Galaxy vs Solar System. The solar system and a galaxy are two different terms but sometimes are confused with one another. To understand the solar system, one should know the definition of a star system. A star system is a system in which planets orbit around a massive star. This is due to the gravitational attraction that is present in between them. A solar system is a specific kind of star system in which the Sun is at the centre. The solar system consists of anything that orbits the sun or orbits the planets which orbit the sun. The moon of earth, for example, is a part of our solar system. A galaxy, on the other hand, is a huge collection of stars that are held together by gravitational attraction. There can be a 100 million to over a trillion stars within a galaxy. It consists of interstellar gas, star clusters and numerous star systems. Many star systems can be part of a single galaxy but not the other way around.. Perhaps the biggest difference between a solar system and a galaxy is their ...
New research reveals the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount of gas into the sun within just a few million years.. Infant planetary systems are usually nothing more than swirling disks of gas and dust. Over the course of a few million years, this gas gets sucked into the center of the disk to build a star, while the remaining dust accumulates into larger and larger chunks - the building blocks for terrestrial planets.. Astronomers have observed this protoplanetary disk evolution throughout our galaxy - a process that our own solar system underwent early in its history. However, the mechanism by which planetary disks evolve at such a rapid rate has eluded scientists for decades.. Now researchers at MIT, Cambridge University, and elsewhere have provided the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount ...
The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
The solar system is made up of the Sun, the planets and dwarf planets and their known moons, asteroids, comets, dust and gas. The planets, asteroids, and comets travel around the Sun, the center of our solar system.. Most of the bodies in the solar system travel around the Sun along nearly circular paths or orbits, and all the planets travel about the Sun in the anticlockwise direction (when viewed from above).. Solar system formation began billions of years ago, when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun, planets, and other bodies of the solar system.. ...
Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits sometimes bring them close to the Earth, making them potential collision threats. NEOs also offer clues to the composition, dynamics and environmental conditions of the early solar system and its evolution, and because they are relatively close to the Earth they lend themselves to astronomical measurements. Most NEOs are discovered in optical searches, but one crucial NEO parameter, its size, usually cannot be determined from optical detections alone. This is because an NEOs optical light is reflected sunlight, and an object can be bright either because it is large or because it has a high reflectivity. A CfA team has been using the IRAC infrared camera on Spitzer to measure NEO infrared emission signals which provide an independent measure of its size.
A method of delivering a solar system and related services from a solar system vendor to a customer is provided. The method includes estimating the customers solar system requirements, delivering the estimated requirements to the customer, providing a sales lead that includes the estimated requirements to a contractor, the contractor contacting the customer to perform a sales close, ordering the solar system products from the solar system vendor, and issuing a payment for the products to the solar system vendor. The method of delivering solar services further includes supplying a first set of solar system components from the solar system vendor and a second set of solar system components from a third-party vendor, configuring all or a portion of the solar system components in accordance with the solar system requirements, shipping the solar system to the customers site, and installing the system on the customers site. The method for delivering solar services further includes financing the solar
This is the first in a series of three papers describing a project with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure abundances of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. The goal is to assess the (in)homogeneities of the multiphase ISM in galaxies where the bulk of metals can be hidden in the neutral phase, yet the metallicity is inferred from the ionized gas in the H II regions. The sample, spanning a wide range in physical properties, is to date the best suited to investigate the metallicity behavior of the neutral gas at redshift z = 0. ISM absorption lines were detected against the far-ultraviolet spectra of the brightest star-forming region(s) within each galaxy. Here we report on the observations, data reduction, and analysis of these spectra. Column densities were measured by a multicomponent line-profile fitting technique, and neutral-gas abundances were obtained for a wide range of elements. Several caveats ...
Allende is this very unusual meteorite with all these wonderful inclusions (CAIs)," said Ian Hutcheon, one of the LLNL scientists on the team. "The isotopic measurements indicate that this CAI was transported among several different nebular oxygen isotopic reservoirs, arguably as it passed through into various regions of the protoplanetary disk.". A protoplanetary disk is an area of dense gas surrounding a newly formed star. In this case, the CAI formed when our star was quite young.. "It is particularly interesting in understanding the formation and dynamics of our solar systems protoplanetary disk (and protoplanetary disks in general)," said Justin Simon of NASA Johnson Space Center and lead author of a paper appearing in the March 4 issue of the journal Science.. The new observations, "support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either due to transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition ...
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Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right). - Stock Image C002/9063
Topic: Earth and space science, Astronomy, Size and scale, Earth and space science, Astronomy, Stars, nebulae and galaxies, Earth and space science, Earth processes, Climate, Earth and space science, Solar system, Asteroids and comets, Earth and space science, Solar system, Origin/formation of solar system, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planetary geology, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planetary science, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planets, Earth and space science, Solar system, The moon, Earth and space science, Solar system, The sun, Space weather, Engineering and technology, Remote sensing, Life sciences, Astrobiology, Mathematics, Physical sciences, States of matter, Physical sciences, Structure and properties of matter, The nature of science, The scientific process, The nature of technology, The design process ...
Context. The OH radical is a key species in the water chemistry network of star-forming regions, because its presence is tightly related to the formation and destruction of water. Previous studies of the OH far-infrared emission from low-and intermediate-mass protostars suggest that the OH emission mainly originates from shocked gas and not from the quiescent protostellar envelopes. Aims. We aim to study the excitation of OH in embedded low-and intermediate-mass protostars, determine the influence of source parameters on the strength of the emission, investigate the spatial extent of the OH emission, and further constrain its origin. Methods. This paper presents OH observations from 23 low-and intermediate-mass young stellar objects obtained with the PACS integral field spectrometer on-board Herschel in the context of the Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program. Radiative transfer codes are used to model the OH excitation. Results. Most low-mass sources have compact OH ...
Using the Heliospheric imager onboard STEREO, scientists studied the movements of hundreds of dense "clumps" of glowing, ionized gas within the ribbon of Comet Enckes tail, which passed by STEREO in 2007. Fluctuations in the solar wind are mirrored in changes in the tail. By tracking these clumps, scientists were able to reconstruct the motion of the solar wind, catching an unprecedented look at its turbulence.. Turbulence in the solar wind could provide one of the answers to the mystery of the solar wind heating. Based on analysis of the comet tail motions, the researchers calculated that large-scale turbulence provides sufficient kinetic energy to drive the high-temperatures observed in the solar wind.. Turbulence may also explain solar wind variability. "Turbulent motion mixes up the solar wind, leading to the rapid variation that we see at Earth," said DeForest.. "In situ measurements are limited because they cannot follow the turbulence along its path," said William Matthaeus, a professor ...
Another fascinating fact that speaks for a young solar system is the existence of short-term comets. Every time a comet passes the sun, it loses some of its mass and thus no short-term comet could last over 100, 000 years. Astronomers have speculated that a hypothetical stretch of space called the Oort Cloud that extends up to three light years from the sun houses millions of frozen comets. Every now and then these cold comets change to a shorter orbit that takes them closer to the sun. However, there is no observational evidence for the existence of this cloud. In other words, the Oort Cloud was invented because belief in an old solar system required it ...
Team member Giacomo Briani explains that the meteorite was found to contain several intrusions. These are small assemblages of minerals called xenoliths (literally foreign rock ) that have an origin different from that of the other components of the host meteorite. The Isheyevo xenoliths contain basic organic matter, which includes elements such as hydrogen and nitrogen. The usual interpretation is that the organic matter formed before the solar system, in the interstellar medium, says Briani. The Isheyevo xenoliths have unique variations in their nitrogen isotopic composition in fact, one sample showed the highest values of the 15N/14N ratio ever recorded in a meteorite.2 Solar system origin models we have at present explain this nitrogen isotopic composition as being caused by reactions between ions and molecules in the interstellar medium, explains Briani. And according to those models, the high concentrations of heavy nitrogen should be accompanied by high levels of deuterium (a hydrogen ...
Professor Munir Humayun of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the geological sciences department at FSU and Alan Brandon of NASA discovered an isotopic anomaly in the rare element osmium in primitive meteorites. The anomalous osmium was derived from small stars with a higher neutron density than that which formed our solar system. The findings of the researchers, who also included colleagues from the University of Maryland and Bern University in Switzerland, were recently published in the journal Science.. Our new data enabled us to catch a glimpse of the different star types that contributed elements to the solar system, the parental stars of our chemical matter, Humayun said. It opens a treasure trove of prospects for exploring the formation of the elements.. For about 50 years, scientists have known that all the elements beyond iron in the periodic table were made in stars by up to three nuclear processes. Osmium is mainly formed by two of those processes, the so-called ...
Its time to leave the Universe behind. The History Channels the Universe series is out of new episodes, and their sponsorship is about to drop off this blog and Astronomy Cast. If the Universe was your favorite space series of all time, have no fear, it will be showing in reruns, and you can purchase the complete series on DVD.. Looking over the past summers series, we can see 13 episodes laid on in a steady march through the solar system, with occasional field trips to the outer cosmos. The episodes were: Secrets of the Sun; Mars: The Red Planet; The End of the Earth: Deep Space Threats To Our Planet; Jupiter: The Giant Planet; The Moon; Spaceship Earth; The Inner Planets: Mercury & Venus; Saturn: Lord of the Rings; Alien Galaxies; Life and Death of a Star; The Outer Planets; The Most Dangerous Place in the; and Search for ET.. Looking over these titles, shows can be grouped into 3 categories: Our Solar System (9 episodes), all other objects (2 episodes), and the search for ET (1 ...
Ge/Ch 128. Cosmochemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: instructors permission. Examination of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, of protostellar nebulae, and of primitive solar-system objects with a view toward establishing the relationship of the chemical evolution of atoms in the interstellar radiation field to complex molecules and aggregates in the early solar system that may contribute to habitability. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the physical conditions in various objects, timescales for physical and chemical change, chemical processes leading to change, observational constraints, and various models that attempt to describe the chemical state and history of cosmological objects in general and the early solar system in particular. Given in alternate years; offered 2017-18. Instructor: Blake. ...
Cosmochemistry (from Greek κόσμος kósmos, "universe" and χημεία khemeía) or chemical cosmology is the study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions. This is done primarily through the study of the chemical composition of meteorites and other physical samples. Given that the asteroid parent bodies of meteorites were some of the first solid material to condense from the early solar nebula, cosmochemists are generally, but not exclusively, concerned with the objects contained within the Solar System. In 1938, Swiss mineralogist Victor Goldschmidt and his colleagues compiled a list of what they called "cosmic abundances" based on their analysis of several terrestrial and meteorite samples. Goldschmidt justified the inclusion of meteorite composition data into his table by claiming that terrestrial rocks were subjected to a significant amount of chemical change due to the inherent processes of the Earth and the atmosphere. ...
The Solar System Ambassadors Program builds on and expands the outstanding efforts undertaken by the Galileo mission since 1997. Because of the success of the original Galileo Ambassadors program, JPL missions exploring Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Asteroids, Comets, Earth, the Sun and the Universe now come together to expand the programs scope to the Solar System and beyond. ...
The first solar system other than our own has been discovered only 44 light years away. Its planets are Jupiter-sized and its discovery suggests that solar systems such as our own may be commonplace in the Universe... potentially providing a fertile ground for extra-terrestial life. The large size ...
Learn Origins - Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth and Life from Universität von Kopenhagen. The Origins course tracks the origin of all things - from the Big Bang to the origin of the Solar System and the Earth. The course follows ...
We present Very Large Array NH{sub 3} and Plateau de Bure Interferometer NH{sub 2}D and HN{sup 13}C observations of the star-forming core ahead of HH 80N, the optically obscured northern counterpart of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 80/81. The main goal is to determine the kinematical information of the high density regions of the core (n ∼, 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) missed in previous works due to the depletion of the species observed (e.g., CS). The obtained maps show different kinematical signatures between the eastern and western parts of the core, suggesting a possible dynamical interaction of the core with the HH 80/81/80N outflow. The analysis of the position-velocity (P-V) plots of these species rules out a previous interpretation of having a molecular ring-like structure with a radius of 6 × 10{sup 4} AU traced by CS infalling onto a central protostar found in the core (IRS1). A high degree of NH{sub 3} deuteration, with respect to the central part of the core harboring IRS1, is derived in ...
by Rich Deem Modern astronomers are learning more about the motions they observe and uncovering some astonishing examples of chaotic behavior in the heavens. Nonetheless, the long term stability of the solar system remains a perplexing, unsolved issue. 1 (Ivars Peterson. 1993. Newtons Clock: Chaos in the Solar System) Introduction The universe, our galaxy, our…
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The Solar System Congress, or SSC, is more analogous to a United Nations rather than a true governing body of the solar system. This elected body made of represe
Solar System coloring page from Solar system category. Select from 31983 printable crafts of cartoons, nature, animals, Bible and many more.
A calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion or Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) is a submillimeter- to centimeter-sized light-colored calcium- and aluminium-rich inclusion found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. They are probably the oldest substances in the Solar System. The oldest age was measured in an inclusion of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2364 and was dated at 4568.22 ± 0.17 Mya. CAIs consist of minerals that are among the first solids condensed from the cooling protoplanetary disk. They are thought to have formed as fine-grained condensates from a high temperature (>1300 K) gas that existed in the protoplanetary disk at early stages of Solar System formations. Some of them were probably remelted later resulting in distinct coarser textures. The most common and characteristic minerals in CAIs include anorthite, melilite, perovskite, aluminous spinel, hibonite, calcic pyroxene, and forsterite-rich olivine. Using lead (Pb-Pb) isotopic dating of a CAI from NWA 2364, an age of ...
en] The solar system was formed from interstellar matter 4.6 Gyrs ago and comets are considered as remnants of icy planetesimals formed in the early solar system. One of interesting primordial characters of cometary ice is an ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of molecules such as H2O, NH3, etc. The OPR probably indicates the molecular formation temperatures in the solar nebula or in the pre-solar molecular cloud. We determined the OPRs of ammonia by using the high dispersion optical spectra of NH2 in 15 comets: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2002 V1 (NEAT), C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa), C/2002 Y1 (Juels-Holvorcem), C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), C/2003 K4 (LINEAR), 8P/Tuttle, 88P/Howell, 9P/Tempel 1, and 73P-B and -C/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3. The observations were mainly carried out by the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Other telescopes/instruments ...
The SWISS EPHEMERIS is the high precision ephemeris developed by Astrodienst. The Swiss Ephemeris is not a product for end users. It is a toolset for programmers to build into their astrological software. For end users are the printable ephemeris files for 8000 years, in Acrobat PDF format
Thanks to recent surveys of exoplanets-planets in solar systems other than our own-we know that most planetary systems typically have one or more super-Earths (planets that are substantially more massive than Earth but less massive than Neptune) orbiting closer to their suns than Mercury does. In March, researchers showed that our own solar system may have once had these super-Earths, but they were destroyed by Jupiters inward and outward migration through the solar system. This migration would have gravitationally flung small planetesimals through the solar system, setting off chains of collisions that would push any interior planets into the sun ...
Curtin University planetary scientists have shed some light on the bombardment history of our solar system by studying a unique volcanic meteorite recovered in Western Australia.
Now lets discuss what we know today about the planets in the solar system. Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, and it orbits the Sun in a variation of a condition called "tidal lock". Tidal lock usually means that the planet always has the same face toward the Sun. Mercury rotates about 1 1/2 times the speed at which it goes around the Sun, so it keeps the same face toward the Sun for a long time. Mercury also has little atmosphere. Scientists have detected the presence of atmospheric molecules, but there are so few molecules that it is hard to call it an atmsophere. With so little atmosphere, there cannot be a greenhouse effect to keep the temperatures warm and equally distributed between the side of Mercury which faces the Sun and the side of Mercury which faces away from the Sun. The side of Mercury which faces away from the Sun will be very cold because it is virtually directly exposed to space. The side of Mercury which faces the Sun will be very hot! This means that life forms would ...
When the Voyager 1 spacecraft reached the edge of our solar system in 1990, it turned its camera around and photographed Earth. From such a tremendous distance, the earth appears as a tiny bluish-white grain of sand lost in an ocean of black. This famous image of Earth is named the Pale Blue Dot. From a secular perspective, that is all Earth is-a tiny bit of rock and water in a vast and meaningless universe of chance. But in the Christian worldview, this pale blue dot is the most important planet in the universe.. Properties of Earth. Earth orbits the sun at an average distance of 93 million miles. Since it is convenient to compare other orbits to Earths orbit, we refer to this distance as one astronomical unit, or AU. At one AU, it takes Earth one year to complete an orbit. Many units are defined in terms of Earths orbital or rotational characteristics. Earths solar day is 24 hours, and this is what we normally mean when we use the word "day" without any other qualifiers. Earth takes 23 ...
New data from meteorites indicates that formation of the Solar System was triggered by a supernova: Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) educational on-line space science magazine.
A group of University of Colorado Boulder researchers is readying for NASAs Sept. 8 launch of a spacecraft to a near-Earth asteroid named Bennu, thought to harbor primordial material left over from the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. The main mission goal is to pluck a sampl
Read chapter 4 The Primitive Bodies: Building Blocks of the Solar System: In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge...
Asteroids and comets-and the meteors that sometimes come from them-are leftovers from the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.
This computer simulation shows the gravitational interaction of two young star clusters in a nearby star-forming region. The three and a half million years of the encounter have been compressed into just 27 seconds. The smaller star cluster approaches from the left, has its trajectory bent strongly as it swings by the larger cluster, and then returns for a second pass. The visualization then zooms in and dissolves to a Hubble Space Telescope image of a suspected pair of interacting star clusters in 30 Doradus (also known as the Tarantula Nebula) located 170,000 light-years away. After a partial zoom out, the simulation moves forward in time for another 1.4 million years to show the clusters merging into a single cluster.. At the start of the simulation, the smaller cluster is not gravitationally bound to the large cluster. After the first interaction, the cluster pair become gravitationally entwined and destined to merge together. A noticeable byproduct of the encounter is that interactions ...
Extragalactic source of radio-wave flashes resides in a powerfully magnetized astrophysical region New detections of radio waves from a repeating fast radio burst have revealed an astonishingly potent magnetic field in the sources environment, indicating that it is situated near a massive black hole or within a nebula of unprecedented power. The findings by an international team of astronomers, including Victoria Kaspi and Shriharsh Tendulkar of McGill University, appear in the January 11 edition of Nature and are highlighted on the cover of the journal. A year ago, the astronomers pinpointed the location of the enigmatic fast radio burst (FRB) source named FRB 121102 and reported that it lies in a star-forming region of a dwarf galaxy more than 3 billion light years from Earth. The vast distance to the source implies that it releases an enormous amount of energy in each burst -- roughly as much energy in a single millisecond as the Sun releases in an entire day. Now, using data from the Arecibo
Can you name the Solar System Objects (non-Planet) that have been visited by Spacecraft? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Tom_the_Terrible
Muheim, R., Moore, F. R. and Phillips, J. B. (2006). Calibration of magnetic and celestial compass cues in migratory birds - a review of cue-conflict experiments. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 2-17.. The final paragraph before the `General discussion (p. 11) was based on a misunderstanding and should be replaced by the following paragraph:. It was previously argued that during migration only one exposure to the cue conflict would lead to a dominance of celestial cues, and thus to a recalibration of the magnetic compass, while repeated exposures to the cue conflict would lead to a dominance of magnetic cues and to a recalibration of the celestial compass(es) (e.g. Wiltschko et al., 1997; Wiltschko et al., 1998a; Wiltschko and Wiltschko, 1999). According to our analysis, the birds did not show a significant reaction to the shifted magnetic field, i.e. they followed celestial rather than magnetic cues in four of 23 experiments in which birds were exposed to a shifted magnetic field with access to celestial ...
Jupiters Trojan asteroids are thought to be remnants of the material that formed the solar systems more distant planets. NASA plans to visit them in one of two upcoming missions.
We are NASAs Planetary Science Division. Our hardworking robots explore the planets and more on the wild frontiers of our solar system.
Pic Alcohol is pretty essential to life here on Earth, but for the first time, scientists have found the blessed fluid venting in huge amounts from a comet flying through our Solar System.. Comet Lovejoy swung around our sun for the first time in 8,000 years back in January. Astronomers kept a close eye on it because the sunlight caused chemicals in the offgassing comet to glow at specific microwave frequencies, and the results were quite a shocker.. "We found that comet Lovejoy was releasing as much alcohol as in at least 500 bottles of wine every second during its peak activity," said Nicolas Biver of the Paris Observatory, France, lead author of a paper on the discovery published October 23 in Science Advances.. Lovejoy was shown to be shedding ethyl alcohol, but the team also spotted glycolaldehyde, a simple sugar, in the comets tail. Sadly, for those keen on trying a proper Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster, the bulk of the comet is water, but there are still serious amounts of booze and sugar ...
Thus was the stage of local space set for the unique origin of Monmatia, that being the name of your suns planetary family, the solar system to which your world belongs.
In order to investigate the role of medium mass cosmic rays and energetic solar particles in the processing of N2-rich ice on frozen moons and cold objects in the outer solar system, the bombardment of an N2 : H2O : NH3 : CO2 (98.2 : 1.5 : 0.2 : 0.1) ice mixture at 16 K employing 15.7 MeV 16O5+ was performed
Read a |i| National Geographic|/i| magazine article about the Age of Comets and get information, facts, and more about the solar system.
Mars is clearly much smaller than Earth, but it can still come up with impressive superlatives. Several landscape features have unquestionably enormous dimensions - at over 21 kilometres in height, Olympus Mons is the largest volcano in the Solar System; the Hellas impact basin is more than 2000 kilometres across and eight kilometres deep - but particularly spectacular is the Valles Marineris canyon system
An anonymous reader writes Sure, the Universe is expanding, the galaxies are accelerating away from one another, and its looking more and more like theyll never re-collapse. The timeline of the far future looks pretty grim on large scales. But whats to come of our Solar System: of the Earth, our...