What are types of groups? Describe a situation when you experienced individuation, social loafing, or social facilitation while performing a task?
There is a substantial amount of research indicating that the presence of others influences food intake (discussed below). In reviewing this literature, Herman, Roth, and Polivy[43] have outlined three distinct effects: 1. Social facilitation - When eating in groups, people tend to eat more than they do when alone. In daily diary studies, individuals have been found to eat from 30 [44] to 40-50 percent[43][45] more while in the presence of others versus eating alone. In fact, some research has indicated that the rate of intake is best described as a linear function of the number of people present, such that meals eaten with one, four, or seven other people were 33, 69, and 96 percent larger than meals eaten alone, respectively.[46] In addition to these observational findings, there is also experimental evidence for social facilitation effects.[47] Meal duration may be an important factor in social facilitation effects; observational research has identified positive correlations between group ...
Research shows that helping a child maintain a healthy weight can depend greatly on changing his or her social and built environments.
Wilfley and her colleagues recently published a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association where she found that when overweight children lose weight, they keep it off more effectively if they also participate in a maintenance-targeted treatment program. A particularly promising maintenance approach is called social facilitation maintenance (SFM), which presumes that children need to be in a social environment that supports continued weight control. The SFM treatment guides parents to encourage their kids to be friends with physically active peers and to ensure that play dates with existing friends involve physical activity and healthful eating. Wilfley is particularly interested in finding effective, long-term treatments for obese and overweight children because if the condition appears in childhood, the complications of obesity - from heart disease to diabetes, certain cancers, stroke, sleep apnea and high blood pressure - could begin to appear earlier in life. So instead of ...
Social norms are an essential part of living in a society; they guide us towards appropriate behaviors. Norms are the social behaviors that are expected
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Objective: There is little systematic information on the patterns of Chinese adolescents alcohol expectancies and the influence of expectancies on drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine Chinese high school students alcohol expectancies and gender and drinking status (non-drinker, occasional drinker, regular drinker) differences in expectancies. Method: We administered the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ) to a convenience sample of 1244 high school students (M = 627; F = 617) from schools in Huhhot City, Chayouhou Qi, and Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia, China. Results: We identified eight expectancy factors: three negative (general negative consequences, harm to person/reputation, and negative uses of alcohol) and five positive (general positive perceptions, tension reduction/relaxation, drinking as social courtesy, social facilitation, and beneficial drinking/moderation). MANOVA results indicated that males had higher positive perception expectancies
In a study of dynamogenic stimulation for the purpose of explaining pacemaking and competition in 1898, Norman Triplett theorized that "the bodily presence of another rider is a stimulus to the racer in arousing the competitive instinct...".[41] This dynamogenic factor is believed to have laid the groundwork for what is now known as social facilitation-an "improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people".[36]. Further to Tripletts observation, in 1920, Floyd Allport found that although people in groups were more productive than individuals, the quality of their product/effort was inferior.[36]. In 1965, Robert Zajonc expanded the study of arousal response (originated by Triplett) with further research in the area of social facilitation. In his study, Zajonc considered two experimental paradigms. In the first-audience effects-Zajonc observed behaviour in the presence of passive spectators, and the second-co-action effects-he examined behaviour in the ...
Borsari, B. and Carey, K. (2003) Descriptive and injunctive norms in college drinking A meta-analytic integration. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64, 331-341.
Action Learning Pilot Programme. Project Khaedu Rob Ferreira Hospital - preliminary findings. 10 February 2005. Agenda. Executive summary Current situation Complications Some suggested resolutions. Complications. Slideshow 1282445 by gaston
The Finance Research Practicum and Finance Proseminars are Action Learning opportunities offered by the Master of Finance program
Culture also enables coordination in a different way, by establishing norms and conventions that regulate behavior. Some of these norms are explicit and bear the force of law. We drive on the right- hand side of the road because its easier to have a rule that everyone follows rather than to have to play the guessing game with oncoming drivers. Bumping into a fellow pedestrian at the crosswalk is annoying, but smashing into an oncoming Mercedes-Benz is quite another thing. Most norms are 1ongstanding, hut it also seems possible to create new forms of behavior quickly, particularly if doing so solves a problem. The journalist Jonathan Rauch, for instance, relates this story about an experience Schelling had while teaching at Harvard: "Years ago, when he taught in a second-floor classroom at Harvard, he noticed that both of the buildings two narrow stairwells-one at the front of the building, the other at the rear-were jammed during breaks with students laboriously jostling past one another in ...
And that is pretty well where we stand today. Soon you will be teaching my children. And you will wonder how you will teach these strange creatures. You will find they do not fit into the norms set by white society. And of course, your norms are always so right. And ours so wrong. I know we can talk of integration. But what does integration mean? To some it may mean a patronizing visit to an Indian family on the reserve where all feel ill at ease as monkeys in a cage when people stare at them. Perhaps it means placing an Indian student in the classroom mostly white where the Indian population must not exceed 50%, otherwise you would have integration in reverse. And we are told that, that is very bad. Since you are choosing a teaching career, I presume classroom integration comes to your mind. I hope it is not far from your heart because integration at the high school is failing. Perhaps you will be able to save it. As you know, our students play in the same play ground as your other students, ...
Abstract: Analysis of legal documents cannot be reduced to their linguistic expression. When dealing whit legal texts a distinction should be made between the linguistic form (normative statement) and the content (norm). Norms are conceived as the interpreted meaning of linguistic contexts (partitions in a legal text, fragments of judicial decisions, etc). In the interpretative process, legal practitioners make reference to an external system of concepts that can be assumed, even if not universal, at least shared by a large social and cultural community. As a consequence, legal interpretation and legal conceptualization are strongly influenced by cultural, social and political factors and changes in meaning of legal concepts occur within a synchronic localization in different cultures and within a diachronic evolution process of the environment in which they are created. This dynamic nature of legal knowledge poses serious problems in communicating legal information, and even more in the realm ...
How do legal actors know what the relevant facts and law are in any given case? The answer, we argue, is that they know in the same way that ordinary citizens know. When deliberating about what dangers are real and which are specious, and about which policies are efficacious and which are futile or even self-defeating, ordinary folk will rarely have direct access to the answers themselves. Instead, they must make decisions about what information and which sources warrant their trust. They must judge whether the stories in which the information is embedded are plausible and consistent with one another. They must consider which norms are relevant, given the facts as they know them. And all the empirical evidence we have suggests they will do all of this through interlocking social and cognitive mechanisms that cause them to rely on a culturally contingent situation sense, an implicit knowledge of how the material and social world works and who can be trusted to report it accurately.. Click to read ...
Many inverse problems in signal processing deal with the robust estimation of unknown data from underdetermined linear observations. Low dimensional models, when combined with appropriate regularizers, have been shown to be efficient at performing this task. Sparse models with the 1-norm or low rank models with the nuclear norm are examples of such successful combinations. Stable recovery guarantees in these settings have been established using a common tool adapted to each case: the notion of restricted isometry property (RIP). In this paper, we establish generic RIP-based guarantees for the stable recovery of cones (positively homogeneous model sets) with arbitrary regularizers. These guarantees are illustrated on selected examples. For block structured sparsity in the infinite dimensional setting, we use the guarantees for a family of regularizers which efficiency in terms of RIP constant can be controlled, leading to stronger and sharper guarantees than the state of the art ...
An extensive literature addresses citizen ignorance, but very little research focuses on misperceptions. Can these false or unsubstantiated beliefs about politics be corrected? Previous studies have...
It was proved recently that a Banach space fails the Mazur intersection property if and only if the family of all closed, convex and bounded subsets which are intersections of balls is uniformly very porous. This paper deals with the geometrical implications of this result. It is shown that every equivalent norm on the space can be associated in a natural way with a constant of porosity, whose interplay with the geometry of the space is then investigated. Among other things, we prove that this constant is closely related to the set of ε-differentiability points of the space and the set of r-denting points of the dual. We also obtain estimates for this constant in several classical spaces.. ...
I cant really decide. Fe/Fi: - Decent at being polite to people, can seem outgoing for a little while. - Have long term close friends who I am open w
Systems and methods are provided to facilitate lottery ticket transactions. A request to purchase a lottery ticket is received, the lottery ticket being associated with a lottery number combination, such as a limited number of lottery tickets or a limited number of players. An indication that the lottery number combination is to be associated with a limited number of occurrences is also received. For example, an indication that the lottery number combination is to be associated with only a single lottery ticket may be received. A price associated with the lottery ticket is determined based on the received indication. According to one embodiment, the price is increased by a predetermined amount based on the received indication.
From: EurekAlert: Social Behavioral-- (Springer) Traditional cultural norms about gendered roles and femininity still matter for women..
Parents of children who died after administration of the pentavalent vaccine have reported to me of their children crying inconsolably soon after vaccination and then having seizures-continuous and intractable seizures-before they died. Convulsions are a known adverse reaction to vaccination. If a child survives, the convulsions are attributed to the vaccine because convulsions are acknowledged as a known adverse reaction to the vaccine. If a child died due to continuous convulsion , it is labelled as a "coincidental death" (and not a death related to vaccine) because death is not an acknowledged side effect of the vaccine. This has happened repeatedly but each death is erased as "not related" and then health authorities can claim that no death has ever been reported related to the vaccine, even after extensive phase 4 trials in millions of children ...
Fashion bloggers, beauty bloggers and other bloggers have tons of natural hairstyles and fashion inspiration. See the African-American and Latina bloggers were stalking now
The study, which aimed to investigate why young females drink, has found that social and cultural norms are the foundation - rather than a contributing factor - for risky drinking.. PhD candidate Belinda Lunnays ongoing research involves a "photo elicitation" method whereby groups of teenage girls aged 14-17 are given digital cameras and asked to document their drinking-related life in pictures.. Preliminary findings, Ms Lunnay said, showed young peoples decisions to drink excessively were not entirely influenced by their peers but rather a response driven by the perceived need to "exhibit behaviour that is congruent with socially accepted norms".. "We already know that drinking styles adopted by young people often resemble that of their peers," Ms Lunnay, who is being supervised by Professor Paul Ward, Dr Joseph Borlagdan and Dr Darlene McNaughton, said.. "However, my findings go beyond the limited explanatory power of peer pressure or cause/effect understandings of young females drinking ...
One of the invitees was a friend and colleague of ours, Ms. Leutisha Stills, now at Jack and Jill Politics. Observing that the White House hadnt called Black bloggers in since the 2008 presidential campaign, she opined that the bloggers were being, as she put it, "pimped." We think Ms. Stills was correct, but for the wrong reasons. To be "pimped" is to be manipulated for some underhanded and shameful purpose. Whether bloggers, or journalists are shamefully used once every couple years, or three times every week is a difference only in the frequency of the act, not in the roles of the players or of the played ...
Professional Education Part 1 1. Who among the following needs less verbal counseling but needs more concrete and operational forms of assistance? The child who ______________. a. has mental retardation b. has attention-deficit disorder c. has learning disability d. has conduct disorder 2. Test norms are established in order to have a basis for ______________.…
The need to participatein a globalisedeconomy createsa situationwhere the abilityto cross boundaries and the construction of new global, international norms are especially important, and this has led to the old politics of identity being increasingly abandoned in favour of a new pragmatic position where language and culture are valuedas commodifiable resources(Heller,1999a:5). In Singapore, thismove towards a more pragmatic viewof language canbe seenin the Governments attempt to assertthe economic value of the local languages, officially known as mother tongues. The mother tongues originally contrast with English in a narrative where they are treated primarily as repositories of cultural values, and thus assigned to a domain (the traditional and cultural) that is distinct from that assigned to the latter (the economic and technological). This paper explores the factors motivating the Governments shift towards a discourse of linguistic instrumentalism, as well as its consequences, and ...
Gender norms are really hard, but are much easier to deal with when we learn were not alone. When we can talk openly about the pressures were feeling, and realize that those pressures dont have to control their lives, we can start figuring out ways to resist them.
It was a year and a half ago now, but readers of this blog will remember that my take-home message from the referendum campaign for independence here in Scotland was that I resolved to be as fearless as possible in as many areas of my life as I could. I was left with a strong desire to rail against bias for the status quo until you have a path of solid data laid before you (data which can never be got without taking the leap and running the experiment). It colours my approach to many things, in my view in a good way. But Ill not be offended if you read this and think differently. My perspective is that our norms are way too skewed in the direction of reluctance to experiment and take risks, and by pushing back against this, we get closer to an optimum balance. In other words, the tide of societal norms and especially media economics is constantly dragging us towards fearfulness. While the tide moves in this direction, we have to swim in the other direction, even just to stand still. Im writing ...
Downloadable! The favorite-longshot bias describes the longstanding empirical regularity that betting odds provide biased estimates of the probability of a horse winning--longshots are overbet, while favorites are underbet. Neoclassical explanations of this phenomenon focus on rational gamblers who overbet longshots due to risk-love. The competing behavioral explanations emphasize the role of misperceptions of probabilities. We provide novel empirical tests that can discriminate between these competing theories by assessing whether the models that explain gamblers choices in one part of their choice set (betting to win) can also rationalize decisions over a wider choice set, including compound bets in the exacta, quinella or trifecta pools. Using a new, large-scale dataset ideally suited to implement these tests we find evidence in favor of the view that misperceptions of probability drive the favorite-longshot bias, as suggested by Prospect Theory.
Calculates lottery tickets with optimized database of draws since 2002, updating via the Internet, many statistical charts and reports with many parameters for the calculation and optimization of the.
I dont know any more general theorems of the form "G has X iff its dual has Y" but, since lecturing on Tates thesis, I learnt some more nice examples of Pontrjagin duals. As you know well, number theorists like to complete fields with respect to norms. The rational numbers are too rich to understand completely, so we choose a norm on them, and then we complete with respect to that norm, and we get either the reals, or, a couple of thousand years later, the p-adics. Now a complete field is a much better gadget to have because theres a chance well be able to do analysis on this field. Indeed, for example, its possible to set up a theory of Banach spaces etc for any complete field, and this isnt just for fun - e.g. Serre showed in the 1960s how to simplify some of Dworks work on zeta functions of hypersurfaces using standard theorems of analysis of Banach spaces, applied to Banach spaces over the p-adic numbers, and there are oodles of other examples within number theory (leading up to an ...
James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T ...
Im a newbie blogger (pushing two months now, but still full of questions), and I have found great help in joining this club and meeting some awesome women...t…
Im a newbie blogger (pushing two months now, but still full of questions), and I have found great help in joining this club and meeting some awesome women...t…
There is a great promo at the moment for Entrecard members to publish their top ten droppers. I feel I cannot do that as there are far more than 10 that matter. I am thankful for those bloggers who do take the time to drop their card regularly and I do try to reciprocate as often as I can but I am even more thankful for those wonderful bloggers who take the time to leave a comment, no matter how short ...
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I doubt that anyone other than close friends will read this, but... Im Stacy and I have been with my husband Cory for 11 years, married for 5. We are currently in the process of trying to adopt a child from Ethiopia ...
I doubt that anyone other than close friends will read this, but... Im Stacy and I have been with my husband Cory for 11 years, married for 5. We are currently in the process of trying to adopt a child from Ethiopia ...
Im newish to the Nashville area, will be having surgery most likely in late November. Thing is, Im Bipolar, and have virtually NO close friends here for...
Each Decision box will present research-based information on the probabilities associated with each option as a combination of numbers, graphics and narrative statements. Although the evidence about the best risk communication formats is still not conclusive [6, 23], a number of reviews recommend combining graphs with verbal and numerical formats to improve the readers understanding of probabilistic information. Supplementing text with graphics has been proposed as a means to reduce the influence of less-relevant textual information, to improve decision-making and to increase accuracy when comparing probabilities [24]. Providing multiple formats may also help a broader audience with various numeracy levels make more accurate assessments of risks [25].. We will express the numerical probabilities of the benefits and harms of an intervention as absolute risk, communicated as natural frequencies with a constant denominator [5, 6, 26, 27]. Natural frequencies facilitate inferences on the likelihood ...
Originally Posted by kombat I think the fallacy here is in portraying $30/week as a trivial amount. As I showed in my post , if you took that $30/week and invested it at 10% for the same
When we look around at the people that surround us, we expect to see a person with two eyes, two ears, hair, nose, mouth, bones, etc. This, in our minds, is a picture of a normal human being. The food we eat, the places we go to, the person we marry, and the culture we live in, defines what is normal from our point of view. Today there are various definitions that are used by psychologists and people in general for defining abnormal and normal behavior. Of course, these definitions are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Social norm violation: Breaking social "rules". Most of our behavior is shaped by social norms imposed by the society we live in. There are some cultural expectations about the right and wrong way to do things. Someone who frequently violates these unwritten rules is seen as abnormal. This is a very powerful and persuasive definition. It is seemingly common-sense. Norms are so deeply ingrained they seem absolute. In addition, even in a single society such as Romania., there are ...
Movie info: Kevin Carson is a young man living in the projects who has to survive a three-day weekend after his opportunistic neighbors find out hes holding a winning lottery ticket worth $370 million
Are you the type of person that will not act until you have "all your ducks in a row"?. Successful people are the ones that move forward with their ideas, goals and endeavors even when they dont have everything figured out. They focus on what they want - and take action.. Here are 5 tips to Bust Paralysis by Analysis that help my coaching clients:. 1. Forgo perfection - strive to be your "best" rather that striving to be "perfect". No one can be perfect. Expending your time and effort on perfection gets you bogged down.. 2. Adopt the winning strategy of "Go-Ready-Set" versus "Ready-Set-Go". Create momentum by getting started and take the first step. Once you begin, you can tweak your course along the way towards a successful outcome. As in physics, a body in motion stays in motion.. 3. Set a deadline - realistically allocate how much time you will spend on a project or situation. When you are intentional about how much time you will spend you will find you can usually get it finished in the ...
This is something that we all do during flu season (social distancing, washing your hands, dont go to work if sick, ect). But maybe if we did it to the extreme we are doing now, we wouldnt have had 500,000 flu deaths worldwide and 50,000 deaths in the U.S. (and many more hospitalized) since October and mainly older people/previous health conditions people. I know younger people than elderly are also getting the Chinese Virus, but younger people also got the flu in records numbers and died.. Did not all those people who died during flu season also need ventilators but why was there no shortage then? And the flu happens every season. Italy is different for this new virus. They have an older population, their social norms are to kiss and hug, they have a socialist healthcare system that limits supplies and they have a larger influx of Chinese people.. Now with that said, we know that there is no cure for this current virus and its like the flu on steroids. But with the numbers showing the ...
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has raised the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio for the non-banking finance companies lending money against gold to 75 per cent from 60 per cent earlier, so as to facilitate monetisation of idle gold, according to a notification by RBI. The norms are expected to bolster the loan books growth of…
The idea would be that donators would donate $3.50, which purchases a lottery ticket to a lottery jackpot that would be a minimum of $17.5 million. That would go a long way to buying a mansion and getting everything in place for your dreams to become real. Please DONATE HERE if you want to attend The Sissy School. ...
Being a part of a fraternity means a lot of things. It means upholding longstanding traditions, representing your chapter in the best way possible, and of course doing everything you can to make sure that the fraternity thrives. Unfortunately, runn...