An object of the present invention is to provide a dye-sensitized solar cell comprising a solid electrolyte and having excellent thermostability, which has the excellent feature of retaining liquid so as to prevent an electrolyte solution from being exuded even under high temperature or pressurized conditions, and a dye-sensitized solar cell module using the same. Such dye-sensitized solar cell comprises: an electrode base material 10; a porous semiconductor layer 20 formed on the electrode base material 10 having a porous surface carrying a sensitized dye; a counter electrode 40, which is disposed so as to face the porous semiconductor layer 20; and an electrolyte layer 30 comprising a redox pair and cationic cellulose or a derivative thereof, which is formed between the electrode base material 10 and the counter electrode 40.
Traditionally, Pt prepared by hydrolysis was used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. But the hydrolysis requires a high-temperature process, so that it is not suitable for flexible substrates like plastics. In addition, noble Pt remarkably increases the cost of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we report three types of nanostuctured materials as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells, including nanostrutured Pt by polyol reduction of Pt precursors, nanocomposites and nanotube films.
The dye-sensitized solar cell, developed in the 1990s, is a non-conventional solar technology that has attracted much attention owing to its stability, low cost, and device efficiency. Power-conversion efficiencies of over 11 % have been achieved for devices that contain liquid electrolytes, whereas solid-state devices that do not require a liquid electrolyte display an overall efficiency of 5 %. Improvement of the efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells requires optimization of their various components, such as the hole-transport material, sensitizer, mesoporous TiO2 film, and the blocking layer. This Minireview highlights the current state of the art and future directions of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell technology. ...
Dye-sensitized solar cells based on iodide/triiodide (I−/I3−) electrolytes are viable low-cost alternatives to conventional silicon solar cells. However, as well as providing record efficiencies of up to 12.0%, the use of I−/I3− in such solar cells also brings about certain limitations that stem from its corrosive nature and complex two-electron redox chemistry. Alternative redox mediators have been investigated, but these generally fall well short of matching the performance of conventional I−/I3− electrolytes. Here, we report energy conversion efficiencies of 7.5% (simulated sunlight, AM1.5, 1,000 W m−2) for dye-sensitized solar cells combining the archetypal ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) single-electron redox couple with a novel metal-free organic donor-acceptor sensitizer (Carbz-PAHTDTT). These Fc/Fc+-based devices exceed the efficiency achieved for devices prepared using I−/I3− electrolytes under comparable conditions, revealing the great potential of ferrocene-based electrolytes
Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance.. Keywords: dyes/pigments ; dye-sensitized solar cells ; Fret ; photochemistry ; photovoltaics ; Restricted Geometries ; Rhodamine-B ; Efficiency ; Dcm. ...
In this review, we dissect nanotube growth under a systematic changing of electrode configurations and analyze relevant solar cell constructions as well as performances, in an attempt to explore efficient approaches to harvest solar energy. It is divided into two parts for discussion: planar and nonplanar electrodes, as a conformal coating of anodic nanotubes can be formed on an electrode regardless of its geometric shape. The first part is presented in this paper. To date, the most efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on anodic nanotubes exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 7~8%, whereas those based on nanoparticles show a higher efficiency of 11~12%. This is due to a lower surface area per photoanode volume for nanotubes with respect to nanoparticles. It is calculated that, for a given photoanode volume, it requires the nanotube diameter to go down to ~30 nm to generate a comparable surface area with nanoparticles of ~20 nm. For single-sided tube growth, three dominant ...
We report a high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, featuring an electron-rich 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene unit in its ancillary ligand. A nanocrystalline titania film stained with this sensitizer shows an improved optical absorption, which is highly desirable for practical dye-sensitized solar cells with a thin photoactive layer, facilitating the efficient charge collection. In conjunction with low-volatility and solvent-free electrolytes, we achieved 9.6-10.0% and 8.5-9.1% efficiencies under the air-mass 1.5 global solar illumination. These dye-sensitized solar cells retain over 90% of the initial performance after 1000 h full sunlight soaking at 60 degrees C. Shi, Dong; Pootrakulchote, Nuttapol; Li, Renzhi; Guo, Jin; Wang, Yuan; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Graetzel, Michael; Wang, Peng
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are promising to be the next-generation solar cells arising from their high light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low fabrication cost.
For the first time, nonstoichiometric WO2.72 was used as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Oxygen-vacancy-rich WO2.72 nanorod bundles with notable catalytic activity for triiodide and thiolate reduction were prepared in this study. The photovoltaic parameters of dye-sensitized s
Maximizing Solar Energy Absorption in DSSC. Through the following key select activities, students will learn to fabricate an artificial photosynthetic device using nanotechnology and plant pigments to capture suns energy and convert it to electricity. Each Activity prepares students for the Design Project, in which they are challenged to create the most efficient dye-sensitized solar cell, using vegetable and/or fruit dyes, that is capable of powering an electronic device.. MWM will give students an opportunity to understand the world around them in a way they have never experienced before. The modules promote an awareness of the roles science and technology play in society and guide students to take increased control of their work.. ...
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensely researched for more than two decades. Electrolyte formulations are one of the bottlenecks to their successful commercialization, since these result in trade-offs between the photovoltaic performance and long-term performance stability. The corrosive nature of the redox shuttles in the electrolytes is an additional limitation for industrial-scale production of DSSCs, especially with low cost metallic electrodes. Numerous electrolyte formulations have been developed and tested in various DSSC configurations to address the aforementioned challenges. Here, we comprehensively review the progress on the development and application of electrolytes for DSSCs. We particularly focus on the improvements that have been made in different types of electrolytes, which result in enhanced photovoltaic performance and long-term device stability of DSSCs. Several recently introduced electrolyte materials are reviewed, and the role of electrolytes in different ...
Natural-chlorophyll-related porphyrins, including (2H, Zn, Cu)-protoporphyrin IX (Por-1) and Zn-mesoporphyrin IX (Por-2), and chlorins, including chlorin e6 (Chl-1), chlorin e4 (Chl-2), and rhodin G7 (Chl-3), have been used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For porphyrin sensitizers that have vinyl groups at the β-positions, zinc coordinated Por-1 gives the highest solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (h) of up to 2.9%. Replacing the vinyl groups of ZnPor-1 with ethyl groups increases the open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 0.61 V to 0.66 V, but decreases the short-circuit current (Jsc) from 7.0 mA·cm−2 to 6.1 mA·cm−2 and the value of h to 2.8%. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations suggest that the higher Jsc values of Zn-based porphyrin sensitizers result from the favorable electron injection from the LUMO at higher energy levels. In the case of the chlorin sensitizers, the number of carboxyl protons has a large effect on the photovoltaic
This carrier diffusion length is similar to the light absorption depth at ∼700 nm (Fig. S5†), which suggests that simultaneously high light absorption and charge separation efficiencies can be achieved in the S-annealed Bi2S3 thin films, leading to high overall solar energy conversion efficiencies.53 On the other hand, for un-annealed Bi2S3 films, low signal/noise ratio in the complex conductivity spectra did not permit accurate measurement of mobility.. The solar energy conversion efficiency of the 10 layers of Bi2S3 thin films with and without sulfur vapor annealing at 445 °C was evaluated by photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements of the wavelength-dependent photon-to-current efficiencies and the potential-dependent light absorption and charge separation efficiencies (Fig. 6). The film thickness and annealing temperature were optimized for maximum photocurrent under white light illumination (Fig. S6†). The IPCE of the S-annealed films reaches a plateau of ∼40% at short wavelengths, ...
New hemicyanine dyes (CM101, CM102, CM103, and CM104) in which tetrahydroquinoline derivatives are used as electron donors and N-(carboxymethyl)-pyridinium is used as an electron acceptor and anchoring group were designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared with corresponding dyes that have cyanoacetic acid as the acceptor, N-(carboxymethyl)-pyridinium has a stronger electron-withdrawing ability, which causes the absorption maximum of dyes to be redshifted. The photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs based on dyes CM101CM104 markedly depends on the molecular structures of the dyes in terms of the n-hexyl chains and methoxyl. The device sensitized by dye CM104 achieved the best conversion efficiency of 7.0?% (Jsc=13.4 mA?cm-2, Voc=704 mV, FF=74.8?%) under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW?cm-2). In contrast, the device sensitized by reference dye CMR104 with the same donor but the cyanoacetic acid as the acceptor gave an efficiency of 3.4?% (Jsc=6.2 mA?cm-2, Voc=730 mV, ...
The replacement of oxide semiconducting TiO2 nano particles with one dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) has been used for improving the electron transport in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Although use of one dimensional structure provides the enhanced photoelectrical performance, it tends to reduce the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface due to decrease of surface area. To overcome this problem, we investigate the effects of TiCl4 treatment on DSSCs which were constructed with composite films made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TNTs. To find optimum condition of TNTs concentration in TiO2 composites film, series of DSSCs with different TNTs concentration were made. In this optimum condition (DSSCs with 10 wt% of TNT), the effects of post treatment are compared for different TiCl4 concentrations. The results show that the DSSCs using a TiCl4 (90 mM) post treatment shows a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.83% due to effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on TiO2 surface.
This thesis focuses on liquid redox electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A liquid redox electrolyte, as one of the key constituents in DSCs, typically consists of a redox mediator, additives and a solvent. This thesis work concerns all these three aspects of liquid electrolytes, aiming through fundamental insights to enhance the photovoltaic performances of liquid DSCs.. Initial attention has been paid to the iodine concentration effects in ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolytes. It has been revealed that the higher iodine concentration required in IL-based electrolytes can be attributed to both triiodide mobility associated with the high viscosity of the IL, and chemical availability of triiodide. The concept of incompletely solvated ionic liquids (ISILs) has been introduced as a new type of electrolyte solvent for DSCs. It has been found that the photovoltaic performance of ISIL-based electrolytes can even rival that of organic solvent-based electrolytes. And most strikingly, ...
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are super thin, cheap solar cells that can operate indoors. Created by G24 Innovations, the first batch of the new solar cells have found a home in fashion, heading to Hong Kong-based consumer
In a study published March 9 in Nature Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison chemistry Professor Kyoung-Shin Choi presents a new approach to combine solar energy conversion and biomass conversion, two important research areas for renewable energy.. For decades, scientists have been working to harness the energy from sunlight to drive chemical reactions to form fuels such as hydrogen, which provide a way to store solar energy for future use. Toward this end, many researchers have been working to develop functional, efficient and economical methods to split water into hydrogen, a clean fuel, and oxygen using photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs). Although splitting water using an electrochemical cell requires an electrical energy input, a PEC can harness solar energy to drive the water-splitting reaction. A PEC requires a significantly reduced electrical energy input or no electrical energy at all.. In a typical hydrogen-producing PEC, water reduction at the cathode (producing hydrogen) is ...
Solar cells made with biodegradable components are extremely rare. Ayomi Perera, a Kansas State University doctoral student, created dye-sensitized solar cells out of a protein produced by bacteria and a dye less toxic than traditional dyes. This attractive new research might make solar power even greener.. Dye-sensitized solar cells have been around for decades, and although production is affordable, a few problems burden their potential. Their energy conversion efficiency is only about 11 percent. In the standard p-n junction photovoltaic cells, advances in technology have enabled commercial production of cells with efficiencies upward of 20 percent. In general, dye-sensitized cells continue to improve in efficiency and design, but Perera decided to focus on another problem-the dyes and solvents commonly used in dye-sensitized solar cells can be toxic to people and the environment.. ...
Experimental evidence in the literature has shown that the power efficiency of both solar cells and photocatalytic thin-film electrodes can be enhanced in the presence of metallic nanoparticles because of their surface plasmonic effects. In the field of solar cells, gold nanoparticles have been used to enhance the efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell,22 an organic solar cell,23 and a silicon solar cell,24 as shown in Figure 1. Gold or silver nanoparticles have been incorporated into these three types of solar cells in such a way that the photoactive layers of the cells benefit from the enhanced light absorption near the plasmonic structure. For example, gold nanoparticles are embedded in a thin layer of TiO2 under the dye layer in order to enhance the absorption cross-section of the dye-sensitized solar cell (Figure 1A). The top coating of gold nanoparticles with TiO2 is critical to prevent corrosion of gold nanoparticles in the presence of liquid electrolytes. Meanwhile, the thickness ...
Compared to traditional silicon based solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, or Graetzel cells, have significantly lower production costs, even though the former still show higher efficiency.
Nanoporous, p-type NiO films were sensitized with coumarin 343 (C343), and the photoinduced electron transfer dynamics was studied in the presence of different concentrations of electrolyte (I-3(-)/I- in propylene carbonate). Electron transfer from the valence band of NiO to the excited C343 is very fast, occurring on time scales from hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds, but also the subsequent recombination is quite rapid, on the time scale of tens of picoseconds. Nevertheless, formation of an intermediate, attributed to I2-I NiO(+), was observed on the picosecond time scale. Simultaneously the reduced dye was converted back to the C343 ground state, indicating that recombination could be intercepted by 13 reduction. Consistent with that interpretation, we observed oxidized NiO and depletion Of 13 persisting on the millisecond time scale. Complete dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with these films as photocathode gave up to 10-11% incident photon to current conversion efficiency at ...
A photogated transistor is established based on the dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline TiO2 films. Voltage-current curves are characterized with three types of transport behaviors: linear increase, saturated plateau, and breakdownlike increase, which are actually of the typical performances for a phototransistor. Moreover, an asymmetric behavior is observed in the voltage-current loops, which is believed to be due to the difference in the effective photoconducting areas rather than the cross-section areas. The photovoltaic voltage between the common counter electrode and drain (VCE-D) is examined as well during the loop measurements, clarifying that the predominant dark process in source and the predominant photovoltaic process in drain are series connected, modifying the electric potential levels, and thus resulting in the characteristic phototransistor behaviors ...
Easy to assemble as no tools are required to assemble. Motivates the children to learn the concept of clean and green solar Energy. Sate , Educational and eco-friendly. Most suitable ilr school projects. Works on both batteries and solar energy .Hybrid Solar Energy kit teaches the children the benefits 0f solar energy while they create the toy. This krt is designed to teach how solar power is used to drive a small motor. They will also learn the advantage of natural resources ( Sun Energy ). This kit will also help in improving their Science knowledge, Mental and practice ability while they assembling the toy. Children will use the different parts together with hybrid solar energy module and gear box to build six difierent models such as Hybrid Solar Energy Windmill, Hybrid Solar Energy Revolving Plane, Hybrid Solar Energy Puppy, Hybrid Solar Energy Airboat, Hybrid Solar Energy Car and Hybrid Solar Energy Plane ...
We present an investigation into incorporating core-shell Au-SiO(2) nanoparticles into dye-sensitized solar cells. We demonstrate plasmon-enhanced light absorption, photocurrent, and efficiency for both iodide/triiodide electrolyte based and solid-st
Daeneke, T., Uemura, Y., Duffy, N. W., Mozer, A. J., Koumura, N., Bach, U. & Spiccia, L. (2012). Aqueous dye-sensitized solar cell electrolytes based on the ferricyanide-ferrocyanide redox couple. Advanced Materials, 24 (9), 1222-1225 ...
Read "A new study on solid-state cyanine dye-sensitized solar cells, Research on Chemical Intermediates" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Page contains details about dye-sensitized solar cells . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Page contains details about dye-sensitized solar cell . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The Global Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the...
Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison
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A new study from Duke University, in collaboration with University of Wisconsin and Indian Institute of Technology-Gandhinagar revealed that dusts accumulating in solar panels and airborne particles could reduce the efficiency of solar energy production.. The study, published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology Letters, showed that the ability of the solar cells to gather solar energy could be reduced by more than 25 percent due to airborne particles and accumulated dusts.. "We always knew these pollutants were bad for human health and climate change, but now weve shown how bad they are for solar energy as well," Michael Bergin, professor of civil and environmental engineering at Duke University and lead author of the study, in a press release. "Its yet another reason for policymakers worldwide to adopt emissions controls.". Bergin first thought of the possibility that dirt could reduced the efficiency of solar energy production when his colleagues from India showed some of ...
Our system can synthesize solar energy materials in minutes compared to other processes that might take 30 minutes to two hours," Chang said. "This gain in operation speed can lower cost.". In these experiments, the solar materials were made with copper indium diselenide, but to lower material costs it might also be possible to use a compound such as copper zinc tin sulfide, Chang said. And to make the process something that could work 24 hours a day, sunlight might initially be used to create molten salts that could later be used as an energy source for the manufacturing. This could provide more precise control of the processing temperature needed to create the solar energy materials.. State-of-the-art chalcogenide-based, thin film solar cells have already reached a fairly high solar energy conversion efficiency of about 20 percent in the laboratory, researchers said, while costing less than silicon technology. Further improvements in efficiency should be possible, they said.. Another advantage ...
Angewandte Chemie DOI: 10.1002/ange.201000659 Nanotechnology Carbon Nanotubes with Titanium Nitride as a Low-Cost CounterElectrode Material for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells** Guo-ran Li, Feng Wang, Qi-wei Jiang, Xue-ping Gao,* and Pan-wen Shen Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are promising candidates for low-cost and clean energy conversion devices.[1-4] In the development of DSSCs, key challenges include the demonstration of high efficiency and scale-up of fabrication.[3] As the conventional counter-electrode material in the devices, platinum, is a burden for large-scale applications of DSSCs because it is one of the most expensive materials available.[3, 5] Furthermore, the sustaining improvement of semiconductor electrode and electrolyte poses higher demand on counterelectrode performance.[5, 6] Therefore, it is necessary to develop low-cost and platinum-free counter-electrode materials with relatively high conversion efficiency for DSSCs. The counter electrode in DSSCs promotes the electron ...
Posted on 04/15/2010 8:43:22 PM PDT by I got the rope. Spain produces solar energy at night Posted: 15 Apr 2010 04:05 AM PDT Bloomberg and various German media (EN) and Spanish media (EN) have revealed that Spain is able to produce solar energy at night, too. The global warming has breached the tipping point so that the Sun is shining not only during the daytime but during the nighttime, too. Unless the solar energy was actually lunar energy, were doomed. ;-) Between November 2009 and January 2010, about 4,500 megawatt-hours of electricity was pumped by solar sources into the Spanish grid after the midnight but before 7 a.m. The subsidized price paid for this amount of solar energy is about 2.5 million euros and the authorities assume that this is the total amount of fraud. Thats of course ludicrous because if the diesel engines could have been running at night, they were probably running during the days, too. Both during the nighttime and during the daytime, it is always economically better ...
Abstract Non-fullerene organic solar cells are of broad and current interest in the field of organic solar cells, and show promising application in high performance solar cells. When designing conjugated molecules as non-fullerene materials, several parameters, such as absorption, energy levels, charge transport, and crystallinity should be considered. Among them, absorption spectra are an important parameter that determine the efficiency of sun-light harvesting. In this work, we explore a new near-infrared electron acceptor naphthalenediimide-porphyrin (NDI-Por) by using electron-donating porphyrin as the core, and four NDI as end groups with ethynyl as linkers attached to the meso-position of porphyrin. This star-shaped molecule exhibits absorption spectra up to 900 nm. NDI-Por was incorporated into non-fullerene solar cells as an electron acceptor, and together with a wide-band gap polymer donor, an initial power conversion efficiency of 1.80% could be achieved. In particular, the solar cells ...
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Solar Cell Laminate Structures Example Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 3, 17 Glass 1 PVB(h) Solar Cell 1 PVB(h) Glass1 4, 18 Glass 2 PVB(i) Solar Cell 2 PVB(i) Glass2 5, 19 Glass 1 PVB(m) Solar Cell 3 PVB(m) Glass2 6, 20 Glass 1 PVB(n) Solar Cell 4 PVB(n) Glass2 7, 21 FPF PVB(n) Solar Cell 1 PVB n FPF 8, 22 Glass 1 PVB(h) Solar Cell 1 Ionomer 1 Glass3 9, 23 FPF PVB(i) Solar Cell 4 EBA AL 10, 24 Glass 1 PVB(h) Solar Cell 1 ACR AL 11, 25 Glass 2 Ionomer 2 Solar Cell 4 PVB(i) AL 12, 26 FPF PVB(h) Solar Cell 1 PVB(A) Glass2 13, 27 FPF PVB(i) Solar Cell 4 EMA FPF 14, 28 Glass 1 PVB(m) Solar Cell 1 PVB(m) AL 15, 29 Glass 1 PVB(h) Solar Cell 2 EVA Glass1 16, 30 Glass 2 PVB(i) Solar Cell 1 PVB Glass2 Notes for Table 2: ACR is a 20 mil (0.51 mm) thick embossed sheet of a poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) comprising 15 wt % of polymerized residues of methacrylic acid and having a MI of 5.0 g/10 minutes (190° C., ISO 1133, ASTM D1238). AL is an aluminum sheet (3.2 mm thick) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal stability and electrical studies on hybrid and composite sol-gel quasi-solid-state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. AU - Apostolopoulou, Andigoni. AU - Nagygyörgy, Viola. AU - Madarász, J.. AU - Stathatos, Elias. AU - Pokol, G.. PY - 2015/4/8. Y1 - 2015/4/8. N2 - Nanocomposite organic/inorganic materials made through sol-gel method can be applied as quasi-solid-state electrolytes aiming to overcome the common issues of evaporation, leaking and stability in dye-sensitized solar cells. Two different kinds of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, depending on the different interactions between silica as inorganic phase and organic substances such as polyethylene/or polypropylene oxide derivatives, are prepared by the sol-gel technique in room temperature. Release dynamics of volatile components from two types of quasi-solid-state electrolytes are studied by thermogravimetry (TG) in order to predict the stability or changes in composites during their application in ...
Air pollution is a drag for renewable energy. Dust and other sky-darkening air pollutants slash solar energy production by 17 to 25 percent across parts of India, China and the Arabian Peninsula, a new study estimates. The haze can block sunlight from reaching solar panels. And if the particles land on a panels flat surface, they cut down on the area exposed to the sun. Dust can come from natural sources, but the other pollutants have human-made origins, including cars, factories and coal-fired power plants.. Scientists collected and analyzed dust and pollution particles from solar panels in India, then extrapolated to quantify the impact on solar energy output in all three locations. China, which generates more solar energy than any other country, is losing up to 11 gigawatts of power capacity due to air pollution, the researchers report in the Aug. 8 Environmental Science & Technology Letters. Thats a loss of about $10 billion per year in U.S. energy costs, says study coauthor Mike Bergin of ...
... : Photosynthesis (The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH , The Calvin cycle uses ATP&NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar, Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food)
EPJ Photovoltaics, an Open Access journal in Photovoltaics, which publishes original, peer-reviewed papers focused in the field of photovoltaic solar energy conversion
One of these days our fossil fuel reserves will expire. That is a given. As of today alternative green sources of energy are being researched and experimented with. As long as I have been alive people have been talking about solar panels as a means to power our energy grid. Unfortunately, silicon solar panels are expensive, difficult to adhere to surfaces, delicate, and simply do not capture enough energy from the Sun to be viable. All of these problems make silicon yesterdays news, its time for polymer solar cells to hog the spotlight.. Admittedly todays polymer solar cells do not retain as much energy as rigid silicon cells. This issue is worked on every day, but that is where the downsides of polymer solar cells end. Polymer solar cells are incredibly lightweight, they can be customized on a molecular level, they have a lower environmental impact, and most importantly they are incredibly flexible; thus making them easy to adhere to surfaces that could not stand the weight of silicon cells. ...
Abstract In this research, we report a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell consisting of a ternary blend system. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT is used as a donor and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) plays the role of acceptor whereas vanadyl 2, 9, 16, 23-tetraphenoxy-29H, 31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO) is selected as an ambipolar transport material. The materials are selected and assembled in such a fashion that the generated charge carriers could efficiently be transported rightwards within the blend. The organic BHJ solar cells consist of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ternary BHJ blend/Al structure. The power conversion efficiencies of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:VOPcPhO/Al solar cells are found to be 2.3% and 3.4%, respectively ...
Use of solar energy to produce fuels such as hydrogen has gained importance in this context. Hydrogen could be directly used as a fuel and lack of carbon in the fuel source makes it a rather clean source of energy. The problem of scarcity and global warming can be tackled with this interesting approach. Two main approaches are being pursued to achieve this goal of using water to produce hydrogen using solar energy. The first approach is the photo biological method which aims to create or alter a biological system to convert solar energy into hydrogen using water as raw material. The second approach is the chemical method, which uses photo systems or molecules that imitate photo systems coupled to other molecules to drive reaction that convert water into hydrogen ...
The researchers from the Institute of Microsystem Technology (IMTEK) and the Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF), both at the University of Freiburg in Germany, succeeded in breaking the previously held efficiency ratings of between 1% to 1.8%. The method is protected by patent.. The Dye and Organic Solar Cells research group at Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Germany confirmed the measurements made by the Freiberg scientists.. According to the team, hybrid solar cells are protected by a layer containing a mixture of inorganic nanoparticles and an organic polymer. From a theoretical perspective, the new technique can be used on many nanoparticles, and could further fuel the efficiency of this type of solar cell.. Still in the developmental phase, organic solar cells are part of the third generation of solar cells, the scientists said. Latest data show that the world record for purely organic solar cells stands at 7% for layers created through wet chemical methods. The ...
The key to making organic solar cells more consistent and efficient, the researchers say, is to arrange the spin in a specific way, which can "block the energy collapse from recombination and increase current.". "This discovery is very exciting, as we can now harness spin physics to improve solar cells, something we had previously not thought possible. We should see new materials and solar cells that make use of this very soon," Akshay Rao, a research fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, who led the study with colleagues Philip Chow and Dr. Simon Gélinas, said in a statement.. By boosting organic solar cell efficiency out of the low single digits (in the very best of circumstances; often its quite a bit lower), the researchers think it could become useful for use in light emitting diodes, "a new and rapidly growing display technology, allowing for more efficient displays in cell phones and TVs.". This research was published in the journal Nature. The ...
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This work demonstrates the enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQWs) solar cells with gradually decreasing indium composition in quantum wells (GQWs) toward p-GaN as absorber. The GQW can improve the fill factor from 42% to 62% and enhance the short current density from 0.8 mA/cm2 to 0.92 mA/cm2, as compares to the typical MQW solar cells. As a result, the PCE is boosted from 0.63% to 1.11% under AM1.5G illumination. Based on simulation and experimental results, the enhanced PCE can be attributed to the improved carrier collection in GQW caused by the reduction of potential barriers and piezoelectric polarization induced fields near the p-GaN layer. The presented concept paves a way toward highly efficient InGaN-based solar cells and other GaN-related MQW devices.. © 2015 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Polymer solar cells have in recent years emerged as a low cost alternative to silicon solar cells. In order to obtain high efficiency, fullerenes are usually required in polymer solar cells to separate charge carriers. However, fullerenes are unstable under illumination, and form large crystals at high temperatures.. Now, a team of chemists led by Professor Jianhui Hou at the CAS set a new world record for fullerene-free polymer solar cells by developing a unique combination of a polymer called PBDB-T and a small molecule called ITIC. With this combination, the suns energy is converted with an efficiency of 11%, a value that strikes most solar cells with fullerenes, and all without fullerenes.. ...