Return to GeoComputation 99 Index Dynamic Modelling of the Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Phytoplankton in a Small Productive English Lake HEDGER R.D. ([email protected]) and MALTHUS, T.J., Department of Geography, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9XP, U.K.; OLSEN, N.R.B., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; GEORGE, D.G., Institute of Freshwater Ecology, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, LA22 OLP, U.K.; ATKINSON, P.M., Department of Geography, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, U.K.. Key Words: computational fluid dynamics, phytoplankton spatio-temporal distributions, velocity field, irradiance. The relationships between the spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton concentration and the environmental conditions of Esthwaite Water (a small eutrophic lake in the English Lake District, U.K.) were examined using a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The water velocity field was obtained through solving the 3-D Navier Stokes equation for ...
A generic modeling environment for the analysis and simulation of spatio-temporal phenomena in ecosystems was developed. This framework was built upon a Rich Client Platform (RCP) which uses new concepts of extensibility and software architecture for sustainable development and provides a solid basis for an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for ecological models. The integration of various statistical tools, imaging routines and several specialized drawing panels makes this environment particularly suitable for the analysis of the above mentioned spatio-temporal ecological processes. Because of their comparatively low complexity, dry acidic grassland ecosystems have been repeatedly used for studying vegetation pattern formation and the underlying biotic interactions. In order to obtain an integrative view of the existing knowledge as well as to provide a possibility for further integrative analysis with the help of model simulations, the above described platform was used to develop an ...
Downloadable! It is popular belief that the weather is bad more frequently on weekends than on other days of the week and this is often perceived to be associated with an increased chance of rain. In fact, the meteorological literature does report some evidence for such human-induced weekly cycles although these findings are not undisputed. To contribute to this discussion, a modern data-driven approach using structured additive regression models is applied to a newly available high-quality data set for Austria. The analysis investigates how an ordered response of rain intensities is influenced by a (potential) weekend effect while adjusting for spatio-temporal structure using spatially varying effects of overall level and seasonality patterns. The underlying data are taken from the HOMSTART project which provides daily precipitation quantities over a period of more than 60 years and a dense net of more than 50 meteorological stations all across Austria.
Using data from a cohort study conducted by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA), evidence of spatial clustering at distances up to 30 kin was found for S. Agama and S. Dublin (P values of 0001) and borderline evidence was found for spatial clustering of S. Typhimurium (P = 0.077). The evolution of infection status of study farms over time was modelled using a Markov Chain model with transition probabilities describing changes in Status at each of four visits, allowing for the effect of sampling visit. The degree of geographical clustering of infection, having allowed for temporal effects, was assessed by comparing the residual deviance from a model including a measure of recent neighbourhood infection levels with one excluding this variable. The number of cases arising within a defined distance and time period of an index case was higher than expected. This provides evidence for spatial and Spatio-temporal clustering, which suggests either a contagious process (e.g. through direct or ...
The development of new routes and stations, as well as changes in land use, can have significant impacts on public transit ridership. Thus, transport depar
Autori: Mihai, F.C, Apostol,L., Ghiurcã A.A., Lãmãşanu A.,. Editorial: 12th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2012, Conference Proceedings, 1, p.787- 792, 2012.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: spatial analysis,sanitation services,rural territory,waste management. ...
Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Airborne fine particulate matter exhibits spatiotemporal variability at multiple scales, which presents challenges to estimating exposures for health effects assessment. Here we created a model to predict ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) across the contiguo …
Purchase Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128158227, 9780128165263
In the process of cancer initiation and progression, various types of cellular stress such as inflammation cause genomic mutations including single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations in oncogenes and tumor suppressors, as well as epigenetic changes, in multiple stages via pre-neoplastic lesions. Since most of the data of human cancer samples were obtained retrospectively from fully-developed tumor tissues, it is hard to predict how and when the mutations were induced, and how alterations to gene expression, genomic mutations and epigenetic modifications lead to the development of these tumors.. By using in vitro carcinogenic system, we aim to clarify how the transcription regulatory network is shifted from normal to cancer mode, and the dynamics of chromatin structure in the carcinogenesis process. By introducing oncogenes and chemically-induced carcinogenic animal models, we have performed spatiotemporal analysis of transcription regulatory networks and signal pathways in the ...
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University of Cambridge, Department of Zoology Postdoctoral Research Position Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Childhood Diseases This postdoctoral position is funded by the Wellcome Trust and is tenable for up to five years. It is part of an overall project that is concerned with understanding the forces which drive the spatio-temporal dynamics and predictability of infectious diseases by using mathematical and statistical models. The focus of the postdoctoral research project is to perform a spatio-temporal analysis of data on measles and pertussis in order to improve upon existing epidemiological modelling. A major aim is to derive *realistic* models that can be used to test vaccination strategies. A further aim within the five year project is to extend mathematical and statistical models to consider the dynamics of other childhood microparasitic infections with more complex natural histories. This will require the use and development of semi-parametric statistical methods. There are pronounced ...
As the income of urban and rural residents has increased in recent decades in China, dairy products have become an important part of the Chinese diet. Therefore, keeping up with the growing demand for feed grain for dairy cows is a critical issue of feed grain security. Utilizing traditional statistical and spatial statistical methods, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal dynamics of dairy cow feed grain (DCFG) demand on the provincial, regional, and national levels across China from 1990 to 2016. Additionally, this paper explores the impacts of various factors on the spatio-temporal dynamics of DCFG demand using the Geo-Detector method. The results demonstrate that: (1) the temporal dynamics of DCFG demand can be divided into three stages of slow growth, rapid growth, and high-level stability, and the relative level of DCFG demand in the whole animal husbandry tends to decline; (2) at the regional and national levels, the spatial concentration of high DCFG demand has intensified; in particular,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling the spatio-temporal dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome cases at farm level using geographical distance and pig trade network matrices. AU - Amirpour Haredasht, Sara. AU - Polson, Dale. AU - Main, Rodger. AU - Lee, Kyuyoung. AU - Holtkamp, Derald. AU - Martinez Lopez, Beatriz. PY - 2017/6/7. Y1 - 2017/6/7. N2 - Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating infectious diseases for the swine industry. A better understanding of the disease dynamics and the transmission pathways under diverse epidemiological scenarios is a key for the successful PRRS control and elimination in endemic settings. In this paper we used a two step parameter-driven (PD) Bayesian approach to model the spatio-temporal dynamics of PRRS and predict the PRRS status on farm in subsequent time periods in an endemic setting in the US. For such purpose we used information from a production system with 124 pig sites that ...
The ability to detect disease outbreaks in their early stages is a key component of efficient disease control and prevention. With the increased availability of electronic health-care data and spatio-temporal analysis techniques, there is great potential to develop algorithms to enable more effective disease surveillance. However, to ensure that the algorithms are effective they need to be evaluated. The objective of this research was to develop a transparent user-friendly method to simulate spatial-temporal disease outbreak data for outbreak detection algorithm evaluation. A state-transition model which simulates disease outbreaks in daily time steps using specified disease-specific parameters was developed to model the spread of infectious diseases transmitted by person-to-person contact. The software was developed using the MapBasic programming language for the MapInfo Professional geographic information system environment. The simulation model developed is a generalised and flexible model which
Low birth weight (LBW), defined as a live birth weighing |2,500 g, is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially a few states including Georgia. Although much work has been done to study the epidemiology of LBW in various regions, the spatial-temporal patterns of LBW prevalence in Georgia remain unclear to a large degree. This paper investigates the temporal trend of LBW rates over a time span of 11 years and the spatial clusters of LBW prevalence in the state of Georgia at the county level. Comparison is also made between race and gender groups, and between county groups of different socioeconomic statuses to uncover disparities. Results showed a steady and prevalent increase of LBW rate in the state over the study period. Three counties and two county clusters with significantly higher LBW rates than the state rate were detected for 1999-2001, while one more county and two more county clusters of high LBW rates were detected for 2007-2009. More urbanized counties were found
With the incessant challenge of exposure to the air we breathe, lung tissue suffers the highest levels of oxygen tension and thus requires robust antioxidant defenses. Furthermore, following injury or infection, lung tissue faces the additional challenge of inflammation-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Little is known about the identity or distribution of lung antioxidant enzymes under normal conditions or during infection-induced inflammation. Using a mouse model of influenza (H1N1 influenza virus A/PR/8/34 [PR8]) in combination with bioinformatics, we identified seven lung-abundant antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), Superoxide dismutase 3 (Sod3), Transferrin (Tf), peroxyredoxin6 (Prdx6), glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (Gstk1), Catalase (Cat), and Glutathione peroxidase 8 (Gpx8). Interestingly, despite the demand for antioxidants during inflammation, influenza caused depletion in two key antioxidants: Cat and Prdx6. As Cat is highly expressed in ...
Despite the importance of sediment availability on wetland stability, vulnerability assessments seldom consider spatiotemporal variability of sediment transport. Models predict that the maximum rate of sea level rise a marsh can survive is proportional to suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and accretion. In contrast, we find that SSC and accretion are higher in an unstable marsh than in an adjacent stable marsh, suggesting that these metrics cannot describe wetland vulnerability. Therefore, we propose the flood/ebb SSC differential and organic-inorganic suspended sediment ratio as better vulnerability metrics. The unstable marsh favors sediment export (18mgL(-1) higher on ebb tides), while the stable marsh imports sediment (12mgL(-1) higher on flood tides). The organic-inorganic SSC ratio is 84% higher in the unstable marsh, and stable isotopes indicate a source consistent with marsh-derived material. These simple metrics scale with sediment fluxes, integrate spatiotemporal variability, and indicate
Personal sampling, considered a state-of-the-art technique to assess worker exposures to occupational hazards, is often conducted for the duration of a workshift so that time-weighted average (TWA) exposures may be evaluated relative to published occupational exposure limits. Such cross-shift measurements, however, provide little information on the spatial variability of exposures, except after a
Although across Kenya there has been a significant decrease in HIV positivity between 2015 and 2017, there are still some gaps that can be identified through spatial-temporal analyses and modelling. A PhD student from CIH talked about his work with spatial-temporal analyses at the prestigious CROI conference held 4-7 March, 2019 in Seattle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatio-temporal dynamics of multimodal EEG-fNIRS signals in the loss and recovery of consciousness under sedation using midazolam and propofol. AU - Yeom, Seul Ki. AU - Won, Dong Ok. AU - Chi, Seong In. AU - Seo, Kwang Suk. AU - Kim, Hyun Jeong. AU - Muller, Klaus. AU - Lee, Seong Whan. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - On sedation motivated by the clinical needs for safety and reliability, recent studies have attempted to identify brain-specific signatures for tracking patient transition into and out of consciousness, but the differences in neurophysiological effects between 1) the sedative types and 2) the presence/absence of surgical stimulations still remain unclear. Here we used multimodal electroencephalography-functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG-fNIRS) measurements to observe electrical and hemodynamic responses during sedation simultaneously. Forty healthy volunteers were instructed to push the button to administer sedatives in response to auditory stimuli every ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States. T2 - Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls. AU - Sankarasubramanian, A.. AU - Sabo, John. AU - Larson, Kelli. AU - Seo, S. B.. AU - Sinha, T.. AU - Bhowmik, R.. AU - Vidal, A. Ruhi. AU - Kunkel, K.. AU - Mahinthakumar, G.. AU - Berglund, E. Z.. AU - Kominoski, J.. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Recent U.S. Geological Survey water-use report suggests that increasing water-use efficiency could mitigate the supply-and-demand imbalance arising from changing climate and growing population. However, this rich data have neither analyzed to understand the underlying patterns, nor have been investigated to identify the factors contributing to this increased efficiency. A national-scale synthesis of public supply withdrawals (withdrawals) reveals a strong North-south gradient in public supply water use with the increasing population in the South contributing to increased withdrawal. Contrastingly, a reverse ...
Spatio-temporal pattern of the calcium signal and inhibition of mitochondrial motility. (A) Calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria is not required for t
With the minimal model of spiral wave formation guided by a developmental path presented here, we have shown that strong correlations between cell properties and pattern features emerge, allowing for a certain degree of predictability of patterns from cell properties. Moreover, we have explored in detail how the predictability of self-organized patterns from cell properties depends on the features of the dynamical system. In this way, it may be possible to collect information on, e.g. regulatory properties from the observed relationships between the distribution of cell properties and the emerging spatio-temporal patterns.. The cases (−−) and (−+) as well as the cases (+−) and (++) lie respectively on two extremes of values of Δ. The appearance of a high number of phase singularities at an early stage owing to the higher desynchronization of cell properties in the case (++) generates a relatively high number of target waves, which in turn results in a higher density of persisting spiral ...
Spatio-temporal patterns of CCh-induced [Ca2+]i transients. The x-y confocal Ca2+ imaging was performed at 32 Hz (A and B), 40 Hz (C), 44 Hz (D) and 30 Hz
Historic, present and future dates for daylight saving time and clock changes. Time changes between years 2020 and 2024 in Germany - Saxony-Anhalt - Salzwedel are shown here.
Historic, present and future dates for daylight saving time and clock changes. Time changes between years 2020 and 2024 in Germany - Saxony-Anhalt - Dessau-Rosslau are shown here.
The architecture of collagen is important in maintenance and regeneration of higher vertebrates tissues. We had been studying the changes to this architecture with in situ multi-photon optical microscopy that combines nonlinear optical phenomena of second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) signals from collagen hydrogels prepared from different collagen solid content, polymerized at different temperatures, with different ions as well as modified with reducing sugars. We incubated 2 g/l collagen hydrogels with 0.1 M fructose at 37 °C and after about 20 days observed a significant induction of in situ fluorescence. The twophoton fluorescence emission was centered at about 460 nm for 730 nm excitation wavelength and shifted to 480 nm when we changed the excitation wavelength to 790 nm. The one-photon fluorescence emission was centered at about 416 nm when excitation was 330 nm. It red shifted and split into two peaks centered at about 430 nm and 460 nm for 370 nm ...
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Based on the EIDR approach, operational procedures for the temporal-spatial monitoring of an extreme event are provided step by step in this study. For each present day, the monitoring is performed for all the periods that end on the present day but start from each of the earlier dates. For a given time period, we plot the spatial distribution of the rainfall averaged over the period. The relative intensities are compared among all of the regions enclosed by the different contours. Note that since the relative intensities are computed with both the period and the area being taken into account, the maximal relative intensity spatially sought from the contours can be compared among different periods. So, finally, for each present day, we can determine over which period, until the present day, the rainfall event sought is the most extreme one. With the day-to-day monitoring across the entire rainy season, we can obtain the relative intensity that is temporally maximal over the season and detect ...
2019:. Asdonk, M., Lenzewski, N., Jensen, K. & Ludewig, K. (2019) Diversity decrease due to loss of tidal influence at the Dove Elbe River between 1951 and 2016. Flora, 258, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2019.151438. Klinger, Y.P., Harvolk-Schöning, S., Eckstein, R.L., Hansen, W., Otte, A. & Ludewig, K. (2019) Applying landscape structure analysis to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of an invasive legume in the Rhön UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Biological Invasions, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02012-x. Korell, L., Sandner, T.M., Matthies, D. & Ludewig, K. (2019) Effects of drought and N-level on the interactions of the root-hemiparasite Rhinanthus alectorolophus with a combination of three hosts. Plant Biology, DOI: 10.1111/plb.12977. Xu, F., Harvolk-Schöning, S., Horchler, P.J., Ludewig, K. & Otte, A. (2019) Factors determining the distribution pattern of floodplain vegetation remnants along the Upper Danube River between Straubing and Vilshofen. Tüxenia, DOI: ...
Introduction. Structured population models of discrete type have received varying degrees of attention. Ecologists, mathematicians and population biologists have observed that structure variables provide more realistic results than global models at reasonable computational expenses for a wide variety of biological populations. For example, biologists have observed that most exploited fish populations migrate or are confined to some preferential habitats at certain stages of their life cycle. Fishermen may follow some of these spatial and seasonal patterns, in which case the spatio-temporal distribution of fishing effort is closely tied to that of fish abundance.1 We therefore need a state vector giving the number of individuals of different ages and at different locations. A list of ecological applications can be found in refs 2 4.. Most animal species exploit resources distributed in discrete patches in the environment, and natural selection should favour individuals that exploit such patchily ...
Abstract. Transport processes in geomaterials can be observed with input-output experiments, which yield no direct information on the impact of heterogeneities, or they can be assessed by model simulations based on structural imaging using µ-CT. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides an alternative experimental observation method which directly and quantitatively yields the spatio-temporal distribution of tracer concentration. Process observation with PET benefits from its extremely high sensitivity together with a resolution that is acceptable in relation to standard drill core sizes. We strongly recommend applying high-resolution PET scanners in order to achieve a resolution on the order of 1 mm ...
The classical radiance-luminance parallelism of units for the measurement of emission and reception of flux applies when visual processing is modeled on principles of physics or engineering. Energy has a defined meaning in these disciplines: it is the time integral of flux; the time rate of transfer of flux has the dimension of power. Hence energy is appropriate only when light stimuli are delimited in time, else power is the applicable word. To conform to dimensional specifications in physics, energy models in vision would deal with packets of stimuli of fixed duration, not the time rate of excitation, and have magnitudes expressed in the form of the square root of the integrated squared spatial or spatio-temporal distributions.. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
We report results from a combined optical interferometric and spectrally resolved imaging study on colliding laser produced aluminium plasmas. A Nomarski interferometer was used to probe the spatio-temporal distribution of electron densities at the collision front. Analysis of the resulting interferograms reveals the formation and evolution of a localized electron density feature with a well-defined profile reminiscent of a stagnation layer. Electron stagnation begins at a time delay of 10 ns after the peak of the plasma generating laser pulse. The peak electron density was found to exceed 10^19 cm^−3 and the layer remained well defined up to a time delay of ca 100 ns. Temporally and spectrally resolved optical imaging was also undertaken, to compare the Al^+ ion distribution with that of the 2D electron density profile. This revealed nascent stagnation of singly charged ions at a delay time of 20 ns. We attribute these results to the effects of space charge separation in the seed p... ...
Dr. Sergio Alonso: Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins are mechanisms of activation and deactivation which regulate many cell processes. Some of such reactions or some molecules are restricted to particular compartments of the cell and, therefore, the spatio-temporal distribution of the proteins in the cell may be important. MARCKS are proteins which bind at the membrane by electrostatic interaction. They lost the interaction with the membrane under phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C. In the cytoplasm phosphorylated MARCKS are dephosphorylated by phosphatases and they can bind again at the membrane. The three processes give rise to a cyclic dynamics known as myristoyl-electrostatic switch. We propose a mass-conserved reaction-diffusion model for the binding, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of MARCKS proteins. The model predicts the formation of domains with high concentration of MARCKS proteins at the membrane. The generation of such domains in living cells produces their ...
Monitoring urban-industrial emissions is often challenging because observations are scarce and regional atmospheric transport models are too coarse to represent the high spatiotemporal variability in the resulting concentrations. In this paper we apply a new combination of an Eulerian model (Weather Research and Forecast, WRF, with chemistry) and a Gaussian plume model (Operational Priority Substances - OPS). The modelled mixing ratios are compared to observed CO2 and CO mole fractions at four sites along a transect from an urban-industrial complex (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) towards rural conditions for October-December 2014. Urban plumes are well-mixed at our semi-urban location, making this location suited for an integrated emission estimate over the whole study area. The signals at our urban measurement site (with average enhancements of 11 ppm CO2 and 40 ppb CO over the baseline) are highly variable due to the presence of distinct source areas dominated by road traffic/residential heating ...
Prospective (forward) temporal-spatial models are essential for both action and perception, but the literature on perceptual prediction has primarily been limited to the spatial domain. In this study we asked how the neural systems of perceptual prediction change, when change-over-time must be modeled. We used a naturalistic paradigm in which observers had to extrapolate the trajectory of an occluded moving object to make perceptual judgments based on the spatial (direction) or temporal-spatial (velocity) characteristics of object motion. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we found that a region in posterior cerebellum (lobule VII crus 1) was engaged specifically when a temporal-spatial model was required (velocity judgment task), suggesting that circuitry involved in motor forward-modeling may also be engaged in perceptual prediction when a model of change-over-time is required. This cerebellar region appears to supply a temporal signal to cortical networks involved in spatial orienting: a
Complex network theory applied to various dynamical systems has opened for quantitative analysis of the underlying structure of real-world phenomena. One useful method called the recurrence network analysis maps point processes based from their spatial, temporal and magnitude information into a network without much a priori assumptions about the system. Network statistics uncovers spatio-temporal dynamics providing insight into the causality mechanism of the system. However, this method is dependent on records of empirical data and thus data completeness remains an unaddressed issue. In this work, we apply recurrence network analysis into 3 different synthetic data sets with known spatio-temporal dynamics and use spectral graph analysis to characterize the properties of the network method. Results show network eigenvalue robustness up to 90% loss suggesting preservation of network properties despite data incompleteness for the network following a nearest spatial criteria. Moreover, it was found ...
We believe that the presented framework may enrich any type of research in visual and cognitive scene processing. Here we exemplify this potential in a concrete roadmap for further research to three open questions in scene processing.. First, what are the spatio-temporal dynamics of visual and auditory scene processing, respectively? Previous research has focused on revealing either the temporal or the spatial dimension. Integrated methods such as fMRI-M/EEG fusion [30,58] might yield insight into how the information flows in the network of regions related to scene processing in the visual [2] and auditory [1] cortical networks and their interaction [78]. Revealing the order of, and thus input-output relationships between, the nodes of the scene-processing cortical network will aid understanding of scene processing at the representational and algorithmic levels [74].. Second, what are the spatio-temporal dynamics with which information from the visual and auditory modalities are integrated to ...
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Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices
Anthrax, a soil-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is enzootic in areas of North America with frequent outbreaks in west Texas. Despite a long history of study, pathogen transmission during natural outbreaks remains poorly understood. Here we combined case-level spatio-temporal analysis and high resolution genotyping to investigate anthrax transmission dynamics. Carcass locations from a single white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginanus, outbreak were analyzed for spatial clustering using K-function analysis and directionality with trend surface analysis and the direction test. The directionalities were compared to results of high resolution genotyping. The results of the spatial clustering analyses, combined with deer movement data, suggest anthrax transmission events occur within limited spatial areas, with carcass locations occurring within the activity space of adjacent cases. The directionality of the outbreak paralleled adjacent dry river beds. Isolates from the outbreak were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypoxia imaging of tumor and spatiotemporal analysis during oxygen inhalation. AU - Yamada, Ryo. AU - Horinouchi, Hirohisa. AU - Tsukada, Kosuke. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Tumor hypoxia is considered a potential therapeutic problem because it reduces the effects of radiation therapy. Clinical experience has shown that long-term tumor oxygenation cannot be achieved with oxygen inhalation, but the mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we designed an optical system for evaluating spatiotemporal changes in tissue oxygen tension (pO2) by phosphorescence quenching. The system can measure continuous changes in pO2 at a fixed point and can also perform two-dimensional mapping of pO2 in any part of the tumor tissue. We implanted tumor tissue in a dorsal skinfold chamber of C57BL/6 mice and observed tumor growth. The mice received oxygen inhalation and pO2 was measured. Tumor pO2 increased after inhalation but the oxygen level was not maintained despite ...
Looking for Anhui Province? Find out information about Anhui Province. or , province , c.55,000 sq mi , E central China. Hefei Hefei or Hofei , city , capital of Anhui prov., China. A rapidly growing industrial city, it has... Explanation of Anhui Province
We used 58 (20 male, 38 female) adult bobcats to determine home range, core use areas, and seasonal habitat selection. We estimated 258 home ranges and core areas and home range size differed between sexes (P ,0.001) with males having larger home ranges than females. However, home range size did not differ across seasons (P = 0.321). Likewise, core area size differed between sexes (P ,0.001) with males having larger core areas than females, but did not differ across seasons (P = 0.738). Selection of habitats when establishing home ranges differed between sexes (P = 0.009). Male home ranges contained greater proportions of mature pine habitats, whereas female home ranges consistently contained greater proportions of 0-8-year-old pine habitats. When establishing core areas, habitat composition did not differ among seasons (P = 0.721) or between sexes (P = 0.393) indicating that bobcat core area selection was similar between males and females across seasons. Male and female core areas contained ...
Raleigh, NC, July 19, 2017 -(PR.com)- AmericaTowne, Inc. (AmericaTowne) and its subsidiary, ATI Modular Technology Corp., announced today that Anhui Ao De Xin Modular New Building Material Co., Ltd received its charter and license to operate in Anhui Province, Chizhou City China.. Anhui Ao De Xin Modular New Building Material Co., Ltd. received its license from the government of Chizhou China to operate the Companys International Export and modular and smart technology business in China.. The Company previously negotiated the occupancy of the plant and office complex located at Anhui Province Jiangnan Industrial Concentration Zone New Energy Industry Park A1, A2, A5 Plant, Chizhou City, Anhui Province China. The facilities will not only be used for modular and smart technology production. The modern facility will also serve as the headquarters in China and base for the AmericaTowne community and import and export activities in China.. AmericaTownes and ATI Modulars Chairman of the Board, ...
The spatial scan statistic identified that cases of enteric disease cluster. The general location and size of the reportable disease clusters detected by the spatial scan statistic did not differ greatly when comparing analyses from the CSD level (Fig. 5) to that of watershed level (Fig. 6). Previous studies have observed that the specification of a finer geographic resolution did not improve sensitivity of the scan test to detect variations in risk of disease (i.e. to detect disease clusters) [41]. The agreement between the results from both geographic scales strengthens the hypothesis that a possible common exposure contributes to the incidence of reportable enteric disease in New Brunswick; disagreement between the two geographical scales may be a result of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), which is a consequence of aggregating data across different geographical scales [42, 43].. Aggregation of data to a higher geographical level provided a more stable estimate of disease rates as ...
To investigate the distribution of vasa vasorum (VV) relative to advanced atherosclerotic lesions (calcified, fibrotic or hemorrhaged) along the aortic wall of apoE-/-/LDL-/- mice at the age of 25 and 80 weeks using high-resolution nano-CT. Aor
AIM: Recently, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be an excellent model for human paediatric research. Advantages over other models include its small size, externally visually accessible development and ease of experimental manipulation. The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of neurons and enteric glia. Glial cells permit cell bodies and processes of neurons to be arranged and maintained in a proper spatial arrangement, and are essential in the maintenance of basic physiological functions of neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in astrocytes, but also expressed outside of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of GFAP expression in developing zebrafish ENS from 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), using transgenic fish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were collected from transgenic GFP Tg(GFAP:GFP)(mi2001) adult zebrafish from 24 to 120 hpf, fixed and processed for ...
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. A provincial serosurvey was conducted in four cities, and selected through stratified clustering sampling. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, and life history were collected, along with serum tested for HBsAg. Completed surveys were analysed from 8,875 participants. Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.44%. Using multivariate analysis, older age was a risk factor for HBsAg infection among children younger than 15 years. Among adults 15-59 years old, the risk factors were male gender, a history of surgical operations, at least one HBsAg-positive family member, and non-vaccination. For adults older than 59 years, the risk factor was a blood transfusion history. Though Anhui province has already
The HIV epidemic in China has reached a phase of exponential growth. Among the infected are FBDs in rural communities, who became infected through contaminated blood collection equipment. In Fuyang, Anhui Province, China, unregulated commercial blood collection occurred from 1992 to 1995; during the last decade or so, some HIV infected FBDs have progressed to AIDS, while others are long-term nonprogressors, not requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the HIV infected participants in this study are predicted to have been infected by the same or related HIV strain because of their location and how they were infected, this is a unique population to study. It is hypothesized that host factors, such as host immunity and genetic background, are better predictors of disease progression than viral factors in this population. This study will enroll HIV-1 infected FBDs and age-matched HIV uninfected adults in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China.. There are two stages in this study. Stage I is a ...
The HIV epidemic in China has reached a phase of exponential growth. Among the infected are FBDs in rural communities, who became infected through contaminated blood collection equipment. In Fuyang, Anhui Province, China, unregulated commercial blood collection occurred from 1992 to 1995; during the last decade or so, some HIV infected FBDs have progressed to AIDS, while others are long-term nonprogressors, not requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since the HIV infected participants in this study are predicted to have been infected by the same or related HIV strain because of their location and how they were infected, this is a unique population to study. It is hypothesized that host factors, such as host immunity and genetic background, are better predictors of disease progression than viral factors in this population. This study will enroll HIV-1 infected FBDs and age-matched HIV uninfected adults in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China.. There are two stages in this study. Stage I is a ...
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The cartographic approach used by the Malaria Atlas Project will be used to model patterns of resistance in time and space. Building on our earlier spatial modelling work, we have recently developed a model that (i) accounts for the heterogenous space-time distribution of survey data, varying survey sample size, season, and identification method; (ii) incorporates temporally dynamic spatial covariates to improve predictive accuracy and allow investigation of empirical associations; and (iii) provides robust metrics of uncertainty around both predictions and parameter estimates.. We have applied this approach to model resistance to multiple types of insecticides that are important to mosquito control in Africa and the association among them. In a recent publication, we demonstrate common spatio-temporal patterns in predicted resistance to three types of pyrethroid insecticides as well as DDT. We have also demonstrated that mutations in the target site for these insecticide are useful partial ...
A tutorial in spatial and spatio-temporal models with R-INLA - Title [3445bf] - Spatial Epidemiology Methods And Applications Author: happystudentlife.org Subject: Spatial Epidemiology PDF eBooks Keywords: Spatial Ebook
Wyoming is a stronghold for GRSG, with the most birds, the most leks (male mating display grounds), and the largest contiguous sagebrush habitat in North America. Since GRSG declines have led to its possible endangered listing, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal launched an effort in 2007 to develop stronger policies for GRSG that would protect the species and its habitat while also sustaining the states economy. A public forum followed, including representatives from state and federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and industries, and in 2008 a conservation policy called the Greater Sage-Grouse Core Area Protection Strategy was developed to maintain and restore suitable habitat and active breeding GRSG pairs. The plan aims to protect at least 67% of male GRSG attending leks, and is focused on directing development outside of Core Areas by setting strict conservation measures inside Core Areas. By protecting sagebrush habitat and allowing development and mining in Non-Core Areas, ...
Abstract. Hainan Province is the main area threatened by malaria in China. However, the epidemiologic patterns of malaria in this region are not yet defined. In this study, we determined the spatio-temporal distribution and variation of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Hainan during 1995-2008 by using wavelet and cluster quantitative approaches. The results indicated a decreasing secular trend and obvious seasonal fluctuation of malaria in Hainan. In addition, the characteristic annual peak of malaria could not be detected after 2005. The southcentral region of Hainan has remained an area of relatively high malaria risk, but the incidence of P. falciparum malaria increased significantly in the southeast and southwest regions during 2002-2008. These findings identify epidemic patterns of malaria in Hainan, and are applicable for designing an effective and dynamic public health campaign to combat malaria in this region.
Experiments on single cells are currently gaining more and more interest. Single cell studies often concerns the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescent proteins inside living cells, visualized using fluorescence microscopy. In order to extract quantitative information from such experiments it is necessary to image the sample with high spatial and temporal resolution while keeping the photobleaching to a minimum. The analysis of the spatial distribution of proteins often requires stacks of images at each time point, which exposes the sample to unnecessary amounts of excitation light. In this paper we show how holographic optical tweezers combined with image analysis can be used to optimize the axial position of trapped cells in an array in order to bring the nuclei into a single imaging plane, thus eliminating the need for stacks of images and consequently reducing photobleaching. This allows more images to be collected, as well as increasing the time span and/or the time resolution in time ...
Francesc received his doctoral degree Biology (Ecology) from the University of Barcelona (1991). Subsequently, he had postdoctoral appointments at the Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar Biology in Bremerhaven; Germany and the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Kyoto, Japan. He is currently a Regular Scientist at the Institute of Marine Sciences in Barcelona, Spain. Francesc is a world-renowned expert on the ecology and taxonomy of gelatinous mesozooplankton, especially siphonophores, ctenophores and medusae, in shallow and deep-water environments. He has extensive sea-going research experience in the Benguela Current off Western Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Humboldt Current of Peru, and the Weddell Sea of the Southern Ocean. His interests include: spatio-temporal distributions of gelatinous fauna in relation to water masses and physical factors; trophodynamics and predatory impact of planktonic cnidarians on other zooplankton populations; and symbiotic associations involving ...
Researchers will formulate a model that predicts the spatiotemporal variability in groundwater vulnerability to UO&G-associated chemicals. This statistical model will be trained with calculations of a physically based, hydrologic model that simulates the probability of overlap between capture zones of drinking-water wells and UO&G contaminant sources in Susquehanna County, PA and Belmont County, OH. Once calibrated, the resultant vulnerability index model will be tested against water-quality data collected in a large-scale sampling campaign of 500 homes across four additional PA and OH counties. Water samples will be analyzed for a broad range of inorganic and organic compounds, including UO&G-related contaminants that cannot be detected by conventional analytical techniques. Our studies will culminate with a case-control study of 8,000 neonates in PA and OH to determine whether exposure to UO&G contaminants (as estimated by our vulnerability index model) is associated with changes in the ...
Particulate matter (PM) is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed
Understanding visual cognition means knowing where and when what is happening in the brain when we see. To address these questions in a common framework we combined deep neural networks (DNNs) with fMRI and MEG by representational similarity analysis. We will present results from two studies. The first study investigated the spatio-temporal neural dynamics during visual object recognition. Combining DNNs with fMRI, we showed that DNNs predicted a spatial hierarchy of visual representations in both the ventral, and the dorsal visual stream. Combining DNNs with MEG, we showed that DNNs predicted a temporal hierarchy with which visual representations emerged. This indicates that 1) DNNs predict the hierarchy of visual brain dynamics in space and time, and 2) provide novel evidence for object representations in parietal cortex. The second study investigated how abstract visual properties, such as scene size, emerge in the human brain in time. First, we identified an electrophysiological marker of ...
This is a new paperback edition of the well received text Spatial Epidemiology: methods and applications. It is an easy to read, clear and concise exploration of the field of geographical variations in disease. Especially with respect to variations in environmental exposures at the small-area scale this book gives an authoritative account of current practice and developments.
This is a new paperback edition of the well received text Spatial Epidemiology: methods and applications. It is an easy to read, clear and concise exploration of the field of geographical variations in disease. Especially with respect to variations in environmental exposures at the small-area scale this book gives an authoritative account of current practice and developments.
In dieser Dissertation werden die Methoden der nichtlinearen Dynamik angewandt um die Strukturbildung in der Großhirnrinde auf zwei Ebenen zu studieren: die Entwicklung räumlich kohärenter visueller Karten auf der Ebene der kortikalen Säulen und die Dynamik der Aktionspotentialinitiierung auf der Ebene der einzelnen Neuronen.Im ersten Teil meiner Arbeit entwickle ich eine quantitativ kontrollierte nummerische Methode für die Untersuchung der dynamischen Prozesse der sich aus dem Hebbschen Lernen ergebenden Entwicklung der Orientierungspräferenz Karten (OPM). Kohonen s selbstorganisierte Abbildung der Feature-Karten (SOFM) hat oft Anwendung gefunden bei der Simulation der Entstehung und Struktur der verschiedenen Karten aber ihre Attraktor-Zustände sind weitgehend uncharakterisiert geblieben. Zuerst identifiziere ich verschiedene dynamische Regimes des Kohonen models und führe eine umfassende Studie für verschiedene Systemgrößen, Dimensionen des Feature-Raums und Verteilungen der ...
Lily leaf spot, a fungal foliar disease caused by Pseudocercosporella inconspicua, leads to premature senescence of aboveground tissues in Lilium grayi. At Roan Mountain, North Carolina/Tennessee, the disease was most prevalent and most severe in seedlings and juveniles. In the two growing seasons assessed, 59 and 70% of mature plants experienced disease-induced premature senescence. Plants with disease lesions on seed capsules matured fewer capsules and had fewer seeds per capsule, and seeds had reduced viability. Disease prevalence over the growing season followed a sigmoidal pattern typical of polycyclic epidemics. Plants with low and high disease severity occurred in clusters whose locations were stable across growing seasons. Prior to the recent description of lily leaf spot, L. grayi was already considered threatened or endangered in each of the three states where it naturally occurs. Therefore, this infectious disease poses conservation and management difficulties because increases in plant
From the assessment above, it is evident that there are trade-offs in scenario performance across network criteria. While all scenarios performed well in certain criteria, each criterion must be met to support an ecologically coherent network. The poor performance of the 100-km scenario in the viability and adequacy criterion and the 300-km scenario in the connectivity criterion raise questions about the ecological coherence of those network scenarios. Furthermore, the 100-km scenario failed to meet the basic target to conserve the 75th percentile median dispersal distance for deep-sea benthic invertebrates within core areas and was unable to fully conserve the important areas in the RTF management unit. Given the need to place buffers around core areas, smaller APEIs are a less-efficient mechanism with which to meet conservation targets. Therefore, we recommend the use of a 200-km core length for APEIs but recognize that the size of an APEI is contingent on the characteristics of the management ...
Norman, S. A., Huggins, J., Carpenter, T. E., Case, J. T., Lambourn, D. M., Rice, J. M., et al.. (2011). The application of GIS and spatiotemporal analyses to investigations of unusual marine mammal strandings and mortality events. Marine Mammal Science. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00507. ...
Lloyd-Jones, T., Theis, M., Yahya, S., Hasan, A., Ali, M., Monteiro, C., Gandelsonas, C., Taylor, W., Seleki, B., Mulyawan, B. and Seshimo, K. 2005. Localising the Habitat Agenda for urban poverty reduction, DFID research project R-7963, final report volume 3: country reports. London, UK. Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster, London, UK and Department of Regional and City Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia. Localising the Habitat Agenda for urban poverty reduction, DFID research project R-7963, final report volume 4: general workshop reports, presentations and publications ...
OHAs can contribute by helping managers to manage sickness absence more effectively. The nurse may be involved in helping to train line managers and supervisors in how to best use the OH service, in how to refer staff, what type of information will be required, what to expect from occupational health. By developing transparent referral procedures, ensuring that medical confidentiality is maintained and that the workers rights are respected the OHA can do much to ensure that employees referred for assessment due to sickness absence are comfortable with the process.. OH nurses, with their close relationship with workers, knowledge of the working environment and trends in ill-health in the company are often in a good position to advise management on preventing sickness absence. In my experience referral to General Practitioners have a limited use for work related issues, and gain best results by as well as keeping the GP aware, referring to a specialist occupational physician.. Planned ...
Eldventir Adventures SEL platform is a great ally to accomplish this. It is an innovative platform designed for the development of life skills in students. Their programs benefit students and educators in many ways, such as enhancing personal confidence in students to deal effectively with life challenges and situations and acquiring social engagement skills. Also, students develop relevant social and emotional skills contemplated in CASEL such as empathy, anger management, responsible decision-making, and positive relationships.. Visit Eldventir.com for more information and contact [email protected] to run a free Empathy pilot in your school.. ...
Hello, I need to do a space-time cluster analysis of incidence of dengue for 59 villages. For each village I have number of cases of dengue and population
Article Estimating the spatial-temporal distribution of Radon releases from the K-65 silos. This study investigates the spatial and temporal distribution of Radon at the Department of Energys (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), in...
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