Sociobiology: sociobiology investigates the biological basis for behavior in humans and animals. The term was coined by E. O. Wilson (E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology The New Synthesis, 1975). The sociobiological approach was criticized in the following years for the fact that it defined differences in gender and origin as too strong and decisive. It thus laid the foundation for determinism. See also explanation, behavior, freedom of will, evolution, Darwinism. ...
This thesis examines the significance of sociobiology within Wesleyan ethics. In addition to investigating how sociobiological altruism connects to Wesleyan holiness, it argues that John Wesley capitalized on the biological and environmental constraints on human action, creating a particular setting that nurtured altruism in his followers through the cultivation of holiness. Of the main chapters, Chapter 2 helps the reader understand basic and current sociobiological explanations of altruistic behavior-a behavior that has been a stumbling block for evolutionary theorists who have attempted, unsuccessfully, to explain why or how it exists. To address the presence of altruism among humans, this chapter elucidates kin selection theory, group selection theory (also called multilevel selection theory), and game theory, seeking to provide clarification of current research within the field of sociobiology. Chapter 3 offers a critique of the sociobiological explanations of altruism and examines the ...
The main characteristic of this work is the laudable clarity with which Alcock explains some difficult ideas--even this novice achieved a distinct feeling that he had assimilated a valuable method for understanding human behavior. In a field whose rivals such as theology, Marxism, deconstructionism, and such pseudo-sciences as psychoanalysis, which are governed by an unquenchable thirst for obscure jargon and a perverse interest in counter-intuitive concepts, Alcock shows that ordinary language can be used to explicate a powerful scientific theory that can be understood by anyone ready to reject the politically correct dogmas that are so forcefully projected by the mass media and the relics of the past, such as Stephen Jay Gould.. The book is well organized, and gives a clear picture of where the methods and findings of sociobiology stand today.It covers many interesting case studies that are good examples showing how it is a scientific field, with all the trappings of fresh insights, tested ...
Reviews the book, The Biological Roots of Human Nature: Forging Links Between Evolution and Behavior by Timothy H. Goldsmith (see record 1991-98943-000). The Biological Roots of Human Nature is clearly from the pen of a true believer in sociobiology. Within the book, contradictions in tone and meaning prevail, which the author himself seems not to notice in his enthusiasm for the "survival machine" selfish gene model of Dawkins. Goldsmith clearly recognizes the dangerous tautology that lurks within an uncritical substitution of metaphor for inquiry. There remains the Epilogue, where Goldsmith acknowledges that in organic chemistry, complex processes (say, enzyme reactions) cannot be predicted from their constituent parts (amino acids), but have to be studied on their own terms. This volume is testament to Goldsmiths own view that "the scope of problems posed by evolutionary change is larger than the theoretical construct has absorbed(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) ...
Barnett, A., R. Shapley, L. Shapley. 2004. An Unusual Day Roost of Rhynchonycteris naso (Emballonuridae). Bat Research News, 45: 88-89. Bloedel, P. 1955. Observations on the life histories of Panama bats. Journal of Mammalogy, 36: 232-235. Bradbury, J., S. Vehrencamp. 1977. Social Organization and Foraging in Emballonurid Bats: 4. Parental Investment Patterns. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2: 19-29. Bradbury, J., L. Emmons. 1974. Social Organization of some Trinidad bats. Zeitschriftfur Tierpsychologie, 36: 137-183. Bradbury, J., S. Vehrencamp. 1976. Social Organization and Foraging in Emballonurid Bats: 1. Field Studies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1: 337-381. Bradbury, J., S. Vehrencamp. 1977. Social Organization and Foraging in Emballonurid Bats: 3. Mating Systems. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2: 1-17. Brennan, J., J. Reed. 1975. A list of Venezuela chiggers, particularly of small mammalian hosts (Acarina: Trombiculidae). Brigham Young University Science Series, 20: ...
Preface ix. CHAPTER 1 CURIOUS HISTORIES 1. CHAPTER 2 BEFORE DARWIN 9. Preliminaries 10. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck 20. Herbert Spencer 24. CHAPTER 3 PSYCHOLOGY BORN AND THE DARWINIAN REVOLUTION 28. The New Science of Mind 28. The Darwinian Revolution 33. Darwins Immediate Successors 38. Early Psychology in the United States 44. CHAPTER 4 THE NEAR DEATH OF DARWINISM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 48. Evolution after Darwin 48. Behaviorism Takes Hold in Psychology 53. The Rise of Cultural Anthropology 62. CHAPTER 5 AN EXCEPTIONAL CASE 70. The Fundamental Problem 71. A New Factor in Evolution 77. Evolutionary Epistemology 83. Fall and Decline 88. CHAPTER 6 LESSONS TO BE LEARNED: ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY 90. Classical Ethology 91. Sociobiology 105. CHAPTER 7 CONTEMPORARY EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY 123. Evolutionary Theory from 1959 124. Necessary Precursors in the Main Discipline 129. Evolutionary Psychology Reborn 134. Which Side is Bringing Science into Disrepute? 148. A Natural Science of Culture ...
In recent years, the notion that pyoverdin is a cooperative trait and that nonproducers are cheats has moved from interesting idea to established fact (West and Buckling 2003; Griffin et al. 2004; Harrison and Buckling 2005, 2009; Harrison et al. 2006, 2008; Buckling et al. 2007; Ross-Gillespie et al. 2007; Kümmerli et al. 2009a,b, 2010; Ross-Gillespie et al. 2009; Jiricny et al. 2010; Kümmerli and Brown 2010; Dumas and Kümmerli 2012). However, few studies have explored the relationship between the social dimension of pyoverdin and environmental factors. Our work shows that under certain laboratory conditions (media supplemented with high levels of iron-chelating agent) pyoverdin behaves as expected of a public good (Fig. 2), however conformity to the social evolution framework is dependent on both genotype and environment (Fig. 5). In some environments, pyoverdin-defective types evolve because production of pyoverdin is maladaptive (Fig. 1). Under other conditions pyoverdin appears to be ...
Boudreaux, H. B. 1979. Arthropod phylogeny, with special reference to insects. Wiley Interscience; New York, NY. Caudell, A.N. 1920. Zoraptera not an apterous order. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 22: 84-97.. Chao, R. F., and C. S. Chen. 2000. Formosozoros newi, a new genus and species of Zoraptera (Insecta) from Taiwan. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 76(1): 24-27.. Choe, J. C. 1989. Zorotypus gurneyi, new species, from Panama and redescription of Zorotypus barberi Gurney (Zoraptera, Zorotypidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82(2): 149-155.. Choe, J. C. 1994a. Sexual selection and mating system in Zorotypus gurneyi Choe (Insecta: Zoraptera). I. Dominance hierarchy and mating success. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34: 87-93.. Choe, J. C. 1994b. Sexual selection and mating system in Zorotypus gurneyi Choe (Insecta: Zoraptera). II. Determinants and dynamics of dominance. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34: 233-237. Choe, J. C. 1995. Courtship feeding ...
The Freudian idea that the institutions of the free society inevitably clashed with the true nature of man was subtly changed by Hayek. The text to be read and reread in this regard is his pithy "Epilogue" to Law, Legislation and Liberty,6 titled "The three sources of human values" (1982). It is there Hayek rejected the general view that human institutions were either of biological or of rational origin. Culture is neither natural nor artificial, neither genetically transmitted nor rationally designed. [... ] The structures formed by traditional human practices are neither natural in the strict sense of being genetically determined, nor artificial in the sense of being the product of intelligent design. (Hayek, page 155) First, he did accept that "man has been civilized much against his wishes" and that there was discontent in our civilization due to a feeling of helplessness of individual men and women to control the forces that shape their lives. Secondly, he did not rest content with Freuds ...
Description. Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. The introductory topics will cover various approaches to the study of animals and their behavior. Key concepts in studies of animal behavior, emphasizing ethology, are covered in class and in the assigned readings from Scott (2005), supplemented by selections from other books, especially from classics in the field as well as selected videos. Next, key concepts in sociobiology are covered using readings from Alcock (2001), supplemented by selections from additional books and some video presentations. Includes audio/video content: AV lectures. The introductory topics will cover various approaches to the study of animals and their behavior. Key concepts in studies of animal behavior, emphasizing ethology, are covered in class and in the assigned readings from Scott (2005), supplemented by selections from other books, especially from classics in the field as well as selected videos. Next, key concepts in sociobiology are covered using readings ...
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With the publication of the 25th anniversary edition in 2000, the historians of biology Michael Yudell and Rob Desalle reviewed the nature-nurture controversy around the book. "Once again", they wrote, "biological reductionism and genetic determinism became the focus of rancorous debates, discussions and diatribes within both academia and popular culture." They pointed out that the quest for a "sociobiologization" of biology was not new, mentioning Darwins The Descent of Man, R.A. Fisher, and Julian Huxley, all touching on the biological basis of human society, followed by Konrad Lorenz, Desmond Morris and Robert Ardrey in the 1960s, and Richard Dawkins and David Barash in the 1970s. Wilsons choice of title echoed the modern synthesis (named by Huxley in 1942) and, the reviewers argued, meant to build upon and extend it. 25 years on, they noted, most of the discord had gone, and the discipline had been renamed as evolutionary psychology; they were surprised to find that Wilson was happy with ...
With the publication of the 25th anniversary edition in 2000, the historians of biology Michael Yudell and Rob Desalle reviewed the nature-nurture controversy around the book. "Once again", they wrote, "biological reductionism and genetic determinism became the focus of rancorous debates, discussions and diatribes within both academia and popular culture." They pointed out that the quest for a "sociobiologization" of biology was not new, mentioning Darwins The Descent of Man, R.A. Fisher, and Julian Huxley, all touching on the biological basis of human society, followed by Konrad Lorenz, Desmond Morris and Robert Ardrey in the 1960s, and Richard Dawkins and David Barash in the 1970s. Wilsons choice of title echoed the modern synthesis (named by Huxley in 1942) and, the reviewers argued, meant to build upon and extend it. 25 years on, they noted, most of the discord had gone, and the discipline had been renamed as evolutionary psychology; they were surprised to find that Wilson was happy with ...
Yeah, I dont think serious biologists or psychologists object to identifying evolutionary influences upon human behavior, i.e. sane sociobiology. But even sexual selection often isnt truly adaptive. And culture has an incredible impact upon humans behavior. A good example is the astronomical murder rate among males in primitive societies, which civilized societies have drastically reduced. I mean, sociobiology does predict real influences that actually exists, but such influences are hard to very trace after they filter through the human culture & minds. Are sports instrumental in reducing violence between males? Well, clearly not now. But were they ever? How the fuck ya gonna answer that ...
Where did you see that, may not seem like the most crucial question, but for natural science, history, geography, archaeology, and many other fields, provenance is crucial information. The volunteers that keep eBird useful will challenge you if you claim to have seen a bird at a time or place it was rare. Fossils are…
FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2009 Jan;33(1):206-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00150.x. Epub 2008 Dec 3. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Review
1. Agonistic display among adult male Schizocosa crassipes (Walckenaer), the brush-legged wolf spider, was described. These stereotyped displays are observed exclusively during male-male encounters. 2. The presence of conspicuous black tibial brushes on the males' forelegs, coupled with movements and/or postures of the forelegs, suggests a visually-mediated communication system. 3. R-type factor analysis of the agonistic behaviors treated as variables resulted in four factors which accounted for 74.3% of the variance. These factors were interpreted as
Digital Archiving: Journal Repository (JR) The aim of Asian Journal of Biology (ISSN: 2456-7124) is to publish high quality papers (Click here for Types of paper) with broad areas of Aerobiology, Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology, Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and Zoology. ...
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the introduction of inclusive fitness, the highly influential idea which supposedly explains how insects evolve complex societies, and how natural selection can lead to altruism among relatives.. This mainstay of sociobiology is based on the 1964 work of the English evolutionary biologist, William Hamilton, who coined the following definition:. Inclusive fitness may be imagined as the personal fitness which an individual actually expresses in its production of adult offspring as it becomes after it has been first stripped and then augmented in a certain way. It is stripped of all components which can be considered as due to the individuals social environment, leaving the fitness which he would express if not exposed to any of the harms or benefits of that environment. This quantity is then augmented by certain fractions of the quantities of harm and benefit which the individual himself causes to the fitnesses of his neighbours. The fractions in question ...
Biology ; Evolution (zoology) ; Behaviour (zoology) ; Biology and other natural sciences (mathematics) ; Mathematical biology ; Evolutionary biology ; Human Evolution ; Sociobiology ; Inclusive Fitness ; Kin Selection ; Cultural Evolution
Chapter 1 The Evolution and Ecology of Cooperation - History and Concepts Andy Gardner(* ü ) and Kevin R. Foster Abstract We review the historical development of theory on the evolution and ecology of cooperation. Darwin launched this topic of inquiry with a surprisingly modern discussion of how fitness could be derived from both personal reproduction (direct fitness) and the reproduction of family (indirect fitness), and the anarchist Petr Kropotkin forever wove ecology into sociobiology with his book on Mutual Aid. From there, an eccentric group of protagonists took the helm and developed theories of social evolution with clear (although sometimes implicit) links to ecology. Here we provide a summary of the foundational theory, including Hamiltons rule, neighbormodulated fitness, inclusive fitness, and levels of selection; discuss the classification and semantics of social behaviors; and give a brief overview of the various mechanisms that have been invoked to explain cooperation. Recently, ...
The Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior aims at promoting modern research and teaching in the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology and animal behavior. The department is organized around two unifying research themes. The first involves the processes that underlie the evolution of various biological entities and phenomena ranging from the genetic code, genes and molecules, through body form, to behavior and social interactions. The second involves interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, and studies how these interactions shape the evolution, abundance and distribution of organisms, and the structure and dynamics of populations, communities, ecosystems and the whole biosphere. Research carried out in the department covers a wide spectrum of fields including micro- and macro-evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular evolution, mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior, sociobiology, population and community ecology, landscape and ...
Biology and natural sciences, growth of biological thought, matter and life, origin of life, history of life on earth, bacteria and protists, fungi and other primitive plants, seed bearing plants. Animals without backbones, insects, vertebrates, phylogeny and systematic. Mechanisms of evolution, chemical basis of life, cellular basis of life. Selected topics in plant physiology, selected topics in animal physiology. Introduction to ecology, selected topics in plant ecology, selected topics in animal ecology, population ecology, community ecology, animal behaviour, behavioral ecology and sociobiology, biological diversity on earth. Loss of biological diversity in recent times, conservation biology and the future of the biosphere ...
In a speech in New Orleans last fall, Harvard biologist E.O. Wilson declared that "multiculturalism equals relativism equals no supercollider equals communism." Was this some babbling formula for a conspiracy theory of the end of the millennium, escaping the fevered lips of a mad scientist? Or was it the same old witches brew of cold war paranoia reduced to its basic stock? Wilson has had a go at playing Cassandra before, and many would consider his brand of sociobiology -- which glorifies aggressive competition -- to be a classic product of the mentality of militarist science. But his comment referred to a new arena of conflict that some have dubbed the Science Wars, a second front opened up by conservatives cheered by the successes of their legions in the holy Culture Wars. Seeking explanations for their loss of standing in the public eye and the decline in funding from the public purse, conservatives in science have joined the backlash against the (new) usual suspects -- pinkos, feminists and ...
Walters, JR, Seyfarth RM. 1987. Competition and cooperation within groups. Primate Societies. (Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Struhsaker, T.T., Eds.).:306-317., Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Seyfarth, RM, Cheney DL. 1987. Danger recognition in animals. The Oxford Companion to the Mind. (Gregory, R.L., Ed.).:178., Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cheney, DL, Seyfarth RM. 1987. The influence of intergroup competition on the survival and reproduction of female vervet monkeys. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology. 21:375-386.. Essock-Vitale, S, Seyfarth RM. 1987. Intelligence and social cognition. Primate Societies. (Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Struhsaker, T.T., Eds.).:452-461., Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cheney, DL. 1987. Interactions and relationships between groups. Primate Societies. (Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Struhsaker, T.T., Eds.).:267-281., Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cheney, ...
Neff BD and EI Svensson. 2013. Polyandry and alternative mating tactics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B), in press.. Rodgers CMC, BD Neff, and R Knapp. 2013. Androgen-mediated nurturing and aggressive behaviors during paternal care in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Hormones and Behaivor, in press.. Cogliati K, BD Neff, and S Balshine. 2013. High degree of paternity loss in a species with alternative reproductive tactics. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, in press.. Evans ME, BD Neff, and DD Heath. 2013. MHC-dependent mate choice revealed through behavioural and genetic analyses in the Chinook salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, in press.. Mullen EK, Daley M, Thompson GJ. (submitted). Gene co-citation networks associated with worker sterility in honey bees. BMC Systems Biology. Thompson GJ, Hurd PL, Crespi BJ 2013. Genes underlying altruism. Biology Letters. In press. Camiletti A, Awde DN, Thompson GJ (in revision). How female ...
For more than 20 years, sex allocation in hymenopteran societies has been a major topic in insect sociobiology. A recurring idea was that relatedness asymmetries arising from their haplodiploid sex determination system would lead to various parent-offspring conflicts over optimal reproduction. A possible weakness of existing theory is that only interests of nuclear genes are properly accounted for. Yet, a diversity of maternally transmitted elements manipulate the reproduction of their host in many solitary arthropod groups. The bacterium Wolbachia is a striking example of such a selfish cytoplasmic element, with effects ranging from reproductive incompatibility between host strains, induction of parthenogenesis and feminization of males. This paper reports on a first PCR-based Wolbachia screening in ants. Out of 50 Indo-Australian species, 50% screened positive for an A-group strain. One of these species also harboured a B-group strain in a double infection. Various factors that might explain ...
Philadelphia, Penn. (June 9, 2006) -- Using a revolutionary imaging process, a new study is revealing that wrinkles arent the only cue the human eye looks for to evaluate age. Scientists at the Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institute for Urban Ethology (Austria) and the Department for Sociobiology/Anthropology at the University of Goettingen (Germany), have shown that facial skin color distribution, or tone, can add, or subtract, as much as 20 years to a womans age. The study is to be presented at the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) annual meeting, June 7-11, 2006, in Philadelphia, PA. The study used 3-D imaging and morphing software technologies to remove wrinkles and bone structure from the equation to determine the true impact of facial skin color distribution on the perception of a womans age, health and attractiveness and is currently in the edit acceptance process with the journal Evolution and Human Behavior ...
At this point, let us take stock of the ground we have covered so far. We can make some useful connections here with the more conventional biology text. We have constructed this biological explanation by focussing our attention on the living organism as an autonomous unity. It is the conservation of identity of each biological unit which we have brought forth as central, not the conservation of a population or of the genetic material which runs through a particular lineage. This contrasts sharply with the way of speaking in both population genetics and sociobiology where gene pools and species behaviour have been the focus at the expense of the individual living thing. Although we have restored attention to the biological unit as an attempt to see basic constitutive mechanisms more clearly, we must still deal with the history of change which occurs through each lifetime and through generations. The history of interactions which occurs within one lifetime is usually referred to as an organisms ...
In Evolutionary Anthropology we focus on the pre-history, ecology and biology (including functional anatomy) of the human species. To accomplish this, our students take classes in Forensics, Human Evolution, Primate Anatomy, Sociobiology and Human Cognitive Evolution. After the basics, they explore more in-depth topics like Primate Evolutionary Genetics, The Human Body (using
Until recently in the European countryside when a young girl and boy were about to start dating, parents first inquired about whether their respective fathers or mothers were alcoholics, whether somebody in their family tree had some serious illness, such as diabetes, tuberculosis, or some nervous disorder - or even inborn proclivity to criminal behavior. A semi-literate, yet intelligent European peasant or farmer did not have to be versed in sociobiology or have a degree in molecular biology in order to realize that hereditary diseases of the unfortunate partner could easily be transmitted to the newborns, with deadly social consequences for the entire family.. In France it is still common to hear the expression "elle est de bonne race" ("she is of good breed or character") for a good looking and healthy woman. In the Croatian or the Serbian language one can hear among young adults the colloquial adjective rasna (raceful) when depicting a good and healthy looking woman. In such particular ...
In Evolutionary Anthropology we focus on the pre-history, ecology and biology (including functional anatomy) of the human species. To accomplish this, our students take classes in Forensics, Human Evolution, Primate Anatomy, Sociobiology and Human Cognitive Evolution.
This is long and worth reading:. Reading Ullica Segerstrales book, Defenders of the Truth, I begin to understand some of the issues that get concealed by the politics. I did ESS Theory (the British version of sociobiology) back in the 1980s, and got caught up in the battle. It became strange later, because I found myself in disagreement with the sociobiologists (even though I was one) and in agreement with their critics.. The critics have a real _scientific_ point--if you dont understand the developmental, functional, evolutionary, and/or control mechanisms underlying behavior, you dont understand the causal chain that makes it happen (see Tinbergen). It doesnt matter that you have all sorts of interesting statistical results; you dont really understand it. (By the way, they criticize all statistical fields of science this way.) Your theory has no visible means of support. For example, my dissertation was on sensorimotor behavior in echolocating bats. I tried to connect the model to ...
There is no shortage of evidence to suggest that we are fundamentally, and all but irreparably, characterized by selfishness. If reports of consumptive greed and callous disregard for the obvious distress of others does not clinch the point, the representations of science, particularly the portrayals of sociobiology, confirm that impression beyond any reasonable doubt. This emerging discipline endevers to show how altruism is fundamentally unnatural, an aberration that runs directly counter to the natural flow of life.. The Impossibility of Natural Altruism. For modern life sciences, altruism represents an anomaly that elicits drastic reactions.. The Biological Problem of Altruism. From a biological point of view, altruism should not exist. The Darwinian theory of natural selection holds that those organisms survive and reproduce which are best adapted to their environment. They are selected by the natural processes of geography, climate, food supplies, predation, etc. To that extent, any ...
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) make use of their sense of smell to distinguish between members of their own and other social groups, according to new research, led by Stefanie Henkel (University of Leipzig, Germany), published in Springers journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.
Dennett tackles the question of free will in a highly original and witty manner, drawing on the theories and concepts of fields that range from physics and evolutionary biology to engineering, automata theory, and artificial intelligence. He shows how the classical formulations of the problem in philosophy depend on misuses of imagination, and he disentangles the philosophical problems of real interest from the "family of anxieties" in which they are often enmeshed-imaginary agents and bogeymen, including the Peremptory Puppeteer, the Nefarious Neurosurgeon, and the Cosmic Child Whose Dolls We Are. Putting sociobiology in its rightful place, he concludes that we can have free will and science too. He explores reason, control and self-control, the meaning of "can" and "could have done otherwise," responsibility and punishment, and why we would want free will in the first place. A fresh reading of Dennetts book shows how much it can still contribute to current discussions of free will ...
Remy Chauvin (10 October 1913 - 8 December 2009) at Sainte-Croix-aux-Mines, Haut-Rhin, was a biologist and entomologist, and a French Honorary Professor Emeritus at the Sorbonne, PhD, and a senior research fellow since 1946. Chauvin was also known for defending the rights of animals and for being interested in such topics as parapsychology, life after death, psychics, clairvoyance and the phenomenon of UFOs. He sometimes wrote under the pseudonym Pierre Duval. Chauvin, continuing a tradition defended by French scientists Pierre-Paul Grassé and Jean Piveteau, was very critical of Darwinism and sociobiology. He developed his own evolutionary theory which was described in three books (God of the ants, God of the stars; The Biology of the Spirit; Darwinism or the death of a myth) Chauvins view of evolution can be seen as directed, goal driven and non-random. He has been described as a non-darwinian evolutionist. The following is a summary of his evolutionary views: Neo-Darwinism is a set of ...
Only a few mammals and some birds are as long-lived as humans, and many of these species share interesting characteristics in how they age. A new paper in Springers journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology explores lifetime reproductive patterns in African elephants. Led by Phyllis Lee of the University of Stirling in the UK, the study analyzed data from 834 female elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya.
Frederick Turner. Edward O. Wilson has recently modified his views about the nature of heredity and selection, and their relationship with social behavior. Wilson was arguably the founder of sociobiology, and it behooves us to take him seriously. It may be time to look back at the emergence and history of the movement known as literary Darwinism, which is now thirty years old, and assess its strengths, its weaknesses, and its possible future successes in the study of literature. It is a movement that includes such figures as Brian Boyd, Jonathan Gottschall, Robert Storey, and Nancy Easterlin, all of whom have published books squarely in the center of the field in the last few years (as of early 2013), and many others, such as Brett Cooke, Alice Andrews, Troy Camplin, Alexander Argyros, Dennis Dutton, and Michelle Scalise Sugiyama. Other important figures have concentrated more on evolutionary aesthetics in general, such as Ellen Dissanayake, Walter Koch, Helen Fisher, Koen dePryck, Kathryn Coe, ...
Peter Watts new book Blindsight is the best SF novel I have read in quite some time. Its a space opera, and a First Contact novel, and a vampire novel - and also a philosophical novel about the nature of consciousness. [The usual warning applies: this review unavoidably contains SPOILERS).. Watts is a hardcore sociobiologist, in outlook. Which is often something that drives me up a wall. But he has enough conceptual audacity that he makes it work, chillingly and powerfully, in Blindsight.. To explain about sociobiology: I despise it when those "evolutionary psychology" types tell us that women are "hardwired" to be attracted to older, wealthier men; or that "criminality" (a word or concept left carefully undefined) is significantly genetic, since children of "criminal" parents adopted into "non-criminal" families are (supposedly) much more likely to become "criminals" themselves than children of "non-criminal" parents adopted into "criminal" families. (Both these assertions come up, for ...
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The Future of Life, by Edward. O. Wilson, as indicated above, begins with an apostrophe, a letter to Henry David Thoreau, author of Walden. (Dont worry, Wilson is aware Thoreau has been dead for many years, so its not a letter to Thoreau so much as a pretend letter to Thoreau.) Wilson is considered by many to be the worlds foremost authority on ants, and to be an authority on sociobiology in general. In other words, dude knows his research. He explains the problems of resources (which, despite some wiggle room, are limited) for the six billion people (as of 2001) on the planet, and gives some guesses about the top number of humen (my word, not his) that both humanity and the planet would be capable of providing for. He also sketches an argument between a typical Economist and typical Environmentalist, and shows how much they would agree were they to listen to, instead of stereotype, each other. He says that biodiversity is not only good for the health of humanity, but that despite increasing ...
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Army ants can be roughly divided between species that forage above ground (epigaeic forms) and those that forage subterraneously or beneath leaf litter (hypogaeic forms), though some hypogaeic species will forage epigaeically if conditions permit (usually at night). Similarly, epigaeic foragers may in turn be either epigaeic or hypogaeic nesters. For obvious reasons, the epigaeic species are the best studied with little being known about the sociobiology of most hypogaeic species; however, it is the hypogaeic forms that account for the majority of army ant species. In all army ants studied to date, foraging is done by advancing columns or networks of groups of workers, without individual exploratory scouts searching ahead for food sources. Location of food sources is therefore largely fortuitous, though advancing columns are attracted to movement (potential prey animals have been observed avoiding predation by the simple expedient of not moving). In the subterranean forager Dorylus laevigatus, ...
A critic of evolutionary psychology or sociobiology, Anne Innis Dagg wrote a book entitled Love of Shopping Is Not a Gene, but I sometimes wonder if she had got it all wrong.
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Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Daniel S. Gruner, W. Stanley Harpole, Helmut Hillebrand, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori A. Biederman, Dana Blumenthal, Cynthia S. Brown, Lars A. Brudvig, Yvonne M. Buckley, Marc Cadotte, Chengjin Chu, Elsa E. Cleland, Michael J. Crawley, Pedro Daleo, Ellen I. Damschen, Kendi F. Davies, Nicole M. DeCrappeo, Guozhen Du, Jennifer Firn, Yann Hautier, Robert W. Heckman, Andy Hector, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Oscar Iribarne, Julia A. Klein, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Wei Li, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Brett A. Melbourne, Charles E. Mitchell, Joslin L. Moore, Brent D. Mortensen, Lydia R. OHalloran, John L. Orrock, Jesus Pascual, Suzanne M. Prober, David A. Pyke, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schuetz, Melinda D. Smith, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren K. Sullivan, Ryan J. Williams, Peter ...
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The Psychobiology research group is concerned with the pathways through which sociodemographic and psychosocial factors influence physical disease processes. A major aim of the group is to understand how factors such as socioeconomic status, social isolation, work stress and hostility get under the skin, and influence biological functions in health and disease. A second theme is the investigation of lifestyle and patterns of health behaviour, and how health behaviour interacts with biological processes to affect disease risk.. ...