasing Co content. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) revealed that the Co2+ ions preferentially occupied the Zn2+ sites and that the oxygen vacancy concentration increased as the amount of cobalt increased. Electrical measurements showed that the Co dopants not only enhanced the sensor response at low ozone levels (ca. 42 ppb) but also led to a decrease in the operating temperature and improved selectivity. The enhancement in the gas-sensing properties was attributed to the ...
Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li)-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-is the initial weight and is the weight of the samples at time is the initial weight and is the weight of samples soaking for time t. and composition of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM; S-3400N; Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS; Falcon, New York, USA), respectively. The changes in the ion concentrations (Si, Ca, and P ions) in SBF after soaking the samples at different time points were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (IRIS 1000; Thermo Elemental, Massachusetts, USA). Cell culture MC3T3-E1 cells (ATCC; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China) were cultured with Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium supplemented with glutamine (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), made up of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (Sijiqing, Hangzhou, Peoples ...
Changes in bioavailability of phosphorus (P) during pedogenesis and ecosystem development have been shown for geogenic calcium phosphate (Ca-P). However, very little is known about long-term changes of biogenic Ca-P in soil. Long-term transformation characteristics of biogenic Ca-P were examined using anthropogenic soils along a chronosequence from centennial to millennial time scales. Phosphorus fractionation of Anthrosols resulted in overall consistency with the Walker and Syers model of geogenic Ca-P transformation during pedogenesis. The biogenic Ca-P (e.g., animal and fish bones) disappeared to 3% of total P within the first ca. 2,000 years of soil development. This change concurred with increases in P adsorbed on metal-oxides surfaces, organic P, and occluded P at different pedogenic time. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline and therefore thermodynamically most stable biogenic Ca-P was transformed into more soluble forms ...
Ecosystems throughout the world are experiencing significant biogeochemical perturbation from anthropogenic activities. As one example, manganese (Mn) is enriched in surface soils at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in Pennsylvania due to past atmospheric inputs from industrial sources. At the SSHCZO, large quantities of Mn that are leached from soil components into solution are taken up by vegetation each year; as a result, only relatively small quantities of Mn are transferred from hillslopes into the stream. Here, we combined mass balance models at the containerized seedling (mesocosm) and pedon-scales with synchrotron-source spectroscopies (X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure) to examine Mn geochemistry in the soil-plant system and the impact of vegetation on Mn transport in forested catchments.. Manganese uptake into vegetation exceeded Mn losses in soil leachate, and net Mn loss from soils decreased in the presence of vegetation due to ...
A broad range of chemical reactions are triggered by the absorption of light. Examples include photosynthesis and charge transfer in semiconductors and molecules. Electronic dynamics which evolve on the few femtosecond to attosecond timescale are expected to play an important role in these processes. We aim to investigate these dynamics with transient X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. XANES spectroscopy uses resonant excitation of particular atoms in a molecule to provide a highly localised probe of electronic structure. By employing attosecond soft x-ray pulses generated via high harmonic generation for XANES spectroscopy this atomic scale spatial resolution can in principle be combined with the attosecond temporal resolution required for tracking electronic dynamics. I shall present development of a beamline for transient XANES spectroscopy and progress towards visible pump, soft x-ray probe experiments in the organic polymer poly(hexylthiophene ...
Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, ...