Market study report Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Market Insights Report 2019-2025 : BASF, Dow Chemical, Evonik, Shin-Etsu Chemicald Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Market 2019 Industry Research Report recently published on e-marketresearch.com is the key document for industries/clients to understand current global competitive market status. The Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF market study report base year is 2018 and provides market research data status (2013-2017) and forecast (2019-2025) and also categorizes the Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF market into key industries, region, type and application. Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Market 2019 study report covers all major geographical regions and sub-regions in the world and concentrates on product sales, value, market size and growth opportunities in these regions.. Competitive Analysis for Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF market industries/clients :- ...
The solubility parameters of pure Poly(n-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and Poly(n-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)P(VP/EGDMA) hydrogels have been evaluated via swelling experiments. Twenty solvents with various solubility parameters have been used in the swelling experiments. Considering the limitations of using the approach as developed by Gee, we have applied an asymmetric double sigmodial equation for locating the peak maxima in swelling curves. The solubility parameters are evaluated via this new approach. The solubility parameter of pure PVP is determined to be 11.38 +/- 0.11 Kb. The incorporation of EGDMA into the gel system slightly reduced the solubility parameter. The influence of relative amount of EGDMA on the solubility parameter was investigated, and evaluated values compared with literature and theoretically determined solubility values by group contribution values of van Krevelen, Small, and Hoy. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc ...
Solubility enhancement of a poorly water soluble drug by forming solid dispersions using mechanochemical activation, I Rojas-Oviedo1, B Retchkiman-Corona1, CT Quirino-Barreda1, J C
This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global solubility enhancement excipients market for OSDF for the period 2015-2019. To arrive at the market shares of vendors and to calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of solubility enhancement excipients in OSDF. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top eight vendors in the market. In addition, the report has been segmented based on: type (lipids, polymers, surfactants, and others like cyclodextrins and ion exchange resins); technology (solid dispersion, particle size reduction, micellar solubilization, lipid solubilization, chemical modification, complexation, and others such as dendrimers, silica, and solid-lipid nanoparticles); and geography (the Americas, APAC, and EMEA). The report does not cover the technology segment (modification of crystals). ...
This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global solubility enhancement excipients market for OSDF for the period 2015-2019. To arrive at the market shares of vendors and to calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of solubility enhancement excipients in OSDF. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top eight vendors in the market. In addition, the report has been segmented based on: type (lipids, polymers, surfactants, and others like cyclodextrins and ion exchange resins); technology (solid dispersion, particle size reduction, micellar solubilization, lipid solubilization, chemical modification, complexation, and others such as dendrimers, silica, and solid-lipid nanoparticles); and geography (the Americas, APAC, and EMEA). The report does not cover the technology segment (modification of crystals). ...
The aqueous solubility of a drug is viewed as a pivotal property for its oral absorption since only dissolved molecules can permeate the gut wall and reach the systemic circulation. The fluids in the intestine, however, do not only consist of water and therefore poor water solubility may not necessarily imply a poor solubility in the intestinal fluids and resulting low bioavailability. This thesis addresses the determination of drug solubility and dissolution rates in biorelevant dissolution media (BDM) with the aim of applying these methods to the early stages of drug discovery, where there is a need to reduce the volume of the medium and the amount of solid drug used in testing. The thesis also addresses the need for computational methods for predicting solubility in intestinal fluids and, hence, allowing in silico screening of drugs yet to be synthesized. The apparent solubility and dissolution behavior of large series of lipophilic and other diverse compounds in BDM were studied using a ...
[159 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Industry 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Industry 2016 Market...
The effects of high pressure (to 600 MPa) at different temperatures (20 to 60 °C) for 20 min on protein solubilization and electrophoretic pattern in beef post-rigor longissimus dorsi muscle were studied. The results showed that protein solubilization increased with increasing temperature, especially from 40 °C to 60 °C. A regular trend of protein solubilization was found when isolated myofibrils were subjected to high pressure at different temperatures, an increase was observed with increasing pressure up to about 400 MPa, solubility then decreasing to 600 MPa. Electrophoretic profiles showed that myosin light chains and actin thin filaments were sensitive to pressure, and were released from myofibrils subjected to 100 MPa and higher pressures at the different temperatures.
The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. Retention data from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution were used for the calculation. From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gas solubility measurement and modeling for the nitrogen + water system from 274.18 K to 363.02 K. AU - Chapoy, Antonin. AU - Mohammadi, Amir H.. AU - Tohidi, Bahman. AU - Richon, Dominique. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - New experimental solubility data of N2 in water are reported over a wide temperature range from (274.18 to 363.02) K and pressures up to 7.16 MPa. A static-analytic apparatus, taking advantage of a pneumatic capillary sampler, is used for fluid sampling. The experimental data generated in this work are compared with those reported in the open literature with good agreement. The Valderrama modification of the Patel-Teja equation of state combined with nondensity-dependent mixing rules is used for modeling the gas-liquid equilibrium. The solubility data generated in this work are used for tuning the binary interaction parameters between nitrogen and water. The model predictions are compared with independent experimental data on nitrogen solubility in water as well ...
A review on solid dispersion: A substitute approach for poorly water soluble drug An amount of methodologies can be adapted to progress solubility and
Hansen Solubility Parameters: A Users Handbook, 2nd Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials.
Solubility table 溶解度表 solubility parameter [化学] 溶度参数 ; 可溶解性参数 ; 度参数 solubility curve 溶解度曲线 ; [化学] 溶度曲线 ; 消融度曲线 ; 溶解度曲线英语 phase solubility [物化] 相溶解度 ; 翻译 solubility property 溶解性能 Solubility in 醇溶性实验 ; 乙醇或醚溶解试验 ; 氢氧化钠溶解试验 ; 乙酸乙酯溶解试验 styrene solubility [有化] 苯乙烯溶解度 ; 笨乙烯溶解度 solubility fractionation 溶度分级 ; 溶度评估 ; 溶度份化 liquid solubility 液态溶解度 ...
The solubility of paracetamol in water-glycerol mixtures at 25 and 30 °C was determined using flask shake method. The generated data extended the solubility database for further computational investigations and was also used to assess the prediction capability of a trained version of the Jouyban-Acree model for solubility prediction in water-glycerol mixtures at various temperatures. The accuracy of the predicted solubilities was evaluated by the mean percentage deviation between the predicted and experimental solubilities. The overall mean percentage deviation of the Jouyban-Acree model for the back-calculated solubility data from the literature was 37.9 ± 21.9%. The corresponding value for the predicted solubilities of paracetamol in binary mixtures using experimental values of paracetamol solubilities in water and glycerol was 15.6 ± 11.1%.. ...
begin{array}{c,c,c,c} \mathrm{substance} & \mathrm{Solubility\ in\ water\ (g/100\ mL)} & \mathrm{density\ (g/mL)} &\mathrm{volume\ percent}\\ \hline \text{1-butanol} & 7.7 & 0.8098 & 9.5\\ \text{diethyl ether} & 6.9 & 0.7134 & 9.7 \end{array}$$. Note that I have used the solubility data to calculate percent compositions by volume in both cases. It was and still is common to report low solubilities as percents composition. It also is and was common to see percents composition listed without specifying whether they were mass/mass (which should be the default), mass/volume (convenient for dilute solutions), or volume/volume (convenient for solutions, but unhelpful due to colligative properties). At both temperatures, the data supports that 1-butanol and diethyl ether have nearly the same percent solubility by volume. Morrison and Boyd is an older generation of textbook, first published before the world wide web. If they found a source of solubility data for these compounds that listed percents (but ... One of the common difficulties with intravenous drug delivery is low solubility of the drug. The requirement for large quantities of saline to dissolve such materials limits their clinical use, and one solution for this problem that has recently generated interest is the formation of drug-loaded micelles. The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of C 11 and C12 hydrocarbons with water and heavy water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility in 24 chemically distinct binary systems that appeared in the primary literature prior to end of 2002 are compiled. For 12 systems sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, a new method based on the evaluation of all the experimental data for a given series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was used.. ... The mutual solubility and related liquid-liquid equilibria of C5 hydrocarbons with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility in 13 chemically distinct binary systems for which data appeared in the primary literature prior to end of 2002 are compiled. For seven systems sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, a new method based on the evaluation of the all experimental data for a given homologous series of saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons was used.. ... Liposomes have been evolving as unique drug carriers for realizing enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity.1) Currently, several liposomal drug delivery systems are on the market, and practically all of them are administered parenterally. Liposomes are also investigated for oral delivery, especially for active ingredients with extremely low oral bioavailability, such as poorly soluble compounds. The aim of this project is to study the mechanisms underlying the bioavailability improvement of poorly soluble compounds entrapped in liposomes as oral drug delivery systems. We will start by studying the mechanisms of liposome digestion and drug solubilization and the efficiency of subsequent association of the entrapped compounds into mixed micelles, using a highly relevant in vitro human digestion model and dedicated analysis methods.2)3)4) In the second part of the project, we will study the permeability of the compounds after in vitro digestion, using an in vitro permeability model consisting of ... Solubility of a drug is an important parameter in the formulation development. Hence various techniques are used for the improvement of the solubility of poorly water-soluble and water insoluble drugs include Particle Size Reduction, Solid Dispersion, Nanosuspension, Supercritical Fluid Technology, Cryogenic Technology, Inclusion Complex Formation Techniques, and Floating Granules etc. The purpose of this review article is to describe the techniques of solubilizaton for the attainment of effective absorption and improved bioavailability. Over the years researchers have reported solubility data in the chemical, pharmaceutical, engineering, and environmental literature for several thousand organic Water-solubility antirust agentT768 Water-solubility antirust agentProduct IntroductionT768 is a complex polymer-based rust inhibitor.T768 can suit for non-ferrous metals ,especially for long term ant With the recent advent of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening of potentially therapeutic agents, the number of poorly soluble drug candidate has risen sharply and the formulation of poorly soluble compounds for oral delivery now presents one of the most frequent and greatest challenge to formulation scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. There are certain drugs for which solubility has presented a challenge to the development of a suitable formulation for oral administration. And one of these drugs is carbamazepine. In the literature, solid dispersions have shown tremendous potential for improving drug solubility and dissolution. In this study the main objective was to enhance the solubility of carbamazepine using selected water-soluble polymers and a solid dispersion technique. The solid dispersions were prepared by fusion method, using water-soluble polymers as carriers, namely Solutol HS, Vitamin E TPGS, Poloxamer 188 and Lipocol C 10 at a fixed ratio of 9:1 (drug:carrier) was Unscramble solubilities, Unscramble letters solubilities, Point value for solubilities, Word Decoder for solubilities, Word generator using the letters solubilities, Word Solver solubilities, Possible Scrabble words with solubilities, Anagram of solubilities The knowledge of solubility of gases and hydrocarbons in polymer has enormous importance in the design and development of reactor, polymer foaming, and membrane separation processes. In this work, the solubility of gases and hydrocarbons in polyethylene was correlated using a thermodynamic model based on perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The experimental solubility data of various gases such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, and hydrocarbons of up to chain length of seven in both molten and semicrystalline polyethylene has been reviewed and the suitability of the developed model based on PC-SAFT was then tested using the available solubility data in literatures for various gases and hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the optimum values of adjustable solvents-solute binary interaction parameters (Kij) of PC-SAFT at different temperatures have been estimated by regression of the PC-SAFT model using experimental solubility isotherms. A suitable correlation of Kij ... Walker Roofing Inc.Ladders Inc Has Your Atlanta Ladders In Stock And Ready . How Can I Get Hansen Solubility Parameters Values For The . Decor: Modern Home Exterior With Sandstone Vertical Board . Best Gallery Images for Your Reference and Informations Macgregor, R. J. and Mather, A. E. (1991), Equilibrium solubility of H2S and CO2 and their mixtures in a mixed solvent. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 69: 1357-1366. doi: 10.1002/cjce.5450690618 ... Dissolving pulps are used to manufacture various cellulose derived products through cellulose dissolution. Solubility of cellulose pulp has been claimed to be strongly dependent on the porosity development, the degree of polymerisation and the pulp viscosity. The removal of external cell walls has been proposed to have a key role in the pulp solubility. In this paper, the effect of the outermost surface layers on the solubility of a dissolving grade pulp was studied. Furthermore the effect of mechanical peeling and combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment on pulp solubility was compared. Based on the results combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment efficiently opens up the fibre structure and has a clear positive effect on the solubility of dissolving pulp. It seems that long fibre fraction is less accessible to solvent chemicals than the other pulp fractions. Mechanical peeling of outer fibre layers does not improve fibre dissolution to NaOH/ZnO. Thus, it seems that peeling alone is not a ... The most used electron donors include hydrogen gas and reduced sulfur compounds i.e. elemental sulfur sulfide and thiosulfate. Plain sedimentation is the cheapest method to isolate S 0 bio although flocculation filtration extraction and flotation have shown higher efficiency due to the the relatively high cost low solubility and TY - JOUR. T1 - Examining Asphaltene Solubility on Deposition in Model Porous Media. AU - Lin, Yu Jiun. AU - He, Peng. AU - Tavakkoli, Mohammad. AU - Mathew, Nevin Thunduvila. AU - Fatt, Yap Yit. AU - Chai, John C.. AU - Goharzadeh, Afshin. AU - Vargas, Francisco M.. AU - Biswal, Sibani Lisa. PY - 2016/8/17. Y1 - 2016/8/17. N2 - Asphaltenes are known to cause severe flow assurance problems in the near-wellbore region of oil reservoirs. Understanding the mechanism of asphaltene deposition in porous media is of great significance for the development of accurate numerical simulators and effective chemical remediation treatments. Here, we present a study of the dynamics of asphaltene deposition in porous media using microfluidic devices. A model oil containing 5 wt % dissolved asphaltenes was mixed with n-heptane, a known asphaltene precipitant, and flowed through a representative porous media microfluidic chip. Asphaltene deposition was recorded and analyzed as a function of solubility, which was ... KP1019, or trans-[tetrachlorobis(1 H-indazole)ruthenate(III)], is one of two ruthenium anti-cancer drugs to enter into phase I clinical trials, the other being NAMI-A. Research into ruthenium-based drugs has provided novel alternatives for platinum-based chemotherapeutics such as Cisplatin and its derivatives. KP1019 is useful for metastatic tumors and cis-platin resistant tumors. It exhibits potent cytotoxicity against primary tumors, particularly in colorectal cancer. KP1019 has an octahedral structure with two trans N-donor indazole and four chloride ligands in the equatorial plane. It has a low solubility in water, which makes it difficult to transport in the bloodstream. The Ru-Cl bonds are labile and KP1019 readily exchanges its chloro ligands in the presence of water. Due to its low solubility in water, KP1019 is often prepared as its sodium salt, a derivative known as KP1339. By replacing the indazole rings with imidazole rings the derivative KP418 is formed. KP418 also exhibits ... Author: Nina M. Rodriguez Created Date: 3/3/2016 10:11:49 AM Template Free Download for Solubility Rules Chart and Customize this Free Editable Solubility Rules Chart and Print for your needs. A soluteis any substance which can be either solid or liquid or gas dissolved in a solvent. Solubility Rules Chart. Table of solubility. Sugar cubes added to a cup of tea or coffee is a common example of a solution. See more product details. There are few exceptions to this rule. The Solubility Rules Chart is available to edit and customize. These rules are general and qualitative in nature. With over 140 compounds listed, this comprehensive chart clearly shows the solubility trends or patterns for ionic compounds and helps reinforce general rules for determining solubility. Phosphates such as Ca3(PO4)2 and Ag3PO4 are frequently insoluble. Generally, the solute is a solid and the solvent is a liquid, such as our salt in water example above. The solubility of a gas depends on pressure and temperature. Look ... Results: BI-XYZ apparent solubility increases linearly with increasing HPbCD concentration suggesting a 1:1 complexation between drug and HPßCD. K1:1 extrapolated from solubility data was found to be 353 M-1. BI-XYZ flux in water increases linearly (1.8 and 2.35 μg min-1 cm-2 ) with increasing drug concentration. In the absence of bile-salts, BI-XYZ flux decreased (1.804-0.185 μg min-1 cm-2) with increasing HPßCD concentration. Flux was the highest in the absence of HPßCD suggesting that with increasing HPßCD concentrations in the donor, in spite of the increase in apparent solubility, more drug molecules form inclusion complex and the free drug fraction in solution decreases. In the absence of HPßCD, BI-XYZ flux initially stays constant and decreases with increasing NaTC (1.804 to 0.780 μg min-1 cm-2). This may be due to the fact that below critical micelle concentration (CMC) flux is not affected by the presence of bile-salts while above CMC, bile-salts form mixed-micelle including ... TY - JOUR. T1 - Solubility of sodium chloride in phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents. AU - Ghareh Bagh, Fatemeh Saadat. AU - Hadj-Kali, Mohamed Kamel Omar. AU - Mjalli, Farouq S.. AU - Hashim, Mohd Ali. AU - Alnashef, Inas M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl) in several phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is studied in this work. Seven combinations of DESs were investigated. The solubility of NaCl increased with temperature in all DESs at all combinations. The type of salt and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and the salt:HBD mole ratio of the DES affected the solubility of NaCl. The solubility of NaCl in DESs that use ethylene glycol or glycerol (neutral molecules) as HBDs is very low in comparison to DESs that use zinc (II) chloride (ZnCl2) or ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) which are metal halides as complexing agents. DESs containing ZnCl2produced the highest solubility. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide:ZnCl2DES possessed a NaCl solubility of ... We are a leading Contract Development & Manufacturing Organization (CDMO) serving more than 400 pharmaceutical clients across the globe. Learn more about Patheon. VLCI is a certified research centre for determinations of HSP and implementations thereof. The solubility (or dispersibility) of a product is assessed within a standardized set of solvents with known HSPs, spread over the 3-dimensional HSP space. Solvents and products are automatically dispensed via the gravimetric dispensing unit of our High Throughput platform. The solubility is ranked from 1 (excellent) to 6 (very poor). Based on these scores, the HSPiP software generates the solubility sphere of the tested product.. ... Pierottis theory for the solubility of gases in liquids is tested by means of a large amount of literature data on solubility and entropy of solution. The involved solutes comprise the noble gases, mercury vapour, inorganic gases and hydrocarbons up to propane. The involved solvents comprise alkanes, cycloalkanes, nitromethane, polythene, ... read more aromatics, dimethylsulfoxide and perfluoromethyl-cyclohexane. It appears, that this theory describes the solubilities satisfactory. The description of the entropies of solution is less good. The enhanced solubilities of BF3, CO2, Cl2 and C2H2 in some solvents are ascribed to electron donor-acceptor interaction. The association constants for donor-acceptor complex formation are tabulated. show less ... Solubility coefficients for CO2, Ar and CH4 in polystyrene (PS) films with glass transition temperatures (Tg) of 52 to 107°C were measured in a pressure-decay sorption apparatus at 1 atm over a temperature range of 20 to 90°C. The gas solubility at 30°C increased as the T s of the PS increased; the heat of solution was largest for the PS with the highest Tg. This observed dependence of gas solubility on T s was analysed in terms of enthalpy-temperature relationships for glassy polymers. The solubilities for PS samples with different glass transition temperatures converged when comparisons were made on the basis of states of equal enthalpy instead of the temperature of measurement. There are no simple relation between the solubility and the solubility product when a doubly charged ion is involved. The measured solubility is always much bigger than the value obtained from the solubility product. This is due to the doubly charged ion. Doubly charged ions like \ce{Zn^{2+}} are usually hydrolyzed in water, and are partly transformed into basic ions like \ce{[Zn(OH)]^+} by the following reaction :$$\ce{Zn^{2+} + H2O -, [Zn(OH)]^+ + H+}$$If \ce{Zn(OH)_2} is dissolved in water, it will not only produce \ce{Zn^{2+}} ions but also basic ions by the following equation :$$\ce{Zn(OH)_2 -, [Zn(OH)]^+ + OH^-} As a consequence, the concentration of non complexed $\ce{Zn^{2+}}$ may be calculated from the solubility product of $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$ but this $\ce{[Zn^{2+}]}$ is much smaller than the measured solubility of $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$, because the measured solubility of $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$ is the sum of $\ce{[Zn^{2+}]}$ and $\ce{[Zn(OH)]^+}$. It is even possible that ion pairs like ...
MNP001 is a newly synthesized 3-carbamyl-4-methylpyrrole analog with dual pharmacophores simultaneously to inhibit phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) and to antagonize L-type calcium channels. The physicochemical properties of MNP001, including solubility, pKa, Log P, plasma protein binding and plasma/blood partitioning, were determined to support the pharmacokinetic characterization. The preclinical pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in an in vivo rat model and the metabolic pathways of MNP001 were characterized by incubating the compound in vitro in rat or human microsomes/supersomes cocktails. MNP001 was found to have a low solubility in simulated intestinal fluid but a high solubility in simulated gastric fluid. MNP001 is a highly lipophilic compound with a Log P value greater than 4. MNP001 was highly bound to the plasma protein and had an uneven partition between red blood cells and plasma. MNP001 exhibited a rapid absorption, broad distribution, slow systemic clearance and a low but
Comparison of kinetic solubility profiles of indomethacin between experimental and predicted results as a function of supersaturation rate generated with variou
Remember to keep your periodic tables handy, and pay close attention to the solubility rules in your next experiment. Of course, you are supposed modify and fill it in with original and correct information when creating your own version. You can also make a new resume with our … Though I was excited to watch the salt seem to disappear I definitely didnt understand the intricacies of solubility. When a solute is mixed with a solvent, there are three possible outcomes: If the solution has less solute than the maximum amount it is able to dissolve (the solubility), it is a dilute solution. If we know that a substance is insoluble, it is likely that it would have excess solute, thus forming a precipitate. 5 7 Predicting Solubility Trends Chemistry LibreTexts. In fact, the information is very easy to peruse through due to the distinct coloring. Author: Nina M. Rodriguez Created Date: 3/3/2016 10:11:49 AM Lets take a look at how solubility works to better understand the solubility rules. PDF, ...
Since it would take a very long and immense search to look for the enitre data for all ugi reagents in non-aqeuous solvents, I have chosen to focus on the aromatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids. I found the Belistein databse to be the most useful when searching for this data. Throughout the research I have found many different substituted benzoic acids but barely any aromatic aldehydes. As I have said prior in this paper the solubility information is very scarce, however aqeuous solubility data is almost always reported. Despite what it seemed like unnattainable data, I was able to find some data for this review. The following data table is a compilation of the solubility data found in other research papers for the organic compounds in many different non-aqeuous solvents. The data table gives the name of the solute followed by the solvent it is dissolved in. The solubility is then reported. In the next row the way the data was reported was given along with the temperature the data was found at. ...
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Formulation of new drug candidates is becoming increasingly difficult due to the low solubility associated with them. In such cases, the amorphous state is extremely appealing. However, the biggest obstacle in successful use of the amorphous state is its unpredictable physical stability or the tendency to revert to more stable crystalline state that precludes the use of amorphous state in commercial solid oral dosage forms. Instability in amorphous matrices, particularly physical instability or crystallization from amorphous state, has often been linked to the molecular mobility of these systems. The objective of this research was to better understand the correlation between molecular mobility in the amorphous matrix and onset of crystallization and to use this understanding to perhaps develop a stability testing protocol for crystallization from the amorphous state. Development of any stability protocol from correlations with molecular mobility require validating the two assumptions; (a) the relaxation
pH-dependent solubility affecting the release from dosage and hence absorption [Sanghvi, N. et al, 1994]. Verapamil HCl, a calcium channel blocker, exhibits very high solubility in the gastric pH which falls drastically in the intestinal pH [Florey, 1988; Streubel, A. et al, 2000]. It is imperative that a controlled release oral formulation should have uniform release pattern at different sites of G.I.T. over the period of dosing [Ritchel, 1989].. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro performance of SR matrix and coated dosage formulations of Verapamil HCl for pH- independent release utilizing Succinic acid as pH-adjuster for the maintenance of constant acidic micro-environment inside the tablet core.. In accordance with the data obtained on solubility, different SR oral dosage forms of Verapamil HCl containing Succinic acid were developed in order to obtain near constant and complete release of the drug in the G.I.T. For this purpose the drug release was controlled by fabricating ...
By joining the drug to a dendrimer construct, very large increases in drug solubility have been achieved, which can enhance the bioavailability of the drug. For example Docetaxel is a cancer drug well known for its poor aqueous solubility. When conjugated to a dendrimer construct a 20,000 fold increase in solublised Docetaxel is achieved.. The formulation of DEPTM docetaxel is also Polysorbate 80-free.. ...
On March 15, 2019, the European Commission's (EC) Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) published its preliminary opinion on the solubility…
This doctoral thesis explores the copper corrosion inhibiting properties of a number of nitrogen containing hetero-organic compounds in refined mineral oil. Traditional organic corrosion inhibitors, as well as novel and bioorganic compounds have been studied.. The Hansen solubility parameters were determined for the three commercial organic corrosion inhibitors; benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and Irgamet 39™, an N-(aminomethyl) substituted triazole. The determination was done using an indirect method utilizing the solubility of the inhibitors in various solvents. The calculated Hansen solubility parameters of the inhibitors were compared with the Hansen solubility parameters and solubility sphere of refined mineral oil. The obtained Hansen solubility parameters of benzotriazole indicate very low solubility in mineral oils, while the solubility of tolyltriazole was slightly higher due to the methyl substitution. The obtained Hansen solubility parameters of Irgamet 39™ indicate full miscibility ...
Sterol is a major component of cell membranes in living cells. A characteristic sterol is cholesterol in animal cell membranes, stigmasterol in plants, and ergosterol in fungi. The maximum solubility of sterol in a lipid bilayer is the highest mole fraction of sterol that can be incorporated into a lipid bilayer before sterol crystals precipitate. We have investigated how the maximum solubility of cholesterol depends on the sizes of lipid head groups in POPC/POPE/cholesterol lipid bilayers and on the charges of head groups in POPS/cholesterol and POPG/cholesterol lipid bilayers. We found that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC). Our fluorescence microscopy measurements reveal phase separations and large domain formation in the mixture of POPC/POPE lipid bilayers with high amount of cholesterol. We measured maximum solubility limits of ergosterol and stigmasterol molecules in PC lipid bilayers. Our results show that minor ...
Polyvinyl alkyl ester of carboxylic acids are a family of macromolecules in which the side chain esters (pendant groups) increase in molar mass and hydrophobicity and decrease in structural polarity as the number of carbons in the carboxylic acid increases. The most important polymer in this family is Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc). The Solubility Parameter (δ) is a unique physical property of any polymeric material and can be a useful guide to understanding the miscibility or compatibility of two polymeric substances. It is therefore essential in working with polymeric blends of PVAc that the experimental solubility parameter be accurately and precisely known. We have experimentally determined the solubility parameter of food grade PVAc by measuring the intrinsic viscosity of several different molecular weight PVAc samples (ranging from 11K -75K Daltons) in four different solvents (acetone, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, toluene,) at 25°C using glass capillary viscometry. We also estimated the solubility
Clopidogrel, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Oral bioavailability of clopidogrel is very low (less than 50%), due to its poor water solubility. The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a microemulsion formulation of clopidogrel for enhancing its solubility, and hence its oral bioavailability. For this purpose, initially, solubility of clopidogrel was determined in various vehicles. Next, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the microemulsion existing zone. Solubility study was also performed for optimization of formulation. The optimized microemulsion formulation was characterized for its transparency, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, conductivity, % assay, and phase separation study. Particle size and zeta potential of the optimized
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en] PURPOSE: Ro 28-2653 (RO) is a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is potentially effective against bronchial remodeling. Given that this molecule has very poor aqueous solubility, different cyclodextrins (CDs) have been tested to increase its solubility. The aim of this study was to prepare and to characterize inclusion complexes between RO and CDs, in order to develop nebulizable solutions. METHODS: The complex formation was investigated by phase solubility studies. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling studies were carried out to elucidate the structure of the inclusion complex between RO and dimethyl-beta-CD (DIMEB). Nebulizable solutions of RO were developed with CDs and a stability study was performed over 9 months. RESULTS: The phase solubility studies showed that beta-CD and its derivatives form a 1:2 complex with RO, whereas gamma-CD includes RO with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a weak stability constant. T-ROESY spectra showed that DIMEB is able to ...
Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for product development. Often solubility of a drug determines its pharmaceutical and therapeutic performance. Majority of newly synthesized drug molecules fail or are rejected during the early phases of drug discovery and development due to their limited solubility. Sufficient permeability, aqueous solubility and physicochemical stability of the drug are important for achieving adequate bioavailability and therapeutic outcome. A number of different approaches including co-solvency, micellar solubilization, micronization, pH adjustment, chemical modification, and solid dispersion have been explored towards improving the solubility of various poorly aqueous-soluble drugs. Dendrimers, a new class of polymers, possess great potential for drug solubility improvement, by virtue of their unique properties. These hyper-branched, mono-dispersed molecules have the distinct ability to bind the
The bioavailability of BCS II compounds may be improved by an enhanced solubility and dissolution rate. Four carboxylic acid drugs were selected, which were flurbiprofen, etodolac, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil. The drugs were chosen because they are weak acids with poor aqueous solubility and should readily form salts. The counterions used for salt formation were: butylamine, pentylamine, hexylamine, octylamine, benzylamine, cyclohexylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol, 2-amino-2-methyl propan-1,3-ol and tromethamine. Solubility was partially controlled by the saturated solution pH with the butylamine counterion increasing the solution pH and solubility and dissolution to the greatest extent. As the chain length increased, solubility was reduced due to the increasing lipophilic nature of the counterion. The benzylamine and cyclohexylamine counterions produced crystalline, stable salts but did not improve solubility and dissolution significantly compared to the parent compound. The ...
The solubility of ammonia in toluene has been measured at 398 K and at pressures up to 340 kPa using a static, synthetic and isochoric technique. The goal of the present study is to determine the equilibrium solubility of ammonia in toluene at a pressure and temperature regime that is relevant to the reaction conditions of amination of 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene leading to the formation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene. The ammonia solubility data in toluene were hitherto unavailable under these experimental conditions. The solubility data have also been compared with the result obtained from a direct sampling method. The results are in agreement with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation. The Henrys law constant at the reaction temperature has been determined ...
Enhancement Of Oral Bioavailability And Solid Dispersion these drugs dissolution is the rate limiting step to absorption. Hence, the hypothesis has been that the rate of absorption in vivo will be concurrently accelerated with an increase in the rate of drug dissolution Dhirendra et al., 2009. In the Biopharmaceutical Classification System BCS Class II drugs are those with low. Book Now ...
Clarithromycin (CLA), a broad-spectrum macrolide, is a poorly soluble drug with dissolution rate limited absorption. The aim of this investigation was to prepare CLA nanoparticles from a ternary ground mixture in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as co-grinding water-soluble compounds, in order to improve the drug dissolution rate. Different weight ratios of CLA: SLS: PVP were ground in a dry process by planetary ball mill using different grinding ball size. Following the dissolution rate study, physical properties of the best dissolved co-ground formulation was studied. The accelerated stability studies were also conducted on the co-ground formulation. The results revealed that the dissolution rate of ternary ground mixtures was much higher than that of the intact drug (p | 0.001). Decreasing the grinding ball size and weight with the same rotation speed resulted in particles with decreased dissolution. On the other hand, increasing the PVP concentration in
Abstract: Ritonavir, a widely prescribed anti-retroviral drug, belongs to Class II under \BCS\ and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Ritonavir is practically insoluble in water and aqueous fluids. Its aqueous solubility was reported to be 2.56 mg/100 ml. As such oral absorption of ritonavir is dissolution rate limited and it requires enhancement in solubility and dissolution rate for increasing its oral bioavailability. In the case of poorly soluble drugs formulation variables greatly influence their dissolution rate and bioavailability from solid dosage forms. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of five superdisintegrants and three solubilizers on the tablet qualities and dissolution rate of ritonavir tablets to optimize the formulation of ritonavir tablets. Compressed tablets each containing 100 mg of ritonavir were prepared by conventional wet granulation method using five superdisintegrants namely Prosolve, modified ...
0056] The following are some solubilities of a number of drugs: Sodium alendronate (solubility of 1 mg/L in water), Celecoxib (Very low water solubility (3.3 mg/L)), Atorvastatin Calcium (sodium salt soluble in water, 20.4 ug/mL (pH 2.1), 1.23 mg/mL (pH 6.0)), Losartan (solubility of 0.82 mg/L in water), Fexofenadine Hydrochloride (freely soluble in methanol and ethanol, slightly soluble in chloroform and water, and insoluble in hexane), Carvedilol (practically insoluble (0.583 mg/L)), Mometasone furoate (practically insoluble), potassium losartan (0.82 mg/L), Atorvastatin Cacium (Sodium salt soluble in water, 20.4 ug/mL (pH 2.1), 1.23 mg/mL (pH 6.0)), Levofloxacin (Insoluble), Telmisartan (practically insoluble), Anastrozole (0.5 mg/mL), Zoledronic acid monohydrate (sparingly soluble), Olanzapine (practically insoluble in water), Esomeprazole (very slightly soluble in water), Lansoprazole (solubility of 0.97 mg/L in water), Risperidone (solubility of 2.8 mg/L in water), Clopidogrel bisulphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of temperature-dependent solubility on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous layer. AU - Pritchard, David. AU - Richardson, Chris N.. PY - 2007/1/31. Y1 - 2007/1/31. N2 - We consider the onset of thermosolutal (double-diffusive) convection of a binary fluid in a horizontal porous layer subject to fixed temperatures and chemical equilibrium on the bounding surfaces, in the case when the solubility of the dissolved component depends on temperature. We use a linear stability analysis to investigate how the dissolution or precipitation of this component affects the onset of convection and the selection of an unstable wavenumber; we extend this analysis using a Galerkin method to predict the structure of the initial bifurcation and compare our analytical results with numerical integration of the full nonlinear equations. We find that the reactive term may be stabilizing or destabilizing, with subtle effects particularly when the thermal gradient is ...
Purpose This study is aimed at preparing and testing physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and levels of toxic metabolites of paracetamol and glucosamine solid dispersions intended for multiple deliveries via the parenteral or per oral route. Methods Solid dispersions were prepared using the spray drying technique at different molar ratios of paracetamol and glucosamine. Characterization of the solid dispersions was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate. In vivo pharmacokinetics and toxic metabolites of the prepared dispersions were evaluated and compared to those of pure drugs and physical mixtures. Results Instant water solubility and more than 7-fold increase in dissolution rate led to significantly high plasma drug concentration (|6.5-fold) compared to paracetamol
TY - CONF. T1 - Apparent solubility of drugs in Simulated Achlorhydric Gastric Fluid and Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid with low respectively high bile concentration. AU - Fagerberg, Jonas. AU - Jabbar, Hasna. AU - Zarmpi, Panagiota. AU - Fotaki, Nikoletta. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. M3 - Abstract. T2 - 6th FIP Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress. Y2 - 21 May 2017. ER - ...
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research (IJPPR) will give best paper award every year in the form of money along with certificate to support research activity of scholar ...
The present work is focused to develop a novel technique for selecting hydrotropic agents to enhance the solubility of low soluble drug, paroxetine hy..
The extracellular α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) is extremely thermostable and of an industrial importance and interest. PFA aggregates and accumulates as insoluble inclusion bodies when expressed as a heterologous protein at a high level in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we investigated the roles of chaperones from P. furiosus in the soluble expression of recombinant PFA in E. coli. The results indicate that co-expression of PFA with the molecular chaperone prefoldin alone significantly increased the soluble expression of PFA. Although, co-expression of other main chaperone components from P. furiosus, such as the small heat shock protein (sHSP) or chaperonin (HSP60), was also able to improve the soluble expression of PFA to a certain extent. Co-expression of chaperonin or sHSP in addition to prefoldin did not further increase the soluble expression of PFA. This finding emphasizes the biotechnological potentials of the molecular chaperone prefoldin
TY - JOUR. T1 - A lipid-based liquid crystalline matrix that provides sustained release and enhanced oral bioavailability for a model poorly water soluble drug in rats. AU - Boyd, Benjamin James. AU - Khoo, Shui Mei. AU - Whittaker, Darryl V. AU - Davey, Greg. AU - Porter, Christopher John. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Liquid crystalline phases that are stable in excess water, formed using lipids such as glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and oley glycerate (OG), are known to provide a sustained release matrix for poorly water soluble drugs in vitro, yet there has been no report of the use of these materails to impart oral sustained release behaviour in vivo. In the first part of this study, in vitro lipolysis experiments were used to compare the digestibility of GMO with a second structurally related lipid, oleyl glycerate, which was found to be less suscpetible to hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase than GMO. Subsequent oral bioavailability studies were conducted in rats, in which a model poorly water ...
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are extensively used as drug carrier systems, due to their small size distribution, biocompatibility and ease of preparation. They are especially useful for lipophilic drugs to overcome physicochemical constraints that limit their efficacy, such as low solubility in aqueous media. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the intracellular availability of poorly soluble drugs delivered via LNCs and their biological efficacy in cells in vitro. Cyclosporin A (CsA) with a logPOct = 4.3 (Lucangioli et al., 2003) and Itraconazole (It) with a logPOct = 6.2 (Bhardwaj et al., 2013) served as model lipophilic compounds, as they are highly promising candidates for the treatment of neovascular ocular diseases. Due to their lipophilic properties and the resulting preference for the oily core of LNCs, high encapsulation efficiencies were achieved. Drug-loaded LNCs with particle sizes around 50 nm were grafted with an αvβ3 integrin ligand (RGD) to optimize ...
Injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers possesses the highest potential capacity for geological carbon storage (GCS) in order to mitigate climate change. CO2 solubility in salty aqueous solutions plays a key role in GCS. However, the models of CO2 solubility are scanty when the mixture of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in aqueous solution is included. In this study, a simple model for CO2 solubility is proposed covering conditions typically encountered in geological sequestration. Effect of the property and concentration of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the solubility of CO2 is quantified based on the behavioral featers of solubility data. In order to describe CO2-brine phase equilibrium, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) and Krichevsky-Kasarnosky equation (KK equation) are applied. The (PR-EOS) is modified for better performance in high salinity brine. The Henrys constant is precisely described by temperature and concentration of the mixed ions. A linear correlation is also found between the partial
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 Cytotoxicity of free and gagomer-encapsulated paclitaxel TX-GAG IC50 short protocol.sup.(1) IC50 long protocol Formu- (μM paclitaxel) (μM paclitaxel) lation Free TX- Free TX- Method Cell line Paclitaxel.sup.(2) GAG.sup.(3) Paclitaxel GAG Via- B16F10.9.sup.(4) 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.04 DMSO D122 0.9 3.0 0.25 0.25 C-26 3.0 4.0 3.5 5.0 PANC-1 0.3 0.3 0.02 0.04 COS-7 1 1 0.06 0.12 Via- SNU-251 0.6 0.9 0.25 0.15 Ethanol Via-PE B16F10.9 1.8 0.4 0.12 0.22 COS-7 ,40 20 5 5 .sup.(1)Short protocol: 4 hours of incubation with treatment media, then: aspiration, wash, incubation for additional 44 hours in drug-free serum-supplemented cell growth media. Long protocol: 48 hours of incubation with the treatment media. .sup.(2)Free paclitaxel diluted directly into medium .sup.(3)TX-GAG: Paclitaxel-encapsulating gagomers .sup.(4)Cell origin and type: B16F10.9: mouse melanoma, subline of B16F10, MDR, over-expressing hyaluronan receptors D122: subline of mouse lung Lewis carcinoma, MDR, ...
The overall goal of this thesis is to better understand mechanisms governing associative phase separation within admixtures of plant proteins (e.g., pea and canola) and anionic polysaccharides (e.g., gum Arabic, alginate or é-carrageenan). The process involves the electrostatic attraction between two biopolymers of opposing charges, and typically results in the formation of both soluble and insoluble complexes during an acidic pH titration. If successful, polysaccharides could be triggered to coat the proteins surface to give novel, and hopefully improved functionality as ingredients for food and biomaterials. In the first study, the effect of protein enrichment and pH on the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes in admixtures of pea legumin (Lg) and vicilin (Vn) isolates with gum Arabic (GA) was investigated by turbidimetric, surface charge and fluorometric measurements. The solubility of the protein isolates and mixed biopolymer systems was also studied as a function of pH. Enrichment ...
Solubility Curve Practice Worksheet Answer Key. Solubility curves worksheet answers the lesson solubility and solubility curves will help you further increase your knowledge of the material. Read pdf solubility curves pogil answer key. Jull notice that for most substances, solubility directions: Degress celsius and grams of solute/100g of water 2. Use the graph to answer...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of drug dissolution data. AU - Lee, Jack C.. AU - Chen, Dung Tsa. AU - Hung, Hui-Nien. AU - Chen, James J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - Drug absorption in the human body depends on the dissolution rate of the drug. Suitable dissolution characteristics are important to ensure that the drug will achieve the desired therapeutic effects. To assess the similarity of dissolution rates of several drug lots, we apply a general growth curve model with different covariance structures. The Box-Cox power transformation and the naive log transformation are applied to a function of the dissolution rate. The predictive sample-reuse, or cross-validation, method is employed in selecting an appropriate model with best predictive accuracy. A testing procedure for examining the similarity among the drug lots is also conducted. A partially Bayesian approach is used for the assessment of dissolution equivalence.. AB - Drug absorption in the human body depends on the dissolution rate ...
The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent is function of temperature. Depending on the change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the dissolution reaction, i.e., on the endothermic (ΔG , 0) or exothermic (ΔG , 0) character of the dissolution reaction, the solubility of a given compound may increase or decrease with temperature. The van t Hoff equation relates the change of solubility equilibrium constant (Ksp) to temperature change and to reaction enthalpy change (ΔH). For most solids and liquids, their solubility increases with temperature because their dissolution reaction is endothermic (ΔG , 0).[8] In liquid water at high temperatures, (e.g. that approaching the critical temperature), the solubility of ionic solutes tends to decrease due to the change of properties and structure of liquid water; the lower dielectric constant results in a less polar solvent and in a change of hydration energy affecting the ΔG of the dissolution reaction. Gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior ...
Substituted phenols are an important class of compounds having widespread use (germicides, disinfectants, ingredients in fuel, etc.) There is little information in the literature regarding the solubilities of phenols in SCF CO2. Accurate and precise solubility data for the compounds of interest is essential for the design of any SCF-based process. In this work, the solubilities of selected substituted phenols (2,5-dimethylphenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol,2,3,5-trimethylphenol, 4-phenylphenol, 4-tertbutylphenol) in binary (single solute + SCF CO2) and ternary (two solutes + SCF CO2) systems were investigated using a SFT Phase Monitor.. ...
The goal was to characterize a hydrophobic cytokine with respect to oxidation and aggregation, as well as its adsorption to the container at different pH and ionic strength conditions. The tendency of the cytokine to adsorb on surfaces and its low solubility at physiological pH were the main challenges during the development of HSA-free formulations for the cytokine. When the formulation pH exceeded 5.5 precipitation led to significantly higher turbidity. This turbidity increase and elevated aggregation as determined by HP-SEC and DLS was more pronounced at higher glycine and NaCl concentrations. With rising pH protein adsorption was more distinct compared to pH 3.0. However, protein adsorption could be minimized by polysorbate 20 or the use of glass type I(+). FTIR revealed a reduced thermal stability at higher pH values indicated by a declining denaturation temperature. Five liquid formulations in the pH range 3.5-4.5 and five lyophilized formulations at pH 4.0-5.0 were stored for 6 months and ...
Details About Generic Salt :: Monoctan Main Medicine Class:: Gallstone solubilizer (MAHN-ahk-tuh-NO-in) Moctanin Class: Gallstone solubilizer Drugs Class :: Action Dissolves cholesterol gallstones via perfusion of common bile duct. Indications for ...
The enhancement of the oral bioavailability is currently one of the greatest challenges in the development of poorly water soluble drugs. The main objective of work to enhance solubility of Simvastatin (SIM) by use of natural polymer, chitosan (CHI) to produce cost effective formulation. Physical mixture, co-grinding method, spray drying method are compared. Co-grinding method applied for preparation of drug polymer complex and compared with the solubility and dissolution of marketed preparation.
Oral drug administration has been one of the most convenient and widely accepted route of delivery for most of the therapeutic agents. It is one of the most extensively used routes of drug administration because of its obvious advantages of ease of administration, improved patient compliance, and convenience. The bioavailability of many poorly water-soluble drugs is limited by their dissolution rates which are in turn controlled by the effective surface area present for dissolution. The enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of drug development. A more recent technique,
The development of new pharmaceutical products has been challenged by the growing number of poorly water-soluble drugs, which often lead to suboptimal bioavailability. Various approaches, such as the use of amor-phous solid dispersions and cocrystals, have been used to improve the solu-bility, and subsequent bioavailability, of these drug molecules. Supersaturat-ing drug delivery systems (SDDSs) have potential for achieving adequate oral drug bioavailability by increasing the drug solubility and creating a su-persaturated state in the gastrointestinal tract. However, there is a need for better understanding of the supersaturation behavior in SDDSs and of the factors affecting supersaturation. The main objective of this thesis was to improve understanding of the supersaturation solubility behavior in SDDSs with a particular focus on rapidly dissolving solid forms (amorphous forms/cocrystals).. In the course of the work, a new formulation for ezetimibe using an amorphous solid dispersion was ...
ThermoDex contains records for selected printed and web-based compilations of thermochemical and thermophysical data for chemical compounds and other substances. You can select one or more compound types and link them to one or more property terms, and ThermoDex will return a list of handbooks that could contain these data. Due to copyright and technical considerations, the actual data are not contained in ThermoDex. ThermoDex is based primarily on the holdings of the Mallet Chemistry Library at the University of Texas at Austin. Links are provided on the search page to identify library holdings in your area ...
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Assistant professor at the Dept of Bioinformatics - BiGCaT at NUTRIM, Maastricht University, studying biology at an unsupervised and atomic level. Open Science is my main hobby resulting in participation in, among many others, Bioclipse, CDK and WikiPathways. ORCID:0000-0001-7542-0286. Posts on G+ are personal ...
This conference will include plenary and invited lectures, oral presentations, a poster session and discussion sessions on specialized topics (see the program).. The Franzosini Award, as well as best presentations Poster and Presentation Awards, will be acknowledged during this event (see the awards).. Outside the session lecture theatres, you will also find numerous exhibitors presenting their contributions and take the opportunity to deeply improve your knowledge of modelling approaches during our Workshop. As an attendee, you will have an opportunity to meet and engage with colleagues, SSED IUPAC members and world-leading scientists on Thermodynamics and Fluid Phase Equilibria, not only through the proposed scientific sessions, but also on the networking events, which will take place throughout the conference!. ...
The notebook archive is meant to represent a snapshot of the state of all source documents at the time of the publication of an edition of this book. When used from a server with web services running, clicking on links to the spectra will allow interaction via a browser interface, including zooming in or out and integration of the NMR spectrum. When accessed in stand-alone mode after downloading or directly from a CD, everything will work the same, except that JCAMP-DX files must be open from JSpecView running on the desktop. Excel files will retain any calculations in the cells of the original Google Spreadsheets but dynamic values generated from calling web services - such the script that automatically integrates NMR spectra - will be frozen as simple values. However the link to the web service used will be stored in the cell as a comment. Links to external websites are not crawled and embedded Google Spreadsheets or videos are not copied. These will work but will reflect live data on the web ...
INTRODUCTION. In tropical soils, the agricultural production is limited by a low pH, low effective cation exchange capacity (CEC), low base saturation, Ca deficiency, toxic Al levels and predominance of kaolinite in the clay fraction (Fageria & Baligar 2008). These characteristics are not favorable for the development of most annual species because root growth and water and nutrient uptake are impaired. Liming is currently used to reduce soil acidity because it increases pH and base saturation, contributing to increased nutrient availability and Al precipitation and representing a source of Ca and Mg as well. However, lime solubility in water is low, which restricts its effects mostly to the soil layers of lime application (Fageria & Baligar, 2008).. Due to the low solubility of Ca and Mg carbonates, liming efficiency depends on the contact area between lime and soil and the reaction time and conditions, mainly soil moisture (Quaggio, 2000). To produce an adequate volume of limed soil it is ...
The test substance has a very low solubility in water (,0.1 mg/L). The solubility is higher in buffered media like those used for daphnia tests. In a recent study (2010) the EC50(48h) was 3.2 mg/L, the NOEC(48h) was 0.39 mg/L. The test substance solutions were prepared as WAFs (water accomodated fractions) with separate loading rates for each concentration. WAFs from the highest loading rates of 500.5 and 992 mg/L resulted in actual test substance concentrations of ca. 20.2 mg/L. In a study performed with WAFs of the chemically related substance rosin the effective loading rate EL50(48h) was 911 mg/L and the no observed effective loading rate NOELr was 750 mg/L. No analytical measurements were made in this study. ...
Experimental data are not available for icos-1 -ene. In the absence of data for icos-1 -ene, data have been read across from category members with a lower carbon number. Drottar and Swigert (1995) tested the toxicity of tetradec-1 -ene and Douglas and Halls (1993) tested the toxicity of hexadec-1 -ene to Oncorhynchus mykiss in an OECD 203 test. Due to the low solubility of the test substances test organisms were exposed as water accommodated fractions (WAF) and exposure concentrations were expressed as a loading rate. The test was conducted as a limit test with a single exposure concentration of 1000mg/l WAF. No mortality was observed at this loading rate, so the 96 hour LL50 is ,1000mg/l WAF. These results indicate that we would not expect icos-1 -ene to exhibit acute toxicity to fish at exposure concentrations up to its limit of solubility. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The yin and yang of solubilization and stabilization for wild-type and full-length membrane protein. AU - Hardy, David. AU - Desuzinges Mandon, Elodie. AU - Rothnie, Alice. AU - Jawhari, Anass. N1 - © 2018, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Membrane proteins (MP) are stable in their native lipid environment. To enable structural and functional investigations, MP need to be extracted from the membrane. This is a critical step that represents the main obstacle for MP biochemistry and structural biology. General guidelines and rules for membrane protein solubilization remain difficult to establish. This review aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the general concepts of MP solubilization and stabilization as well as recent advances in detergents innovation. Understanding how solubilization and ...
Curcumin is characterized with extremely low solubility in water (11ng/ml) and significant presystemic biotrans formation, mainly via glucuronide and sulfate conjugation.The maximum oral dose of 8 gm/day of curcumin does not produce any toxic effects
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hatóanyagok oldódásának elocombining double acute accentsegítése extrúziós technoló giával. AU - Gergo, Patyi. AU - György, Marosi. AU - István, Antal. AU - Attila, Bódis. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The transformation of the stable crystalline form can enhance the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The molecular dispersion, or solid solution, can be formed by various methods. The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of such compounds are very similar to the amorphous state. Twinscrew melt-extrusion, with controlled pressure, heat and shear stress, is a powerful way for separating the molecules of the active ingredient from each other and distributing them in the matrix homogenously. The extrudate can be processed onward immediately after a required cooling phase. The dependence of the possible effect of extrusion on the process parameters was investigated by Raman-microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction in course of the preparation of solid solution of ...
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) is a well-known mitochondrially targeted anticancer compound. However, a major factor limiting the use of α-TOS is its low solubility in physiological media. To overcome this problem, the aim of this work is the preparation of new polymeric and active α-TOS-based nanovehicle wi
We have previously reported the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-(1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)propenamide (MP-MUS), a prodrug that targeted the mitochondria of glioblastoma (GBM). The mitochondrial enzyme, monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), is highly expressed in GBM and oxidizes an uncharged methyl-tetrahydropyridine (MP-) moiety into the mitochondrially targeted cationic form, methyl-pyridinium (P+-). Coupling this MAOB-sensitive group to a nitrogen mustard produced a prodrug that damaged GBM mitochondria and killed GBM cells. Unfortunately, the intrinsic reactivity of the nitrogen mustard group and low solubility of MP-MUS precluded clinical development. In our second-generation prodrug, MP-Pt(IV), we coupled the MP group to an unreactive cisplatin precursor. The enzymatic conversion of MP-Pt(IV) to P+-Pt(IV) was tested using recombinant human MAOA and rhMAOB. The generation of cisplatin from Pt(IV) by ascorbate was studied optically and using mass spectroscopy. ...
The incorporation of large π-conjugated ligands into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can introduce intriguing photophysical and electrochemical properties into the framework. However, these effects are often hindered by the strong π-π interaction and the low solubility of the arylated ligands. Herein, we report the synthesis of a porous zirconium-based MOF, Zr₆(μ₃-O)₄(μ₃-OH)₄(OH)₆(H₂O)₆(HCHC) (PCN ...
protein solubility in TCA - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi I am working with salivary proteins and I saw, several times, protocols in which the proline rich proteins are isolated by mixing the saliva sample with an equal volume of TCA 10%. I do not understand the basis for that. Can someone explain me why this type of proteins are soluble in TCA? What makes them different from the other proteins? Thank you ecsl
The generation of bicarbonate by this reaction increases the alkalinity. Further, the production of H2S promotes the removal of metals which have low solubility products as metal sulphides, such as the ferrous ion (Fe2+). The action of DSR and metal-sulphide precipitation has been shown to reduce the aqueous concentration of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni (Waybrandt et al. 1998; Benner et al. 1999). It has been observed that the rate of sulphate reduction by SRB is strongly affected by nutrient availability, particularly the availability of carbon (Benner et al., 2000). Therefore, there must be an organic carbon amendment to the reacting system. Particular passive treatment systems which have been utilised for DSR include anaerobic bioreactors (Dvorak et al., 1992; Christensen et al., 1996), anaerobic wetlands (Kadlec et al., 2000), and reactive permeable barriers (Waybrandt et al., 1998). All of these technologies have been applied to AMD treatment. In this study, the use of amended constructed wetlands ...