STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to test a large set of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma registrations for the presence of clusters in space and in time. DESIGN--The study was a space-time cluster analysis. SETTING--England, Wales and Scotland. PATIENTS--All registrations for leukaemia and lymphoma between 1966 and 1983 in children aged 0 to 14 years were examined. The records included date and age of registration, sex, diagnosis, and the map reference of the postcode of residence. Of the 9411 registrations, 8888 were suitable for inclusion. MAIN RESULTS--There was a statistically significant excess of case pairs occurring jointly within 0.5 km and 60 d of each other: 68 pairs compared with 50.0 expected. The excess was detectable in central England, in the north of England and Scotland, but not in the south west of England. It was concentrated within the age band 4 to 7 years and among the lymphatic leukaemias. Several potential artefacts were considered and excluded, but the possibility remained ...

Bills post brings to mind a fundamental conflict between GR and QM: I believe no one has yet figured out how to resolve that on one hand GR requires a dynamic spacetime while QM relies on a fixed, non dynamic spacetime structure. One simple way to picture this conflict is that, as you know, elements of the stress energy tensor in GR is the source of spacetime curvature; in QM, the fixed geometric spacetime background, as say in string theory, imparts the vibrational characteristics of particles. Change the spacetime background in string theory and you change the vibrational modes and that means particle characteristics change ...

The distribution of case farms in time and space led us to form a hypothesis of space-time interaction clustering of AEP case farms (and cases). Space-time clustering was supported by the results from the spatial scan statistic at case level and at case farm level by the space-time K-function, although some clusters detected by the scan statistic included a larger area and longer time period than suggested by the distances with increased risk found with the K-function. Also, the proportion of case farms that were included in a space-time cluster was low (eleven out of 118). In this scan statistic, all case farms for which information on number of affected horses was missing were excluded, which is a limitation of the study. The second scan statistic, at case farm level, included these 18 farms, 17 of which were in Norway and affected in 2012; nine of these 17 farms were located in Rogaland County (Figure 2). However, no clusters of high rates of case farms were identified.. The first scan ...

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Urban public health and medical management in Shenzhen, an international city in the developing country of China, is challenged by an increasing burden of IHD. This study analyzed the spatio-temporal variation of IHD hospital admissions from 2003 to 2012 utilizing spatial statistics, spatial analysis, and space-time scan statistics. The spatial statistics and spatial analysis measured the incidence rate (hospital admissions per 1,000 residents) and the standardized rate (the observed cases standardized by the expected cases) of IHD at the district level to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and identify patterns of change. The space-time scan statistics was used to identify spatio-temporal clusters of IHD hospital admissions at the district level. The other objective of this study was to forecast the IHD hospital admissions over the next three years (2013-2015) to predict the IHD incidence rates and the varying burdens of IHD

In this book, Robert Wald provides a coherent, pedagogical introduction to the formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. He begins with a treatment of the ordinary one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator, progresses through the construction of quantum field theory in flat spacetime to possible constructions of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, and, ultimately, to an algebraic formulation of the theory. In his presentation, Wald disentangles essential features of the theory from inessential ones (such as a particle interpretation) and clarifies relationships between various approaches to the formulation of the theory. He also provides a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Unruh effect, the Hawking effect, and some of its ramifications. In particular, the subject of black hole thermodynamics, which remains an active area of research, is treated in depth.This book will be accessible to students and researchers who have had introductory courses in general relativity and

There are a number of other software packages that are related to the SaTScan software. These include (i) wrappers and macros, whereby SaTScan can be run as part of another software environment such as SAS or R, (ii) software that calls and uses one or more SaTScan features as an integral part of the software, (iii) programs for displaying SaTScan results using the SaTScan output files, (iv) independent implementations of the SaTScan spatial and space-time scan statistics, and (v) software for other types of scan statistics not covered by SaTScan. Some of these programs were developed as part of a SaTScan project, in collaboration with the SaTScan development team, while other programs are completely independent creations.. ...

The design of a linear space-time code with full rate, large diversity product, and non-vanishing minimum determinant of codewords continues to attract great attention. However, in most available no-vanishing determinant space-time codes for three, four, and six transmitter antennas, the average pow.... Full description. ...

In general relativity, we cannot even talk about relative velocities, except for two particles at the same point of spacetime -- that is, at the same place at the same instant. The reason is that in general relativity, we take very seriously the notion that a vector is a little arrow sitting at a particular point in spacetime. To compare vectors at different points of spacetime, we must carry one over to the other. The process of carrying a vector along a path without turning or stretching it is called `parallel transport. When spacetime is curved, the result of parallel transport from one point to another depends on the path taken! In fact, this is the very definition of what it means for spacetime to be curved. Thus it is ambiguous to ask whether two particles have the same velocity vector unless they are at the same point of spacetime ...

TY - CHAP. T1 - Heart valve flow computation with the space-time slip interface topology change (ST-SI-TC) method and isogeometric analysis (IGA). AU - Takizawa, Kenji. AU - Tezduyar, Tayfun E.. AU - Terahara, Takuya. AU - Sasaki, Takafumi. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - We present a heart valve flow computation with the Space-Time Slip Interface Topology Change (ST-SI-TC) method and Isogeometric Analysis (IGA). The computation is for a realistic heart valve model with actual contact between the valve leaflets. The ST-SI-TC method integrates the ST-SI and ST-TC methods in the framework of the ST Variational Multiscale (ST-VMS) method. The STVMS method functions as a moving-mesh method, which maintains high-resolution boundary layer representation near the solid surfaces. The ST-TC method was introduced for moving-mesh computation of flow problems with TC, such as contact between the leaflets of a heart valve. It deals with the contact while maintaining highresolution representation near the leaflet ...

Abstract: We construct a duality between several simple physical systems by showing that they are different aspects of the same quantum theory. Examples include the free relativistic massless particle and the hydrogen atom in any number of dimensions. The key is the gauging of the Sp(2) duality symmetry that treats position and momentum (x,p) as a doublet in phase space. As a consequence of the gauging, the Minkowski space-time vectors (x^\mu, p^\mu) get enlarged by one additional space-like and one additional time-like dimensions to (x^M,p^M). A manifest global symmetry SO(d,2) rotates (x^M,p^M) like d+2 dimensional vectors. The SO(d,2) symmetry of the parent theory may be interpreted as the familiar conformal symmetry of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime in one gauge, or as the dynamical symmetry of a totally different physical system in another gauge. Thanks to the gauge symmetry, the theory permits various choices of ``time which correspond to different looking Hamiltonians, ...

A new study combining data from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory and Fermi Gamma-ray Telescope, and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array (VERITAS) in Arizona is helping scientists set limits on the quantum nature of space-time on extremely tiny scales, as explained in our latest press release.. Certain aspects of quantum mechanics predict that space-time - the three dimensions of space plus time -- would not be smooth on the scale of about ten times a billionth of a trillionth of the diameter of a hydrogen atoms nucleus. They refer to the structure that may exist at this extremely small size as "space-time foam." This artists illustration depicts how the foamy structure of space-time may appear, showing tiny bubbles quadrillions of times smaller than the nucleus of an atom that are constantly fluctuating and last for only infinitesimal fractions of a second.. Because space-time foam is so small, it is impossible to observe it directly. However, depending on what model of ...

We consider a sensor network in which each sensor takes measurements, at various times, of some unknown parameters, corrupted by independent Gaussian noises. Each node can take a finite or infinite number of measurements, at arbitrary times (i.e., asynchronously). We propose a space-time diffusion scheme, that relies only on peer-to-peer communication, and allows every node to asymptotically compute the global maximum-likelihood estimate of the unknown parameters. At each iteration, information is diffused across the network by a temporal update step and a spatial update step. Both steps update each nodes state by a weighted average of its current value and locally available data: new measurements for the time update, and neighbors data for the spatial update. At any time, any node can compute a local weighted least-squares estimate of the unknown parameters, which converges to the global maximum-likelihood solution. With an infinite number of measurements, these estimates converge to the true ...

V-BLAST (Vertical-Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) is a detection algorithm to the receipt of multi-antenna MIMO systems.[2] Available for the first time in 1996 at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey in the United States by Gerard J. Foschini. He proceeded simply to eliminate interference caused successively issuers. Its principle is quite simple: to make a first detection of the most powerful signal. It regenerates the received signal from this user from this decision. Then, the signal is regenerated subtracted from the received signal and, with this new signal, it proceeds to the detection of the second users most powerful, since it has already cleared the first and so forth. What gives a vector containing received less interference. The complete detection algorithm can be summarized as recursive as follows: Initialize: ...

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Incidentally, in Einsteins original theory of special relativity time was not combined with the spatial coordinates to make a four-dimensional continuum. Spacetime was invented by Einsteins math teacher Minkowski. That was quite useful in practical terms because a point moving through space could be visualized as a line in spacetime. Kinematics (dependence of coordinates on time) was reduced to geometry of worldlines and Lorentz transformations became mere rotations in spacetime. In ordinary space, rotations conserve the length of a line. In spacetime, the analog of length is called the interval. Its conservation is related to the constancy of the speed of light ...

To know relativity, we first need to know about spacetime. Consider millions of horizontal and vertical lines weaved together to form a fabric, with the lines representing time and space respectively. This one fabric is spacetime, which is laid throughout the universe. And this spacetime is the new definition of gravity. Gravity isnt just a force, its the depth formed by a heavy mass on this fabric, which causes objects like satellites and asteroids to revolve around it. For instance; if you stretch a big rectangular elastic blanket from its four corners and drop a heavy mass (or a ball) in its centre, you will observe that it creates a depth on the blanket. And now on the blanket, if you gently keep a mass of comparatively lesser than the heavier mass, you will observe that the lighter mass revolves around the heavier mass for a period of time. This concept of the blanket or fabric is somewhat known as spacetime, in terms of gravity in which gravity is directly proportional to the depth it ...

Polychromatic stationary propagation-invariant fields with complete spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain are considered. In general, the field is shown to be spatially partially coherent in the space-time domain, apart from transversely achromatic fields with complete transverse coherence. Particular attention is paid to fields that possess the same cone angle at each frequency; these are stationary counterparts of pulsed conical fields known as X waves. It is shown that, for such fields, the radius of the space-time-domain transverse coherence area depends critically on the bandwidth of the power spectrum and can be comparable to the central-lobe radius of the monochromatic field component at the peak frequency of the spectrum.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...

In order to map a bodys gravitational influence, it is useful to think about what physicists call probe or test particles: particles that are influenced by gravity, but are so small and light that we can neglect their own gravitational effect. In the absence of gravity and other external forces, a test particle moves along a straight line at a constant speed. In the language of spacetime, this is equivalent to saying that such test particles move along straight world lines in spacetime. In the presence of gravity, spacetime is non-Euclidean, or curved, and in curved spacetime straight world lines may not exist. Instead, test particles move along lines called geodesics, which are "as straight as possible", that is, they follow the shortest path between starting and ending points, taking the curvature into consideration. A simple analogy is the following: In geodesy, the science of measuring Earths size and shape, a geodesic (from Greek "geo", Earth, and "daiein", to divide) is the shortest ...

The book Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime and Black Hole Thermodynamics, Robert M. Wald is published by University of Chicago Press.

inproceedings{7213237, author = {Shi, Xiaogang and Ronsse, Frederik and Pieters, Jan}, booktitle = {21st International symposium on analytical and applied pyrolysis}, language = {eng}, location = {Nancy, France}, pages = {218--218}, title = {Finite element and space-time integral models for biomass torrefaction}, year = {2016 ...

astroengine writes Those pesky physicists are at it again; they want to build a laser so powerful that it will literally rip spacetime apart. Why? To prove the existence of virtual particles in the quantum vacuum, potentially unravel extra dimensions and possibly find the root of dark matter. The $...

The heartbroken family of a 35-year-old Torquay man who died in a police cell last month have broken their silence to demand answers.

A 45-year-old Dungiven man who scrawled ‘RUC SCUM’ and ‘IRA’ in a police cell has been jailed for four and a half months.

behaviour of real things (?). In Galilean relativity, space is a void with nothing in it and acts as a stage in which events take place; time is immutable and is a measure of the interval between events. Also time advances at a fixed rate into the future.. In Special relativity, space and time are a fabric woven into spacetime that can bend and curve and enables time travel at least into the future. Time passes at different rates depending on your uniform velocity. And length can contract also depending on your uniform velocity.. General relativity, extends Special relativity and equates the geometry of space with the energy/stress/momentum within it. This is achieved by postulating that mass warps spacetime creating a spacetime curvature that replaces gravity.. My commentary: you may have guessed that I subscribe to Galilean relativity. Special relativity states that your uniform speed affects the rate at which time passes for you. For 2 people travelling at different uniform speeds, time will ...

Reverse correlation methods, such as spike‐triggered averaging, have provided much insight about the receptive fields (RFs) of retinal ganglion cells (GCs), but have been unable to study the antagonistic surround. By removing commonly used assumptions, such as space-time separability, we observed a linear antagonistic surround in 754 of 805 mouse GCs. By characterizing the RFs space-time structure, we found the space-time inseparability present in mouse RGCs could be accounted for both by tuning differences between the center and surround and differences within the surround. Finally, we identified the spatial structure of this antagonistic surround and found significant spatial asymmetry and inhomogeneity in the structure of the surround. These results shed new light on the spatiotemporal organization of GC linear RFs and highlight a major contributor to its inseparability. ...

Learn Disease Clusters from Johns Hopkins University. Do a lot of people in your neighborhood all seem to have the same sickness? Are people concerned about high rates of cancer? Your community may want to explore the possibility of a disease ...

This thesis addresses two important topics in developing a systematic space-time geometric approach to real-time, low-level motion vision. The first one concerns measuring of image flow, while the second one focuses on how to find low level features.. We argue for studying motion vision in terms of space-time geometry rather than in terms of two (or a few) consecutive image frames. The use of Galilean Geometry and Galilean similarity geometry for this purpose is motivated and relevant geometrical background is reviewed.. In order to measure the visual signal in a way that respects the geometry of the situation and the causal nature of time, we argue that a time causal Galilean spatio-temporal scale-space is needed. The scale-space axioms are chosen so that they generalize popular axiomatizations of spatial scale-space to spatio-temporal geometries.. To be able to derive the scale-space, an infinitesimal framework for scale-spaces that respects a more general class of Lie groups (compared to ...

I have already earlier mentioned the work of Russian scientist Shnoll concerning random fluctuations. This work spans four decades and has finally started to gain recognition also in west. By a good luck I found from web an article of Shnoll about strange regularities of what should be random fluctuations. Then Dainis Zeps provided me with a whole collection of similar articles! Thank you Dainis! The findings of Shnoll led within few days to a considerable progress in the understanding of the relation between p-adic and real probability concepts, the relationship between p-adic physics and quantum groups emerging naturally in TGD based view about finite measurement resolution, the relationship of the hierarchy of Planck constants (in particular the gigantic gravitational Planck constant assignable to the space-time sheets mediating gravitation) and small-p p-adicity, and also with the understanding of the experimental implications of many-sheetedness of space-time in concrete measurement ...

Speaker: Shannon Ray (Florida Atlantic University). Title: Wang and Yaus Quasi-Local Energy for an Extreme Kerr Spacetime. Abstract: There exist constant radial surfaces, S, that may not be globally embeddable in R3 for Kerr spacetimes with a,3M/2. One must isometrically embed S into R3 to compute the Brown and York (B-Y) quasi-local energy (QLE). On the other hand, the Wang and Yau (W-Y) QLE embeds S into Minkowski space. In this talk, the W-Y QLE for surfaces that may or may not be globally embeddable in R3 is examined. Their energy functional, E[τ], has a critical point at τ=0 for all constant radial surfaces in t=constant hypersurfaces using Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. For τ=0, the W-Y QLE reduces to the B-Y QLE. To examine the W-Y QLE in these cases, the energy functional is written explicitly in terms of τ under the assumption that τ is only a function of θ. Then, τ(θ) is written as a Fourier expansion to explore the values of E[τ(θ)] in the space of coefficients. An open ...

Secondly, what I write may be too elementary for some of the readers, perhaps even insultingly so. I request them to bear with it, considering that some other readers may find it illuminating. Thirdly, this post is not a commentary on the rightness or wrongness of the theories; it is merely a description of what the theories say. Or rather, my version of what they say. With those disclaimers out of the way, lets get started…. LT is a rotation in the 4-D space-time. Since it not easy to visualize 4-D space-time rotation, lets start with a 2-D, pure space rotation. One fundamental property of a geometry (such as 2-D Euclidean space) is its metric tensor. The metric tensor defines the inner product between two vectors in the space. In normal (Euclidean or flat) spaces, it also defines the distance between two points (or the length of a vector).. Though the metric tensor has the dreaded "tensor" word in its name, once you define a coordinate system, it is only a matrix. For Euclidean 2-D space ...

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This chapter reviews various interpretations of structural realism and then adopts a definition that allows both relations between things that are already individuated (relations between things) and relations that individuate previously un-individuated entities (things between relations). Since both spacetime points in general relativity and elementary particles in quantum theory fall into the latter category, the chapter proposes a principle of maximal permutability as a criterion for the fundamental entities of any future theory of quantum gravity; i.e., a theory yielding both general relativity and quantum field theory in appropriate limits. It reviews a number of current candidates for such a theory. The chapter ends by suggesting a new approach to the question of which spacetime structures should be quantized.

Hovering over the poles further out, we have a giant ring sucking up sunlight and generating a huge toroidal magnetic field. All the matter we stir up on the sun and off the poles is sucked through that and slowed down for collection. Its a lot like the VASIMR Drive, using a magnetic nozzle, so that nothing has to touch the ultra hot plasma. Giant Plasma Thrusters essentially acting as the pump to gather the matter, it stays in place using the momentum its stealing from the particles it is slowing down, again its a giant plasma thruster.. We will eventually build far more of these rings around the Sun, spaced up and down from the equator, and intermittently shut off the power beam holding them aloft. As all the satellites in that ring drop, building up speed, we switch the power for the beam back on and their plummet stops and they push back up to their original position. We do this with all the rings, in sequence, pushing much larger waves of matter toward the poles than the Thermal Driven ...

In 2015, scientists discovered the telltale signal from ripples of spacetime sweeping over the Earth. It was the very first direct detection of gravitational waves, generated by the merger of two massive black holes 1.3 billion light-years away.. This discovery was the culmination of decades of research and construction of huge instruments called interferometers to detect the warping of spacetime caused by gravitational waves.. Today, the most advanced detectors, the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration, have turned up over 50 gravitational wave discoveries - on average one every week - allowing astronomers to perceive the Universe in a completely different way.. What new gravitational wave instruments are in the works, and what does the future hold for this relatively new field of study?. Our Book is out!. https://www.amazon.com/Universe-Today-Ultimate-Viewing-Cosmos/dp/1624145442/. Audio Podcast version:. ITunes: ...

But finding experimental evidence for space-time discreteness is difficult because this structure is at the Planck scale and thus way beyond what we can directly probe. The best tests for such discrete approaches thus do not rely on the discreteness itself but on the baggage it brings, such as violations or deformations of Lorentz-symmetry that can be very precisely tested. Alas, what if the discrete structure does not violate Lorentz-symmetry? That is the question I have addressed in my two recent papers. In discrete approaches to quantum gravity, space-time is not, fundamentally, a smooth background. Instead, the smooth background that we use in general relativity - the rubber sheet on which the marbles roll - is only an approximation that becomes useful at long distances. The discrete structure itself may be hard to test, but in any such discrete approach one expects the approximation of the smooth background to be imperfect. The discrete structure will have defects, much like crystals have ...

Using mirror symmetry, we resolve an old puzzle in the linear sigma model description of the spacetime Higgs mechanism in a heterotic string compactification with (2,2) worldsheet supersymmetry. The resolution has a nice spacetime interpretation via the normalization of physical fields and suggests that with a little care deformations of the linear sigma model can describe heterotic Higgs branches.. ...

For Ashon Crawley and adrienne maree brown. Note: This piece first appeared without crediting the work of the Black Quantum Futurism Collective. This was a grave error, and I am sorry for it. The theory of Black Quantum Futurism was developed by Rasheedah Phillips and Camae Ayewa and I direct interested readers to their work. I trust that this piece on blackness as gravity will be read for what it is: as a side note to that larger conversation.. 1. Distortion. The most common force, the most everyday, is also the most obscure. We feel it most but we understand it least.. Begin from here: the curvature of space-time is caused by the unequal distribution of mass/energy.. On the street. For hours.. This is distorted geometry. How a body causes space-time to sag.. If an object is subjected to force it will deviate.. Time lapses more slowly. On the street. Slow light.. All models of quantum blackness attempt to develop a new geometry. "Everything was like a poem, with different curves, different ...

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How does experience, which is so intimately tied to our perception of time and space, arise from timeless, non-spatial ingredients?

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The reasons you gave for thinking that time is fundamentally motion and that space is fundamentally motion seem to depend on this principle: If A isnt perceivable (or isnt explicable) without some kind of B, then A is fundamentally B. But that principle looks false. Motion isnt perceivable without some kind of perceptual apparatus, but that doesnt imply that motion is fundamentally perceptual apparatus. Motion isnt explicable without some kind of explanation, but that doesnt imply that motion is fundamentally explanation. Furthermore, if time and space are both fundamentally motion, are time and space identical to each other? Even physicists who talk in terms of "spacetime" nevertheless talk about time as a separate dimension of spacetime; I dont think they regard time and space as one and the same.. One might also question whether space, or the perception of space, requires motion. When I stare at my index fingers held one inch apart, I perceive them as occupying different spaces, and I ...

Whereas the human body requires a vast numbers of atoms to maintain its intricate anatomical functions, we assert that the human brain requires

Based on online wildfire satellite-monitoring data, distributions of burned-out areas, as well as emission volumes of carbon-containing gases (СО and СО2) and fine aerosols (РМ2.5), for different...

Genre: Arcade (Plate-forme) Développeur: Asteroid base Editeur: Asteroid Base Type de publication: RePack Langue: RUS | ENG Langue:

The classical solution theory for stochastic ODEs is centered around Itos stochastic integral. By intertwining ideas from analysis and probability, this approach extends to many PDEs, a canonical example being multiplicative stochastic heat equations driven by space-time white noise. In both the ODE and PDE settings, the solution theory is beyond the scope of classical deterministic theory because of the ambiguity in multiplying a function with a white noise. The theory of rough paths and regularity structures provides a more quantitative understanding of this difficulty, leading to a more refined solution theory which efficiently divides the analytic and probabilistic aspects of the problem, and remarkably, even has an algebraic component. In this talk, we will discuss a new application of these ideas to stochastic heat equations where the strength of the diffusion is not constant but random, as it depends locally on the solution. These are known as quasi-linear equations. Our main result ...

Quasi-linear parabolic equations with singular forcing The classical solution theory for stochastic ODEs is centered around Itos stochastic integral. By intertwining ideas from analysis and probability, this approach extends to many PDEs, a canonical example being multiplicative stochastic heat equations driven by space-time white noise. In both the ODE and PDE settings, the solution theory is beyond the scope of classical deterministic theory because of the ambiguity in multiplying a function with a white noise. The theory of rough paths and regularity structures provides a more quantitative understanding of this difficulty, leading to a more refined solution theory which efficiently divides the analytic and probabilistic aspects of the problem, and remarkably, even has an algebraic component. In this talk, we will discuss a new application of these ideas to stochastic heat equations where the strength of the diffusion is not constant but random, as it depends locally on the solution. These ...

Dearest Blog Readers,. For the last month Ive been very sick; in fact I havent been this ill in 40 years. Im much better, and getting better all the time, but thats why I havent written a new post until now. The experience has been so intense and all encompassing that as I joked to a couple of my neighbors who have helped me through it, the coordinates in my block of space-time have been scrambled. Ive had to reorient myself to the basics in my life and to a sense of time passing. I was shocked to realize its only been a month when it feels like its been months or time simply stopped. I attempted writing a narrative from start to finish, but that proved too exhausting and also too fabricated because in fact my experience of this time is stored in fragments, emerging into awareness here and there. So what follows is a series of those fragments, as best as I can represent them, in a kind of out-of-time dateline, as if such a paradox can attempt to make a kind of sick bay sense. Im happy ...

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A discrete dynamical network can have arbitrary connections and heterogeneous rules, and includes Cellular Autamata (CA), and Random Boolean Networks (RBN), where the Boolean atribute is extended to multi-value. Lattice dimensions can be 1d, 2d (hex or square) or 3d. Many tools and functions are available for creating the network (its rules and wiring), setting the initial state, analyzing the dynamics, and amending parameters on-the-fly. An overview of DDLab and what it can do is provided in this pdf preprint. The program iterates the network forward to display space-time patterns, and also runs the network backwards to generate a patterns predecessors and reconstruct its branching sub-tree of all ancestor patterns. For smaller networks, sub-trees, basins of attraction or the whole basin of attraction field can be reconstructed and displayed as directed graphs in real time. The DDLab Gallery shows examples. The networks parameters, and the graphics display and presentation options, can ...

3. a directly conceived or intuited object of thought.. Alright, lets take this one step at a time.. First off I have to mention that I am not looking for answers that are right according to how others define time. I am discussing this topic with you, so when I ask a question I would like to hear what YOU think. I am not testing/challenging you with any of my questions. I just want to discuss the topic of time.. With that said, do you think that time is some sort of physical form of energy?. You mentioned General Relativity and time being a dimensions, a coordinate,and a path through space-time.. All that can be cleared up once it has been established if time is a physical thing or not. It would also help you to find out if dimensions are physical things. Is there any scientific reference or definition that states dimensions are physical things? Or are they just concepts of measurement?. A coordinate. Is that a physical thing? Or just a concept used to define a position of a real or imagined ...