Author: Nalbant, P. et al.; Genre: Other; Published in Print: 1999; Title: PDZ-domain interaction of the Na/P-i cotransporter type II
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Bartter syndrome (BS) type 1, also referred to antenatal BS, is a genetic tubulopathy with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and prenatal onset of polyuria leading to polyhydramnios. It has been shown that BS type 1 is caused by mutations in the SLC12A1 gene encoding bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl (-) …
To treat Bartter Syndrome, it is imperative to maintain adequate potassium levels in the body. Infant suffering with Neonatal Bartter Syndrome urinate (polyuria) and drink (polydipsia) excessive fluid. Know its treatment, prognosis, causes and symptoms.
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Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited defect in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. It is characterized by low potassium levels (hypokalemia), increased blood pH (alkalosis), and normal to low blood pressure. There are two types of Bartter syndrome: neonatal and classic. A closely associated disorder, Gitelman syndrome, is milder than both subtypes of Bartter syndrome. In 90% of cases, neonatal Bartter syndrome is seen between 24 and 30 weeks of gestation with excess amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios). After birth, the infant is seen to urinate and drink excessively (polyuria, and polydipsia, respectively). Life-threatening dehydration may result if the infant does not receive adequate fluids. About 85% of infants dispose of excess amounts of calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) and kidneys (nephrocalcinosis), which may lead to kidney stones. In rare occasions, the infant may progress to renal failure. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome may have symptoms in the first two years of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclosporine reduces basolateral, but not apical, nitric oxide secretion in medullary thick ascending limb cells. AU - Wu, M. S.. AU - Bens, M.. AU - Yu, H. M.. AU - Vandewalle, A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cyclosporine (CsA) reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells. We postulated that CsA affected NO secretion in a vectorial manner in polarized renal epithelial cells. The experiments were performed in a model of mTAL subcultured cells. The expression of iNOS in mTAL cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The cells were grown on a non-permeable filter. Nitrite was measured by the modified Griess method. Transepithelial resistance was measured to ensure the integrity of the tight junction. CsA (100 ng/ml) reduced NO production by 22% in mTAL cells. The inhibitory effect was limited to the basolateral side (control: 165 ± 11; plus CsA: 93 ± 17 nM/106 cells, P ,0.001) without affecting apical NO secretion. The transepithelial resistance through ...
Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited kidney disorder in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. It is characterized by low potassium levels (hypokalemia), increased blood pH (alkalosis), and normal to low blood pressure. There are two types of Bartter syndrome: neonatal and classic. A closely associated disorder, Gitelman syndrome, is milder than both subtypes of Bartter syndrome.Wikipedia Bartter and Gitelman syndromes can be divided into different subtypes based on the genes involved 10.1159/000076752: ...
Several dozen mutations in the KCNJ1 gene have been identified in people with Bartter syndrome type II. This form of the disorder causes severe or life-threatening health problems that become apparent before or soon after birth.. Some of the KCNJ1 gene mutations responsible for Bartter syndrome change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the ROMK protein. These mutations prevent the protein from reaching the cell membrane or alter the channels ability to transport potassium ions. Other mutations in the KCNJ1 gene delete amino acids from the protein or lead to the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of ROMK.. A loss of functional ROMK affects the normal activity of the NKCC2 protein, preventing it from transporting ions into kidney cells. As a result, the kidneys cannot reabsorb salt normally and excess salt is lost through the urine (salt wasting). The abnormal salt loss disrupts the normal balance of sodium, potassium, and other ions in the body. These ...
We recently reported that the rat thick ascending limb (THAL) possesses an active isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that is substrate-limited in vitro. NO produced by THAL NOS inhibits chloride flux. Protein and transcript for each of the primar
Denoyer, Delphine, Perek, Nathalie, Le Jeune, Nathalie, Frere, Delphine and Dubois, Francis 2004, Evidence that 99mTc-(V)-DMSA uptake is mediated by NaPi cotransporter type III in tumour cell lines, European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 77-84, doi: 10.1007/s00259-003-1334-7. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
This study aims to contribute to the understanding of how existing theories of strategy and strategic changes may be applied in a real-world Balanced Scorecard (BSC) context. In other words, how a strategy is connected to an existing BSC in a real-world setting. What makes this study interesting and relevant is the current turbulent state of the worldwide economy that is likely to lead to strategic adjustments and changes to a larger extent, which should be reflected in a strategic tool such as the BSC.. In order for a change to be implemented it must be known and understood by those who are expected to perform the change. The ones expected to implement a change should know about it to actually be able act out on a possible connection between the strategy and the BSC. To deeply understand how strategy and strategic changes are reflected in the BSC should thereby entail how strategic changes are uttered in the BSC as well as how well they are communicated to all relevant levels of the company. ...
Buy BSND recombinant protein, Bartter Syndrome Infantile with Sensorineural Deafness Recombinant Protein-NP_476517.1 (MBS146293) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter during focal cerebral ischemia decreases edema and neuronal damage. - Yiping Yan, Robert J Dempsey, Andreas Flemmer, Biff Forbush, Dandan Sun
J:72408 Birkenhager R, Otto E, Schurmann MJ, Vollmer M, Ruf EM, Maier-Lutz I, Beekmann F, Fekete A, Omran H, Feldmann D, Milford DV, Jeck N, Konrad M, Landau D, Knoers NV, Antignac C, Sudbrak R, Kispert A, Hildebrandt F, Mutation of BSND causes Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness and kidney failure. Nat Genet. 2001 Nov;29(3):310-4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb. AU - Abe, Michiaki. AU - OConnor, Paul. AU - Kaldunski, Mary. AU - Liang, Mingyu. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Cowley, Allen W.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Hypertension is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and medullary renal injury. Previous studies have shown that elevations in renal perfusion pressure increase Na+ delivery to the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), and enhancement of NaCl transport in the outer medulla has been reported in many experimental forms of hypertension. This study examined the effects of increased Na+ and fluid delivery in mTAL perfused in vitro on the generation of superoxide. Osmolality was maintained constant between low- and high-Na+ perfusates by adjusting with choline Cl-. Real-time fluorescent microscopic techniques were used to determine the generation of superoxide and nitric oxide in individual mTAL cells using ...
Na+ and volume homeostasis is controlled by the kidneys and key to blood pressure (BP) regulation. The kidneys respond to an increase in BP by decreasing Na+/H2O reabsorption (pressure natriuresis, diuresis) to decrease ECFV and BP. Conversely, a decrease in BP triggers Na+/H2O retaining mechanisms. Sodium transport can be regulated by altering transporter pool size, activity, and/or trafficking. In the proximal tubule (PT), trafficking is essential for the NHE3 and NaPi2 regulation. When BP increases, both retract away from the microvilli, NHE3 to the base, NaPi2 to endosomes. The aims of this dissertation were to determine: 1) the molecular basis of the differential trafficking patterns of NHE3 and NaPi2 during acute hypertension; 2) the role of acute AngII in the trafficking of PT sodium transporters; 3) the role of phosphorylation in the NHE3 and distal tubule NCC regulation during hypertension. Results: NHE3 and NaPi2 are segregated into domains: NHE3 to lipid rafts and NaPi2 to non-rafts. ...
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) is present in most animal cells where it functions in cell volume homeostasis and epithelial salt transport. We developed six monoclonal antibodies (designated T4, T8, T9, T10, T12, and T14) against a fusion protein fragment encompassing the carboxy-terminal 310 amin …
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Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL). In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL), basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25%) inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (,35 days) and adult (,35 days) male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the ...
During the passed few years the cellular mechanisms responsible for the NaCl reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the Henle loop of mammalian nephron and of the early distal tubule of amphibian
Research focuses on the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial transport disorders including kidney and small intestine. The major emphasis is currently on the novel epithelial calcium (TRPV5 & TRPV6) and magnesium (TRPM6 & TRPM7) channels that constitute the rate-limiting calcium / magnesium influx pathways in epithelia. In addition, they investigate the role of renal sodium transporters (NKCC2, NCC, ENaC) in essential hypertension and contribute to the multidisiplinary effort to establish a biokidney.
La nostra taula de treball dins de les VIII Jornades Escoles 0-12 estava dedicada als nens i a les nenes com a tals, és a dir, com a nens i com a nenes que són. A lhora de plantejar-nos com podíem abordar la temàtica, ens ...
Here, we provide compelling evidence that exposure to a long-day photoperiod switches the polarity of GABAergic activity in most SCN neurons from inhibitory to excitatory. Presynaptically, sPSC frequency changes with differing day lengths, whereas postsynaptically, the photoperiod affects GABAergic activity within the SCN by changing the equilibrium potential of GABA-evoked current. The increase in excitatory GABAergic activity was reduced after blocking the Cl− cotransporter NKCC1 using bumetanide, suggesting a modulation of NKCC1 activity or expression. Thus, our data show that environmental conditions affect GABAergic activity by modulating cellular properties on a basic biophysical level.. The key mechanisms that contribute to the degree of synchronization within the SCN, reflected in the photoperiodic-induced changes in phase distribution (3), may depend on the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory GABAergic activity within the SCN, rather than an overall increase in GABAergic tone. The role ...
PUBLICATIONS:. 1. Waqar Hussain, Rashid Mahmood. Bartter syndrome. A review article. Pakistan Pediatric Journal. Vol.18, No.1.. 2. Waqar Hussain, Rashid Mahmood. Bartter syndrome in a newborn child- a case report. Pakistan Pediatric Journal. Vol.18, No.1.. 3. Vohra Naeem Ahmad, Sajid Maqbool, Rashid Mahmood. Coeliac disease in Pakistani Children. Specialist. 9(4); Jul-Sep 1993: 319-322.. 4. Waqar Hussain, Rashid Mahmood et al. Factor VII deficiency in a newborn - a case report. Pakistan Pediatric Journal. Vol.18, No.2.. 5. Rashid Mahmood, Waqar Hussain et at. Acute congenital myeloid leukemia. Pakistan Pediatric Journal. Vol.19, No.2. 6. Co.author of a book Respiratory support of the newborn.. 7. Waqar Hussain, Rashid Mahmood et al. Coeliac Disease: Common Presentations and Diagnostic Values of Distal Duodenal Biopsy ( DDB ). Proceedings S.Z.P.G.M.I. Vol. 9(3-4) 1995, pp 65-67.. 8. Zeba Aziz, Maliha Zahid, Rashid Mahmood. Modified BFM protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A ...
An inverse relationship exists between urinary tissue kallikrein (TK) excretion and blood pressure in humans and rodents. In the kidney TK is synthesized in large amounts in the connecting tubule and is mainly released into the urinary fluid where its function remains unknown. In the present study mice with no functional gene coding for TK (TK-/-) were used to test whether the enzyme regulates apically expressed sodium transporters. Semiquantitative immunoblotting of the renal cortex revealed an absence of the 70-kDa form of gamma-ENaC in TK-/- mice. Urinary Na+ excretion after amiloride injection was blunted in TK-/- mice, consistent with reduced renal ENaC activity. Amiloride-sensitive transepithelial potential difference in the colon, where TK is also expressed, was decreased in TK-/- mice, whereas amiloride-sensitive alveolar fluid clearance in the lung, where TK is not expressed, was unchanged. In mice lacking the B2 receptor for kinins, the abundance of the 70-kDa form of gamma-ENaC was ...
Comparison of urine concentrations of CXCL1 between a the cancer and non-cancer groups, b low-grade and high-grade BCa and c low stage (NMIBC) and high stage BC
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bumetanide inhibition of the blood-brain barrier Na-K-Cl cotransporter reduces edema formation in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. AU - ODonnell, Martha E. AU - Tran, Lien. AU - Lam, Tina I.. AU - Liu, Xiao Bo. AU - Anderson, Steven E.. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Increased transport of Na+ across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) participates in edema formation during the early hours of cerebral ischemia. In previous studies, the authors showed that the BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter is stimulated by factors present during ischemia, suggesting that the cotransporter may contribute to the increased brain Na+ uptake in edema. The present study was conducted to determine (1) whether the Na-K-Cl cotransporter is located in the luminal membrane of the BBB, and (2) whether inhibition of the BBB cotransporter reduces brain edema formation. Perfusion-fixed rat brains were examined for cotransporter distribution by immunoelectron microscopy. Cerebral edema was ...
Taybi-Linder syndrome (TALS) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome of as yet unknown etiology. Originally described in 1967 (1), a total of about 30 TALS cases have been reported (2). The TALS phenotype includes marked intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation; short, bowed long bones with severe delay in epiphyseal maturation; severe microcephaly; brain malformations, including pachygyria or agyria; characteristic dysmorphic features; dry skin; and sparse hair [supporting online material (SOM) text and fig. S1] and unexpected death within the first 3 years of life.. We originally mapped TALS to a 13-cM region (D2S2254 to D2S2215, 10 Mb) on chromosome 2q14 (3) in three consanguineous families (families F1 to F3, fig. S2) from the Mediterranean basin using a new homozygosity mapping approach. This approach relied on individual genome-based inbreeding estimates (4) rather than genealogical information, which is often limited. In the present study, we refined the TALS interval to 3.19 Mb by ...
Despite the recent sucesses in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of the Bartter-like syndromes, therapies designed to arrest or correct the primary defects are not yet available. Therefore, the main therapeutic objective is to ameliorate the hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. Potassium chloride supplementation is the mainstay of therapy. Oral supplementation alone is usually ineffective, however, in normalizing serum potassium concentrations, probably because large amounts of exogenous K further stimulates aldosterone synthesis with resultant increases in hyperkaliuria. The addition of K-sparing diuretics, eg, spironolactone, amilioride, or triamterene, may help to correct the total body K balance. In fact, the therapeutic combination of the K supplementation and K-sparing diuretics has been associated with increased growth rates in affected children. In young infants, marked urinary salt wasting may also occur and necessitate NaCl supplementation. Indomethacin therapy ...
P. H. Baylis, D. A. Heath; Analysis of the Causes of Lithium-Induced Polyuria. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 September 1977; 53 (3): 11P-12P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs053011Pa. Download citation file:. ...
The growth arrest specific 1 (gas1) gene is highly expressed in quiescent mammalian cells. Overexpression of gas1 in normal could inhibit G(0)/G(1) transition. The spatial-temporal expression patterns for gas1 were established in 8.5- to 14.5-day-old embryos by immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization. Gas1 was found heterogeneously expressed in [the] limb. The antiproliferative effects of gas1 on 10.5 and 12.5 day limb cells were investigated by flow cytometry. In 10.5 day limbs cells, gas1 overexpression could not prevent G(0)/G(1) progression. Gas1 could only induce growth arrest if p53 was also coexpressed {p53 was not coexpressed significantly in LSJL}. In contrast, gas1 overexpression alone was able to induce growth arrest in 12.5 day limb cells. We also examined the cell cycle profile of gas1-expressing and nonexpressing cells by immunochemistry and flow cytometry. For 10.5 day Gas1-expressing limb cells, we did not find these cells preferentially distributed at G0/G1, as ...
Certainly when the almost urine got to distal tubule 85% of the water had been already reabsorbed and all that had to be done was to finish up this process. In fact only 1% was supposed to go beyond the rather uniform looking cells of the distal tubule.. Gradually, however, our views began to change and through the advances in physiology, biochemistry and histology a different picture began to emerge. Nobody could have dreamed of the variety of cells in both the distal tubule and the collecting system. In a healthy person or animal, things seemed simple indeed, but let a defect or two creep in and then we begin to see the dragons.. We already understand quite a bit about what can happen. If we go back one page (to page 11) we note that the very first part of the distal tubule has cells with the characteristics of those of the thick ascending loop of Henle. These cells are marked in yellow and include the macula densa. A defect in these cells leads to Bartter s syndrome.. Next, come the cells (in ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Eleni Roussa, Jan Manuel Speer, Ilona Chudotvorova, Shokoufeh Khakipoor, Sergei Smirnov, Claudio Rivera, Kerstin Krieglstein].
Dyma enghreifftiau o rai or modiwlau y gallech eu hastudio ar bob lefel.. Lefel 1. Datblygu Sgiliau Biogemegol. Macrofolecylau: Ffurf a Swyddogaeth. Egni a Metaboledd: Adweithiau Bywyd. Rheolaeth Fetabolaidd a Ffisioleg Foleciwlaidd. Cemeg Bywyd. Cemeg Organig Ragarweiniol. Cemeg Organig Grwpiau Swyddogaethol. Cemeg Offerynnol a Dadansoddol. Strwythur Atomig a Chyfnodoldeb Cemegol. Geneteg a Phrosesau Esblygu. Bioleg Gellog a Microbaidd. Lefel 2. Datblygu Sgiliau Biocemeg II. Sbectrometreg Mas Biomoleciwlaidd a Dadansoddi Proteomig. Metaboledd Carbohydrad a Glycobioleg. Asidau Amino, Lipid, a Steroidau. Technegau Biofoleciwlaidd. Rheoli Metabolaidd: Ensymau a Throsglwyddo Signalau. Biogemeg a Ffisioleg Glinigol. Geneteg Microbaidd. Mynegiant Genynnau. Mecanwaith Moleciwlaidd Afiechydon a Diagnosteg. Bioleg Celloedd ac Imiwnobioleg. Lefel 3. Prosiect Ymchwil Biofoleciwlaidd. Biogemeg Cynnyrch Naturiol. Asidau Niwclëig: Cydrannau, Metaboledd ac Addasu. Cludo Pilenni. Pilennau a Throsi ...
Increased permeability of the cell membranes for Na+, usually measured in red blood cells, is a well-known phenomenon in Bartters syndrome.16-18 The degree of Na+ permeability differs between the patients with Bart-ters syndrome (Table 2⇑), as do Na+,K+,2Cl− antiport and calcium-dependent K+ permeability. Thus, a conclusion of heterogeneity of the Bartters syndrome (or Bartter-like syndromes) could be made. Indeed, even a preliminary analysis dissects Bartters syndrome into at least three different entities: (1) a type with hypercalciuria, normomagnesemia, increased cAMP-dependent NHE, nearly absent Na+,K+,2Cl− cotransport, increased calcium-activated K+ permeability, and a good effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the past (patients A through D, classic Bartters syndrome)1-4; (2) a type without calciuria, with hypomagnesemia, calmodulin-dependent enhancement of NHE, normal or increased Na+,K+,2Cl− cotransport, high calcium-dependent K+ permeability, and no effect of ...
530(Pt 3), 359-66. The Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 and the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl- cotransporter NCC are the major apical sodium transporters in the proximal convoluted tubule and the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, respectively. We investigated the mechanism of compensation that allows maintenance of sodium balance in NHE3 knockout mice and in NCC knockout mice. We used a so-called targeted proteomics approach, which profiles the entire renal tubule with regard to changes in Na+ transporter and aquaporin abundance in response to the gene deletions. Specific antibodies to the Na+ transporters and aquaporins expressed along the nephron were utilized to determine the relative abundance of each transporter. Semiquantitative immunoblotting was used which gives an estimate of the percentage change in abundance of each transporter in knockout compared with wild-type mice. In NHE3 knockout mice three changes were identified which could compensate for the loss of NHE3-mediated sodium absorption. ...
ہم سب جانتے ہیں پاکستان کےتھیلیسیمیا سینٹرز میں پیشنٹ اور پیرنٹس کا عمل دخل بہت واجبی سا ہے، شاید ان کی قابلیت سینٹر چلانے والوں سے کم ہے یا تجربہ نہیں ہے اس لیئے۔۔. ہم باحیثیت تھیلیسیمیا پیشنٹ اور پیرنٹس سوسائٹی سب تھیلیسیمیا سینٹرز سے درخواست کرتے ہیں کہ پیشنٹ اور پیرنٹس کو موقع دیں کہ وہ بھی کچھ کرسکیں، جیسے کہ بلڈ کیمپ میں انہیں لے کر جائے تا کہ وہ ڈونرز کو موٹیویٹ کریں انہیں بتائے کہ ان کا دیا عطیہ کیسے ان کی زندگی بچاتا ہے۔. پیشنٹ اور پیرنٹس کو انتظامیہ میں رکھنے سے ڈونرز کا اعتماد اور بڑھتا ہے اداروں پہ اور پیشنٹ کو بھی موقع ملتا ہے اپنے لئے اور ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional consequences of ROMK mutants linked to antenatal Bartters syndrome and implications for treatment. AU - Schwalbe, Ruth A.. AU - Blanchi, Laura. AU - Accili, Eric A.. AU - Brown, Arthur M.. PY - 1998/6. Y1 - 1998/6. N2 - The antenatal variant of Bartters syndrome is an autosomal recessive kidney disease characterized by polyhydramnios, premature delivery, hypokalemic alkalosis and hypercalciuria. It is genetically heterogeneous, having been linked recently to mutations in an ATP-sensitive, renal outer medullary K+ channel, ROMK, and earlier to mutations in the Na-K-2Cl co-transporter, NKCC2. We characterized four of the mutations reported in three heterozygous ROMK variants of antenatal Bartters and found that each expressed a distinct phenotype in Sf9 cells. One mutation expressed normal function and appears to be an allelic polymorphism. The other three mutations produced channels with significantly reduced K+ fluxes. However, the mechanisms in each case were ...
Congenital chloride diarrhea is an autosomal recessive type of chronic diarrhea characterized by voluminous watery stool containing high levels of chloride. It can present in patients of any age from newborns to adults, but onset is most often in the first weeks to months of life. Clinically, congenital chloride diarrhea is similar to Bartter syndrome, except these patients do not have calcium dysregulation ...
Because a great many of the symptoms and signs of both Bartter s and Gitelman s syndromes are due to the overproduction of renin in the juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells) a more in depth study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system must be made. Before going on with this it was decided to root out the old slides and pictures in the cellar and have a holiday looking at juxtaglomerular cells. It is doubtful if similar slides are made today because when these were made over forty years ago Bartter s syndrome had just been discovered and the discovery of Gitelman s syndrome was in the future. There was consequently no treatment for Bartter s syndrome beyond replacing potassium and the use of spironolactone. It proved to be no holiday and the slides were full of dust and heaven knows what. This recent diagram is included for orientation:. ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ryutaro Nishioka, Kana Sugimoto, Hitomi Aono, Ayano Mise, Mohammed E Choudhury, Kazuya Miyanishi, Afsana Islam, Takahiro Fujita, Haruna Takeda, Hisaaki Takahashi, Hajime Yano, Junya Tanaka].
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