Multiple interspecies differences were detected between humans and seven other mammals in 15 of the 24 metabolites measured in the intact crystalline lens and lens perchloric acid extracts. Generally, the number of statistically significant metabolite differences among the various species, relative to the human, increase in the following order: cat or approximately dog greater than pig greater than rat greater than sheep greater than rabbit greater than cow. ...
We have investigated the relationship between sexual isolation and DNA sequence divergence in the transformation (at locus rpoB) of a naturally competent strain of Bacillus subtilis. Using both genomic DNA and a PCR-amplified segment of gene rpoB as donor, we found that the extent of sexual isolation at locus rpoB was closely predicted, over three orders of magnitude, as a log-linear function of sequence divergence at that locus. Because sexual isolation between a recipient and any potential donor may be determined as a general mathematical function of sequence divergence, transformation is perhaps the only sexual system, in either the prokaryotic or the eukaryotic world, in which sexual isolation can be predicted for a pair of species without having to perform the cross. These observations suggest the possibility of a general approach to the indirect prediction of sexual isolation in bacteria recombining principally by natural transformation. ...
Analysis of the apo hQR1 and mQR1 structures shows that the substrate/nicotinamide binding site is a highly hydrophobic pocket with three potential hydrogen-bonding residues (Tyr-126′, Tyr-128′, and His-161) suitable for binding large quinolic compounds. In the hQR1-DQ structure, DQ is bound to this site by hydrophobic interactions, as well as by a water-mediated (W5) bridge from O4 to His-161. In these structures, C2 of the quinone lies almost on top of the N5 of FAD (3.5 Å apart), suggesting a Michael addition of the hydride from the FADH2 to this position of the substrate.. Comparison of all of the available QR1 structures shows that the side chain of Tyr-128 can adopt many different conformations. The different conformations result in opening and closing of the binding site, as well as in different interactions with substrates. For example, comparison of the structures of hQR1 and hQR1-DQ shows that Tyr-128 moves inside the cavity and away from the FAD to make room for the DQ (Fig. 5). ...
Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course Lactation Biology. Milk is the product of the lactation process. Such a simple statement does not come close to doing justice to the complex nature of this biological ...
Inter and intra species variation in the biofilm production of 54 Trichosporon spp. clinical isolates and 7 reference strains.A- 19 isolates from blood identifi
Exposure to environmental insults generally occurs at low levels, making it challenging to measure bacterial responses to such interactions. Additionally, microbial behaviour and phenotype varies in differing bacterial types or growth phases, likely giving rise to growth- or species-specific responses to environmen
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal. ...
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, and it is locally common with no major threats. The northern subpopulations are much scarcer, but these are likely to be a different subspecies or even a distinct species. Once the taxonomy is resolved the northern species or subspecies may qualify for threatened status ...
Should we be content simply to safeguard as much as we can of the planetary stock of species? Or should we pay equal if not greater attention to safeguarding evolutionary processes at risk (cf. refs. 64-66)? Consider, for instance, biodisparity: to cite Jablonski (49), "If we are concerned with avoiding the loss of particular functional groups, or with maximizing the potential source pool for evolutionary recovery, then biodisparity measures may provide a more appropriate assessment, beyond sheer numbers of taxa, of how priorities should be set.". Following on from these considerations is the question of whether we should seek to maintain the evolutionary status quo by preserving precise phenotypes of particular species, or whether we should prefer to maintain phylogenetic lines that will enable evolutionary adaptations to persist, thereby leading to new species (67, 68). Is it sufficient for us to maintain, for example, just the two elephant species we already have, or should we try to keep ...
Sometimes, unexpected research results are simply due toexperimental error. Other times, its the opposite - the scientistshave uncovered a new phenomenon that reveals an even more accurateportrayal of our bodies and our universe, overturningwell-established assumptions. Indeed, many great biologicaldiscoveries are made when results defy expectation. A few yearsago, researchers in the Burge lab were comparing the genomicevolution of several different mammals when they noticed a strangepattern. Whenever a new nucleotide sequence appeared in the RNA ofone lineage, there was generally an increase in the total amount ofRNA produced from the gene in that lineage. Now, in a new paper,the Burge lab finally has an explanation, which redefines our
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Crystal proteins a in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species ...
Intra-species ceBLATs and composite-EvoPrints identify conserved sequences within the input reference DNA that have rearranged in the aligning regions of other
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
CC-RIX mice provide a controlled genetically diverse model for studies of infection and immunology that may more closely mirror the diversity of the human response.
Nurses generally do not question the need for medicine to research disease and its treatment yet many cite as irrelevant research done on human responses and treatment of those responses to achieve nurse-sensitive outcomes.
IISERM Colloquia and Seminars - 2013 158. Seminar Dec 24th, 2013 (Tues 11:00 am) Dr. Samit Bhattacharyya "Population dynamic consequences of human response to infectious disease - Theory and Models" 157. Seminar Dec 20th, 2013 (Fri 4:00
Critical Care Nursing : The American Association of Critical Care Nurses defines critical care nursing as the specialty within nursing that deals specifically with human responses to life-threatening problems...responsible for ensuring that acutely and critically ill patients and their families receive optimal care.
So im interrested as im sure everyone is on how to get dense buds? Is it a strain dependant thing,a light thing or a fertalizer thing lol?I only have...
Read that previous post for a full explanation. This is the sort of data wed expect to have the strongest edge/center effects: focal areas with high information, areas large enough to allow searchlights to fit inside the middle of the informative areas. Its also likely that the activations in these areas are all in the same direction (higher activity during the moving stimuli than the non-moving stimuli), creating consistent differences in the amount of BOLD throughout the areas. Normalizing each example within each searchlight removes this consistent BOLD difference, and so classification fails ...
Hi there, Are there any online resources or wikis that would tell me the finer details for growing specific strains? Like some strains want higher...
Lycoperdon echinatum, Spiny Puffball fungus: pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; identification, synonyms; similar species
All the innumerable differences which subsist between different animals may be classed under two heads, corresponding to the two aspects of every living being, morphological and physiological. One ani...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interspecies differences in the kinetic properties of deoxycytidine kinase elucidate the poor utility of a phase I pharmacologically directed dose-escalation concept for 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine. AU - Reichelová, Viera. AU - Juliusson, Gunnar. AU - Spasokoukotskaja, T.. AU - Eriksson, Staffan. AU - Liliemark, Jan. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - 2-Chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (CdA, Cladribine), is a purine antimetabolite currently under investigation in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Significant differences in CdA toxicity between mice and humans were observed during phase I clinical evaluation. For the elucidation of interspecies differences in drug toxicity the pharmacokinetics of CdA after subcutaneous injection and the kinetic properties of the CdA-phosphorylating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), were compared in mice and humans. The ratio of the dose lethal to 10% of mice (LD10) to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in humans was 50 ...
Question: Most results of restoration efforts are species-specific and/or site-specific and therefore are not general enough to be easily applied to other species and other sites. Our research addresses the issue of species-specific results by investigating the feasibility of using plant traits instead of taxonomic species to characterize species responses to restoration treatments. Specifically, we test the explanatory power of plant traits, one necessary prerequisite for the development of predictive and general plant trait models. Location: Ten remnant bunchgrass prairie sites in the Pacific Northwest of North America (Oregon and Washington, USA; British Columbia, Canada). Methods: We developed two types of quantitative models for each of 10 prairie restoration sites: 1) plant trait models, which related plant traits to species field responses following restoration management treatments, and 2) species identity models, which related species taxonomic identity to species field responses ...
Model organisms have longed played an important role in basic science studies and in the pharmaceutical industry. These organisms, ranging from yeast to worms to flies, share many processes that are similar to those active in humans which have made these and other animals the focus of many lab studies. Similarly, almost all drugs are initially tested on mice making cross species studies a key issue in drug development. However, many of the drugs that work well for mice fail in late stage human trials. Similarly, many interactions between highly conserved proteins in one species are not conserved, even between very close species. In this class we will discuss recent studies that try to compare and contrast genomics and functional genomics data across species with the goal of identifying the conserved and divergent processes that are active in each of the species being studied ...
All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. Viruses also encounter carbohydrates in the extracellular matrix and the environment on their way from one host cell to another. Some of these extracellular glycans sequester viruses from cells and are part of innate immunity, while others can render viruses more infectious. In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. ...
A large number of diverse enzymes have evolved in animals that apparently function only to metabolize foreign chemicals. As will be discussed later, there are such large differences among species in the ability to metabolize xenobiotics, that animal models cannot be solely relied upon to predict how humans will metabolize a drug. Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics have historically been called drug-metabolizing enzymes, although they are involved in the metabolism of many foreign chemicals to which humans are exposed. Thus, a more appropriate name would be xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.Dietary differences among species during the course of evolution could account for the marked species variation in the complexity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes. Additional diversity within these enzyme systems has also derived from the necessity to detoxify a host of endogenous chemicals that would otherwise prove harmful to the organism, such as bilirubin, steroid hormones, and catecholamines. Many of these ...
Dear Woody,. Generally speaking, the STIs (sexually transmitted infections) we associate with person-to-person sexual contact, including HIV, cannot be transmitted through sexual contact between humans and animals because these infections are species-specific. There are a number of infections that are known to cross the species barrier, but these are not the STIs that concern most humans - for more information, check out the archived response to Bestiality. If you remain worried about potential disease risk with any type of sexual activity, follow safer-sex guidelines - such as wearing a condom - in each and every one of your sexual encounters.. Aside from infections, heres something else to consider: its impossible for animals to consent to sex with humans, and these acts are illegal in most places. If animals become the focus of ones sexual attention and activity, it might be time to call a mental health counselor in your area to explore whats on your mind: concerns, motivations, etc. Have ...
1DXO: Structures of Recombinant Mouse and Human Nad(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductases:Species Comparison and Structural Changes with Substrate Binding and Release
Eurofins comprehensive portfolio of innovative DNA-based fish species determination ensures the overall quality and safety of fish and aquacultural products.
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were once thought to be predominantly innocuous to cell growth. Recent evidence suggests that mtDNA undergo naturally occurring alterations, including mutations and polymorphisms, which profoundly affect the cells in which they appear and contribute to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Furthermore, interplay between mtDNA and nuclear DNA has been found in cancer cells, necessitating consideration of these complex interactions for future studies of cancer mutations and polymorphisms. In this issue of Cancer Research, Vivian and colleagues utilize a unique mouse model, called Mitochondrial Nuclear eXchange mice, that contain the nuclear DNA from one inbred mouse strain, and the mtDNA from a different inbred mouse strain to examine the genome-wide nuclear DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of brain tissue. Results demonstrated there were alterations in nuclear DNA expression and DNA methylation driven by ...
Munich, Europe, January 15, 2013 - Fujitsu today announces a new generation of displays that take desktop ergonomics to a new level, with screens that are clearer, more detailed, and more comfortable to use than ever before. For office-based "desk jockeys" who sit in front of a screen all day, their display is an indispensable interface. Choosing an ergonomic model thats easy on the eye can make a tremendous difference to user comfort and help reduce strain-related illness. ...
An initial list was compiled by Albert Dugal during a one-day visit in 1977. Additional observations were made by other naturalists in the 1980s and 1990s. This has resulted in an impressive but preliminary list of plants. Twenty-eight significant native plant species occur here. Significant species are those regarded as regionally or provincially rare or sparse. These species are shown in boldface.. TREES. ...
Maybe now we can renegotiate the corporate boundaries and interests that overtook those of communities.. (Originally published by YES! Magazine, Jun 29, 2016). The world is abuzz over Brexit, the United Kingdoms decision to exit the European Union (EU). Is it a victory for freedom, democracy, and national integrity? Or is it a racist retreat into xenophobia and isolationism? Will the EU itself survive or is this the beginning of its disintegration? As I reflect on these questions, I realize they raise essential issues that have profound implications far beyond Europe about how we set and manage boundaries.. We are only beginning to come to terms with the reality that we are a global species dependent on one living Earth. Consequently, we now must deal with a far greater degree of interdependence than ever before. We have only begun to recognize, let alone address, the implications of the boundaries within which we manage these relationships.. This lack of understanding is evident in the ...
I use same drying method and for some strains they dont smell spectacular and some do. This blue dream ive been running smelled good but now that its...
(2012) Yao et al. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. The biochemical and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) have been the subject of intense study for decades. It is now clear that essentially all TCDD-induced toxicities are mediated by DNA-protein interactions involvi...
Recent innovations in sequencing technologies have provided researchers with the ability to rapidly characterize the microbial content of an environmental or clinical sample with unprecedented resolution. These approaches are producing a wealth of information that is providing novel insights into the microbial ecology of the environment and human health. However, these sequencing-based approaches produce large and complex datasets that require efficient and sensitive computational analysis workflows. Many recent tools for analyzing metagenomic-sequencing data have emerged, however, these approaches often suffer from issues of specificity, efficiency, and typically do not include a complete metagenomic analysis framework. We present PathoScope 2.0, a complete bioinformatics framework for rapidly and accurately quantifying the proportions of reads from individual microbial strains present in metagenomic sequencing data from environmental or clinical samples. The pipeline performs all necessary
This is a list of some qualitative laboratory tests that can be used to identify unknowns in lab. These are simple tests leading to the identification of a few anions and cations and some common gases. Also included here is flame test information for selected cations. ...
Molecular mechanisms that allow the Rhesus macaque CMV to cross species barriers shed light on how viruses can replicate in other species.
Twelve individual infections with spp. species have been reported; these cases resulted from contact with monkeys and the agent was identified as (6). The taxonomic status of these uninucleated species over the years has been confusing. They have been identified in CH5132799 various domestic and other animals and have been given separate names such as in cattle in sheep and in pigs in pigs and goats and in monkeys. However the numerous species cannot be distinguished from each other morphologically (3) and whether they occur in humans or are also genetically distinct continues to be to be set up. Burrows (3) recommended the usage of the name for the infectious agent in individual situations until it became feasible to tell apart one types of uninucleated from another. Various other authors prefer to mention many of these uninucleated ameba types (6). Over the last 4 years our lab in Leiden HOLLAND provides received many feces examples (= 1 229 for species-specific medical diagnosis of and ...
cremaster definition: A thin muscle tissue attached to the testicles.; into the pupae of particular species of butterfly, a hook-shaped protuberance from rear of the chrysalis casing, by which the caterpillar…
Recent work examined the repair of ear holes across a number of different mammals and revealed that regeneration appears to be a unique trait
The reasons animal models cannot predict human response to drugs and disease are to be found in a study of evolutionary biology and complex systems. As I have said many times, if someone wishes to understand this issue, she must study these areas. However, the empirical evidence is very strong and anyone willing to take the time to gather and study that evidence can come to the same conclusions.
La Jolla, CA - The ability of the AIDS virus to infect one species and bypass another may hinge on a single amino acid, a Salk Institute study has found. The work builds on the knowledge that HIV, the AIDS virus that infects humans, is relatively harmless to mice and even monkeys. The study furthers understanding of how HIV infects specific species while sparing others, and may help in the eventual development of novel drugs that halt the disease.. ...
Checking Cell Identity: Several different methods are available to detect inter-species and intra-species cross-contamination in cell cultures. Read more about this topic here!
Checking Cell Identity: Several different methods are available to detect inter-species and intra-species cross-contamination in cell cultures. Read more about this topic here!
1. In Dysdercus the abdominal segments are isolated from each other by an intersegmental region which can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and physiological criteria. 2. The...
For documenting flora of India that is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group along with supplementing the working of the group. Efloraofindia (earlier Indiantreepix) is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora.
You must select a strain type and also whether the strain is a mutant or wild-type. To search the gene field for all strains carrying a particular locus, you will need to use the wildcard character *. For example, searching for his-3 finds 126 strains while searching for *his-3* finds 295 strains ...
UK and EU legislation provides certain species and habitats protection in order to safeguard them from activities that may damage or destroy them such as...
MIT biologists find that alternative splicing of RNA rewires signaling in different tissues and may often contribute to species differences.
How to Raise Rabbits. Rabbits are lovely pets to have. A rabbit is tame and playful, and yet also social. However, it does take a lot of work to take care of a rabbit. Like all pets, rabbits need a clean, healthy environment and the right...
How to Care for Disabled Rabbits. If your rabbit is disabled, you will find yourself doing a lot more for your rabbit than either he or you could have imagined. Since rabbits are very independent animals, your rabbits disability will make...
Rabbits are prone to many diseases but some are more common than others. Learn what you can do to prevent and even treat these rabbit problems.
October 15, 2015 - A team of researchers radio-tags various species to learn more about them. The catch: They have to follow them as they fly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The min K channel underlies the cardiac potassium current I(Ks) and mediates species-specific responses to protein kinase C. AU - Varnum, M. D.. AU - Busch, A. E.. AU - Bond, C. T.. AU - Maylie, J.. AU - Adelman, J. P.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - A clone encoding the guinea pig (gp) min K potassium channel was isolated and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The currents, gpI(sK), exhibit many of the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties characteristic of gpI(Ks), the slow component of the delayed rectifier potassium conductance in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Depolarizing commands evoke outward potassium currents that activate slowly, with time constants on the order of seconds. The currents are blocked by the class III antiarrhythmic compound clofilium but not by the sotalol derivative E4031 or low concentrations of lanthanum. Like I(Ks) in guinea pig myocytes, gpI(sK) is modulated by stimulation of protein kinase A and protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast to rat and ...
NOVOA, F. Fernando; RIVERA-HUTINEL, Antonio; ROSENMANN, Mario y SABAT, Pablo. Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae): the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats. Rev. chil. hist. nat. [online]. 2005, vol.78, n.2, pp.215-227. ISSN 0716-078X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2005000200004.. Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern ...
The occurrence of swollen or hyperostotic bones in skeletal preparations, preserved museum material or whole fresh specimens of marine teleost fishes was identified in 92 species belonging to 22 famil
There is growing agreement that genetic factors play an important role in the risk to develop heroin addiction, and comparisons of heroin addiction vulnerability in inbred strains of mice could provide useful information on the question of individual vulnerability to heroin addiction. This study examined the rewarding and locomotor-stimulating effects of heroin in male C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Heroin induced locomotion and sensitisation in C57BL/6J but not in DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6J mice developed conditioned place preference (CPP) to the highest doses of heroin, while DBA/2J showed CPP to only the lowest heroin doses, indicating a higher sensitivity of DBA/2J mice to the rewarding properties of heroin vs C57BL/6J mice. In order to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying some of these differences, the effect of chronic intermittent escalating dose heroin administration on the opioid, dopaminergic and stress systems was explored. Twofold higher mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r)-stimulated ...
Previous experiments revealed a strain-dependent effect of egg cytoplasm on the developmental potential of androgenetic (two paternal genomes) mouse embryos. Eggs obtained from C57BL/6 mice supported androgenone development to the blastocyst stage at a much higher frequency than eggs from DBA/2 mice. Transient exposure of paternal pronuclei to DBA/2 egg cytoplasm also compromised development, indicating that the DBA/2 egg cytoplasm negatively affected the ability of paternal pronuclei to support blastocyst formation. An essential first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism by which egg modifier factors influence gene expression is to determine the number of loci that are responsible for the strain difference. To do this, (B6D2)F1 hybrid females were backcrossed to DBA/2 males and the eggs from individual female progeny assayed for their ability to support androgenetic development. Approximately one fourth of the backcross females produced eggs that failed to support androgenone ...
Alphaproteobacteria show a great versatility in adapting to a broad range of environments and lifestyles, with the association between bacteria and plants as one of the most intriguing, spanning from relatively unspecific nonsymbiotic association (as rhizospheric or endophytic strains) to the highly species-specific interaction of rhizobia. To shed some light on possible common genetic features in such a heterogeneous set of plant associations, the genomes of 92 Alphaproteobacteria strains were analyzed with a fuzzy orthologs-species detection approach. This showed that the different habitats and lifestyles of plant-associated bacteria (soil, plant colonizers, symbiont) are partially reflected by the trend to have larger genomes with respect to nonplant-associated species. A relatively large set of genes specific to symbiotic bacteria (73 orthologous groups) was found, with a remarkable presence of regulators, sugar transporters, metabolic enzymes, nodulation genes and several genes with unknown
MCFAs reduce adiposity and preserve insulin action in muscle and adipose, despite inducing steatosis and insulin resistance in the liver. Dietary supplementation with MCFAs may therefore be beneficial for preventing obesity and peripheral insulin resistance.
Definition of species difference in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is species difference? Meaning of species difference as a legal term. What does species difference mean in law?
Species differences in ligand binding to Avpr1a have been associated with variation in a polymorphic microsatellite in the non-coding 5′-flanking region of the vole Avpr1a locus (Hammock et al., 2005; Hammock and Young, 2004; Hammock and Young, 2005). Furthermore, differences in microsatellite structure within the prairie vole species have been associated with variation in pair-bonding behavior between individual animals (Hammock and Young, 2002; Hammock and Young, 2004). The proximal 5′-flanking region of the Avpr1a gene is not the only factor to direct species-typical expression profiles as transgenic mice in which homologous recombination was used to replace 3.5 kb of the murine Avpr1a proximal 5′-flanking region with the homologous prairie vole sequence expressed Avpr1a largely in a mouse pattern, indicating that more distal chromosomal elements are necessary to confer species-specific expression patterns (Donaldson and Young, 2013).. As in rodents, analogous polymorphic regions ...
Around half of our genetic content is composed of retrotransposons that are thought to be ancient viruses that have stably integrated into our genomes. These ancient viruses, as mobile genetic elements, have been drivers of evolution, creating new genes and plasticity of genomes, and many of them are species-specific.. Endogenous retroviruses are one type of retrotransposon family that resemble present day retroviruses like HIV, and as such, they are thought to have arisen from germ-line integrations of retroviruses. While these viruses that were once mobile are now mostly inactive through mutation, they have co-evolved with our genes to adopt normal functions in gene regulation. For example, exciting data including ours has shown that endogenous retroviruses retain regulatory sequences that can act as enhancers, repressors or alternative promoters for cellular genes in a temporal or tissue-specific way. Very little is known about which transcription factors and complexes are recruited to ...
in what ways are species more fluid than even 20th century biologists might have believed? to what extent was darwins, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Evolution of the immunologic species specificity of human serum proteins. by Masha Goodman
Symbol: This is the official symbol assigned to this strain according to the strain nomenclature guidelines. This is a combination of strain and substrain designations for inbred strains (or symbol and ILAR code for other strain types).. Strain: The official strain symbol.. Substrain: The official substrain symbol - this can be a collection of ILAR lab codes defining the history of this particular strain. Can also be found in pulldown section below with links to the strain report pages.. Full Name: If the strain has a text name then it is displayed here; this is not visible if no name is associated to the strain, as in this example. Ontology ID: The identification number of the strain ontology term assigned by RGD, linked to the term in the ontology browser. In the strain ontology, rat strains are organized in a hierarchical fashion based on the type of strain and the way they were developed.. Also known as: Old symbols and synonyms that were used for the strain. If a strain is renamed to comply ...
This work is a continuation of electrophoretic investigations aimed at revealing a wild relative ofVicia faba. Electrophoretic analysis (PAGE) of seed albumins covered 52 accessions representing eightVicia species of sect.Hypechusa and two species of sect.Peregrinae. Most of the examined species showed an intraspecific variation due to differences between accessions and/or individual variation within accessions. In spite of the intraspecific variation, marked interspecific differences were recorded. However, none of the investigated species displayed electrophoretic seed albumin patterns similar to those reported earlier forV. faba. Contribution of the obtained results to characterization of the examined taxa is discussed.
View Notes - Ch 31 Fungi from BIOL 172 at University of Hawaii, Manoa. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: • medicine • food Ecological value: •
The reliability of identification tools strongly relies on comprehensive sampling. The CBS collection contains a large number of type isolates and other well-studied strains that were used to generate the DNA barcodes. In order to assess the intraspecific variability we included strains from different geographic regions, and clinical as well as environmental strains covering a wide range of habitats and substrates. Understanding interspecific divergence ideally includes all species of a clade, and an underlying phylogenetic hypothesis to define the most closely related extant relatives. In addition to the study of species represented in the CBS collection we therefore cooperate with other institutions to fill the gaps in species coverage. The resulting set of barcodes makes it possible to delineate species and to develop "validated barcodes" (= consensus sequences of all barcodes of a certain species). Our databases will allow the user to perform a BLAST analysis for identification of unknown ...
Animal, Female, Histocompatibility-Antigens, Idoxuridine, Leukemia-L1210: im, Male, Mice, Mice-Inbred-BALB-C, Mice-Inbred-CBA, Mice-Inbred-C3H, Mice-Inbred-DBA, Neutralization-Tests, Pregnancy, Review, Species-Specificity. ...
This paper points out the significant genetic differences that are found throughout every population that must to be taken into account when extrapolating data from animals to humans," said Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D., director of NTP and NIEHS. "The Diversity Outbred mouse is a useful model for predicting the range of response that might be observed in humans following exposure to a chemical.". Benzene was selected by NTP as a case study for testing the mouse model, because there is an abundance of animal and human toxicity data for comparison. Benzene can affect people differently, depending on the level and duration of exposure, making it important to accurately estimate the levels at which it may cause harm to the most susceptible individuals.. "These genetically diverse mice provided a reproducible response to benzene exposure across two independently exposed groups, suggesting that each group of genetically unique mice demonstrated the same range of differential susceptibility, much like what ...
Richard A. Peterson II, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP; GlaxoSmithKline, Safety Assessment, RTP, USA. The use and translation of animal models of human disease requires a strong understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pathobiology of each specific model. This presentation will provide an overview highlighting key species differences in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, reproductive tract, central nervous system, and skin of commonly utilized laboratory animal models including: rodents, genetically-engineered mice, beagle dogs, non-human primates, and the mini-pig; using an organ system approach. A step-wise correlation of gross anatomic, light microscopic (H&E), and ultrastructural morphology will give the attendees an appreciation of the biological complexity as species-related systemic differences are characterized. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on commonly encountered spontaneous "background" lesions in key laboratory animal species (e.g., chronic progressive ...
Do similar processes govern the "divergence" of artificially inbred strains? Is Drift too strong for background selection to be relevant in such inbred lines? Data [Genetic Analysis of Substrain Divergence in NOD Mice] from a recent study of NOD mice sub-strains might provide some answers. While the study was restricted to sites fixed to homozygosity, it does provide some idea of the major regions that differ between the mouse strains. More detailed analysis of the mouse strains including multiple individuals might be necessary to understand if the diversity landscape of the genome has played any role in shaping the accumulation of genetic differences ...
The 2017 MSE colloquium will be held at UNIST, every Thursday from September 7th to December 7th, 2017. The 2nd lecturer of MSE Colloquium is Dr. Keehoon
ArkDB is a generic, species-independent database built to capture the state of published information on genome mapping in a given species. It stores details of references, markers and loci and genetic linkage and cytogenetic maps which can be drawn using the online map-drawing application. Data from linkage maps held within the ArkDB system can be drawn alongside their corresponding genome sequence maps (extracted from Ensembl). Registered users may upload their own QTL mapping data and export for GridQTL analysis.
Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12). Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12). They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was
The morphology of each species was quantified by measuring five features. Each sample was first sandwiched between two acrylic sheets and photographed from above with the digital camera. Planform area (±0.01 cm2) was measured from the photograph with ImageJ. Branch lengths (±0.01 mm) were measured in ImageJ from the tip of the alga to the lowest branching point above the stipe (for blade-like species, a branch is equivalent to a blade). Branch width and thickness were measured either with digital calipers (±0.01 mm) or with ImageJ using an image of the cross-section of a branch. Cross-sectional area was then calculated assuming an ellipse for rounded cross-sections, a rectangle for very flat cross-sections, or directly measured with ImageJ for complexly shaped cross-sections. For hollow species (Scytosiphon and Agardhiella), the thickness of one layer of the tissue was used as the measure of branch diameter, and the thickness multiplied by the circumference was used as the measure of ...
An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes a media analysis apparatus and method in which human mental response to media is objectively determined.
In order to implement affective computing, there have been several studies to elicit human emotion using audio and video stimuli or by recalling previous e
One of the major objectives of the National GAP program is to document the representation of native vertebrate species in regional assesments. In order to meet this objective, we developed a spatial database of predicted species distributions throughout the region. While we dont have the resources to conduct a complete survey for every species, we do have access to a tremendous knowledge base that allows us to model distrubutions based on known range and habitat relationships. The composition and structure of the dominant vegetation is an important and easily described measure of habitat for animals (Scott et al. 1993) and has long been used as an indirect indicator of animal distributions (Austin 1991). Other biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. elevation, wetland type, and distance from standing water) can also play a major role in defining a particular species habitat. Many studies of vertebrate species have been conducted over the years documenting this type of information. In addition, data ...
Its difficult enough to make friends after moving to a new neighborhood but finding love is a whole other can of worms. And when youre not exactly welcome there, the task could seem nigh-impossible. Such is the case for many invasive species, but researchers are finding that these nuisances are meeting at recognizable landmarks to hook up.
I will argue that Drosophila geneticists are not so much interested in finding "speciation genes", but rather interested in understanding the genetics of speciation. To do so requires finding mutations that allow the species boundary to be surmounted. As I have mentioned previously, good species are reproductively isolated, preventing any genetical analysis of the factors that lead to this isolation. Mutations in the "speciation genes" (especially the extremely useful Hybrid Male Rescue mutation), however, allow researchers to cross individuals from different species and study the genetics of speciation.. Geneticists like to find generalities. That is why we study model organisms; they are easy to work with in a laboratory setting and allow us to extend our discoveries regarding molecular biology, cellular function, development, physiology, etc to other related taxa (both closely related and more distant relatives). Wilkins makes a valid point that it is difficult to generalize discoveries ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Fiona Roby.. Sentient creatures are ones that have a capacity for feeling; they have the potential to suffer and it is valid to be concerned about their well-being. But the problem with sentience is that it is difficult and problematic to make assumptions about. If we assume that a particular species is sentient, we can be accused of being unparsimonious in our explanations of its behaviour and anthropomorphic in our inferences. If we assume that it isnt, we may find ourselves denying the moral status of an ethically relevant being. In this talk I argue that one pragmatic assumption can and should be made about sentience - that it evolved. Taking this simple step allows us to think about sentience as a biological phenomenon that is present in humans and is likely to have antecedents in other animal species. Even if a completely human-like sentience is not a part of the biological make up of many animals, facets of sentience may be present, ...
DNA barcoding is short genetic sequences used to identify a particular species. With the rapid growth and ease of sequencing, DNA barcodes have been recorded for many higher order species. This means that if we can obtain a small piece of tissue from a taxonomically ambiguous organism we can extract, amplify and sequence their DNA to read their barcode. This barcode can then be uploaded to ...
A biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically or biochemically from other strains in a particular species.[1][2] Morphovars (or morphotypes) are those strains that differ morphologically. Serovars (or serotypes) are those strains that have antigenic properties that differ from other strains. ...
With the completion of the human and a few model organisms?f genomes, and the genomes of many other organisms waiting to be sequenced, it has become increasingly important to develop faster computational tools which are capable of easily identifying the structures and extracting features from DNA sequences. One of the more important structures in a DNA sequence is repeat-related. Often they have to be masked before protein coding regions along a DNA sequence are to be identified or redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are to be sequenced. Here we report a novel recurrence time based method for sequence analysis. The method can conveniently study all kinds of periodicity and exhaustively find all repeat-related features from a genomic DNA sequence. An efficient codon index is also derived from the recurrence time statistics, which has the salient features of being largely species-independent and working well on very short sequences. Efficient codon indices are key elements of successful gene ...
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species. Biochemist Linus Pauling stated that "Biological specificity is the set of characteristics of living organisms or constituents of living organisms of being special or doing something special. Each animal or plant species is special. It differs in some way from all other species... biological specificity is the major problem about understanding life."[1]. ...
sometimes a species may have different kings or breeds that show great variation but the individuals still belong to the same species. different breeds of pedigree dogs are like this.. Similar species tend to live in similar habitats, and are closely related in evolutionary terms. They are likely to share a relatively recent ancestor. Closely related species living in different types of habitat may have different characteristics. You can use keys to identify organisms according to their features.. A species is defined as organisms that produce fertile offspring but this is sometimes limited as some organisms do not always reproduce sexually, and some hybrids are fertile.. ...
Toxicity can be measured by the effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxin, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of toxin is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection factor may be used for ...
Toxicity can be measured by its effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic substance, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then, "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of a toxic substance is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection ...
Author Summary Speciation, the process by which one species splits into two, involves reproductive barriers between previously interbreeding populations. The question of how speciation occurs has rightly occupied the attention of biologists since before Darwins
It isnt clear what the quality is of this DNA. But sequencing of lots of poor quality DNA samples of the same species might allow reconstruction of sequence of sufficient quality as to allow bringing back such a species to life.. Im less worried about bringing back really large species since they can easily be hunted down and killed if they cause unexpected problems. But restored small species are much more problematic if they live in ways that make them hard to track and kill. A 3 meter high elephant bird that eats vegetation isnt going to get out of control.. ...
Abstract: We consider the system of PDEs which models the non-Fickian anomalous (viscoelastic) diffusion of a penetrant liquid in a polymer. We are going to present recent results on existence, uniqueness and attractors for various types of generalized solutions to the corresponding BVPs ...
Abstract: The two-phase Stefan problem is expected to exhibit waiting time phenomena; in other words, an initial Lipschitz free boundary might remain just Lipschitz for some positive time. On the other hand, adding a Gibbs-Thomson correction term to the model is believed to stabilize the interface and make it more regular. I will present a partial result in this direction, namely I will show that free boundaries which are Lipschitz in space and time are actually C2,α in space and become so instantaneously. This will follow first from observing that the De Giorgi-Moser-Nash theory for parabolic equations works even when one has a singular right hand side and secondly from the regularity theory for almost-minimal boundaries of Almgren, De Giorgi and Tamanini ...